Los Angeles County, California
Los Angeles County the County of Los Angeles, in the Los Angeles metropolitan area of the U. S. state of California, is the most populous county in the United States, with more than 10 million inhabitants as of 2017. As such, it is the largest non–state level government entity in the United States, its population is larger than that of 41 individual U. S. states. It is the third-largest metropolitan economy in the world, with a Nominal GDP of over $700 billion—larger than the GDPs of Belgium and Taiwan, it has 88 incorporated cities and many unincorporated areas and, at 4,083 square miles, it is larger than the combined areas of Delaware and Rhode Island. The county is home to more than one-quarter of California residents and is one of the most ethnically diverse counties in the U. S, its county seat, Los Angeles, is California's most populous city and the nation's second largest city with about 4 million people. Los Angeles County is one of the original counties of California, created at the time of statehood in 1850.
The county included parts of what are now Kern, San Bernardino, Inyo, Tulare and Orange counties. In 1851 and 1852, Los Angeles County stretched from the coast to the border of Nevada; as the population increased, sections were split off to organize San Bernardino County in 1853, Kern County in 1866, Orange County in 1889. Prior to the 1870s, Los Angeles County was divided into townships, many of which were amalgamations of one or more old ranchos, they were: Azusa El Monte Azusa and El Monte Townships were merged for the 1870 census. City of Los Angeles Los Angeles Township Los Nietos San Jose San Gabriel Santa Ana. For the 1870 census, Annaheim district was enumerated separately. San Juan. San Pedro. Tejon When Kern County was formed, the portion of the township remaining in Los Angeles County became Soledad Township According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 4,751 square miles, of which 4,058 square miles is land and 693 square miles is water. Los Angeles County borders 70 miles of coast on the Pacific Ocean and encompasses mountain ranges, forests, lakes and desert.
The Los Angeles River, Rio Hondo, the San Gabriel River and the Santa Clara River flow in Los Angeles County, while the primary mountain ranges are the Santa Monica Mountains and the San Gabriel Mountains. The western extent of the Mojave Desert begins in the Antelope Valley, in the northeastern part of the county. Most of the population of Los Angeles County is located in the south and southwest, with major population centers in the Los Angeles Basin, San Fernando Valley and San Gabriel Valley. Other population centers are found in the Santa Clarita Valley, Pomona Valley, Crescenta Valley and Antelope Valley; the county is divided west-to-east by the San Gabriel Mountains, which are part of the Transverse Ranges of southern California, are contained within the Angeles National Forest. Most of the county's highest peaks are in the San Gabriel Mountains, including Mount San Antonio 10,068 feet ) at the Los Angeles-San Bernardino county lines, Mount Baden-Powell 9,399 feet, Mount Burnham 8,997 feet and Mount Wilson 5,710 feet.
Several lower mountains are in the northern and southwestern parts of the county, including the San Emigdio Mountains, the southernmost part of Tehachapi Mountains and the Sierra Pelona Mountains. Los Angeles County includes San Clemente Island and Santa Catalina Island, which are part of the Channel Islands archipelago off the Pacific Coast. East: Eastside, San Gabriel Valley, portions of the Pomona Valley West: Westside, Beach Cities South: South Bay, South Los Angeles, Palos Verdes Peninsula, Gateway Cities, Los Angeles Harbor Region North: San Fernando Valley, Crescenta Valley, portions of the Conejo Valley, portions of the Antelope Valley and Santa Clarita Valley Central: Downtown Los Angeles, Mid-Wilshire, Northeast Los Angeles Angeles National Forest Los Padres National Forest Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area Los Angeles County had a population of 9,818,605 in the 2010 United States Census; the racial makeup of Los Angeles County was 4,936,599 White, 1,346,865 Asian, 856,874 African American, 72,828 Native A
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo titled the Treaty of Peace, Friendship and Settlement between the United States of America and the Mexican Republic, is the peace treaty signed on February 2, 1848, in the Villa de Guadalupe Hidalgo between the United States and Mexico that ended the Mexican–American War. The treaty came into force on July 4, 1848. With the defeat of its army and the fall of its capital, Mexico entered into negotiations to end the war; the treaty called for the U. S. to pay US$15 million to Mexico and to pay off the claims of American citizens against Mexico up to US$5 million. It gave the United States the Rio Grande as a boundary for Texas, gave the U. S. ownership of California and a large area comprising half of New Mexico, most of Arizona and Utah, parts of Wyoming and Colorado. Mexicans in those annexed areas had the choice of relocating to within Mexico's new boundaries or receiving American citizenship with full civil rights; the U. S. Senate advised and consented to ratification of the treaty by a vote of 38–14.
The opponents of this treaty were led by the Whigs, who had opposed the war and rejected Manifest destiny in general, rejected this expansion in particular. The amount of land gained by the United States from Mexico was further increased as a result of the Gadsden Purchase of 1853, which ceded parts of present-day southern Arizona and New Mexico to the United States of America; the peace talks were negotiated by Nicholas Trist, chief clerk of the US State Department, who had accompanied General Winfield Scott as a diplomat and President Polk's representative. Trist and General Scott, after two previous unsuccessful attempts to negotiate a treaty with General José Joaquín de Herrera, determined that the only way to deal with Mexico was as a conquered enemy. Nicholas Trist negotiated with a special commission representing the collapsed government led by Don José Bernardo Couto, Don Miguel de Atristain, Don Luis Gonzaga Cuevas of Mexico. Although Mexico ceded Alta California and Santa Fe de Nuevo México, the text of the treaty did not list territories to be ceded, avoided the disputed issues that were causes of war: the validity of the 1836 secession of the Republic of Texas, Texas's unenforced boundary claims as far as the Rio Grande, the 1845 annexation of Texas by the United States.
Instead, Article V of the treaty described the new U. S.–Mexico border. From east to west, the border consisted of the Rio Grande northwest from its mouth to the point Santa Fe de Nuevo Mexico, as shown in the Disturnell map due west from this point to the 110th meridian west north along the 110th Meridian to the Gila River and down the river to its mouth. Unlike the New Mexico segment of the boundary, which depended on unknown geography, "in order to preclude all difficulty in tracing upon the ground the limit separating Upper from Lower California", a straight line was drawn from the mouth of the Gila to one marine league south of the southernmost point of the port of San Diego north of the previous Mexican provincial boundary at Playas de Rosarito. Comparing the boundary in the Adams–Onís Treaty to the Guadalupe Hidalgo boundary, Mexico conceded about 55% of its pre-war, pre-Texas territorial claims and now has an area of 1,972,550 km². In the United States, the 1.36 million km² of the area between the Adams-Onis and Guadalupe Hidalgo boundaries outside the 1,007,935 km2 claimed by the Republic of Texas is known as the Mexican Cession.
That is to say, the Mexican Cession is construed not to include any territory east of the Rio Grande, while the territorial claims of the Republic of Texas included no territory west of the Rio Grande. The Mexican Cession included the entirety of the former Mexican territory of Alta California, but only the western portion of Santa Fe de Nuevo Mexico, includes all of present-day California and Utah, most of Arizona, western portions of New Mexico and Wyoming. Articles VIII and IX ensured safety of existing property rights of Mexican citizens living in the transferred territories. Despite assurances to the contrary, the property rights of Mexican citizens were not honored by the U. S. in accordance with modifications to and interpretations of the Treaty. The U. S. agreed to assume $3.25 million in debts that Mexico owed to United States citizens. The residents had one year to choose whether they wanted Mexican citizenship; the others returned to Mexico, or in some cases in New Mexico were allowed to remain in place as Mexican citizens.
Article XII engaged the United States to pay, "In consideration of the extension acquired", 15 million dollars, in annual installments of 3 million dollars. Article XI of the treaty was important to Mexico, it provided that the United States would prevent and punish raids by Indians into Mexico, prohibited Americans from acquiring property, including livestock, taken by the Indians in those raids, stated that the U. S. would return captives of the Indians to Mexico. Mexicans believed that the United States had encouraged and assisted the Comanche and Apache raids that had devastated northern Mexico in the years before the war; this article promised relief to them. Article XI, proved unenforceable. Destructive Indian raids continued despite a heavy U. S. presence near the Mexican border. Mexico filed 366 claims with the U. S. government for damages done by Comanche and Apache raids between 1848 and 1853. In 1853, in the Treaty of Mesilla conclu
Orange County, California
Orange County is located in the Los Angeles metropolitan area in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 3,010,232, making it the third-most populous county in California, the sixth-most populous in the United States, more populous than 21 U. S. states. Its county seat is Santa Ana, it is the second most densely populated county behind San Francisco County. The county's four largest cities by population, Santa Ana and Huntington Beach, each have a population exceeding 200,000. Several of Orange County's cities are on the Pacific Ocean western coast, including Huntington Beach, Newport Beach, Laguna Beach, Dana Point, San Clemente. Orange County is included in Metropolitan Statistical Area. Thirty-four incorporated towns and cities are in the county. Anaheim was the first city, incorporated in 1870 when the region was still part of neighboring Los Angeles County. Whereas most population centers in the United States tend to be identified by a major city with a large downtown central business district, Orange County has no single major downtown / CBD or dominant urban center.
Santa Ana, Costa Mesa, Irvine all have smaller high-rise CBDs, other, older cities like Anaheim, Huntington Beach, Orange have traditional American downtowns without high-rises. The county's northern and central portions are urbanized and dense, despite the prevalence of the single-family home as a dominant land use, its southern portion is more suburban, with limited urbanization. There are several "edge city"-style developments, such as Irvine Business Center, Newport Center, South Coast Metro. Orange County is part of the "Tech Coast"; the county is a tourist center, with attractions like Disneyland, Knott's Berry Farm, several popular beaches along its more than 40 miles of coastline. Throughout the 20th century and up until 2016, it was known for its political conservatism and for being a bastion for the Republican Party, with a 2005 academic study listing three Orange County cities as among America's 25 most conservative. However, the county's changing demographics have resulted in a shift in political alignments.
In 2016, Hillary Clinton became the first Democrat since 1936 to carry Orange County in a presidential election and in the 2018 midterm elections the Democratic Party gained control of every Congressional seat in the county. Members of the Tongva, Juaneño, Luiseño Native American groups long inhabited the area. After the 1769 expedition of Gaspar de Portolà, a Spanish expedition led by Junipero Serra named the area Valle de Santa Ana. On November 1, 1776, Mission San Juan Capistrano became the area's first permanent European settlement. Among those who came with Portolá were José Manuel Nieto and José Antonio Yorba. Both these men were given land grants—Rancho Los Nietos and Rancho Santiago de Santa Ana, respectively; the Nieto heirs were granted land in 1834. The Nieto ranches were known as Rancho Los Alamitos, Rancho Las Bolsas, Rancho Los Coyotes. Yorba heirs Bernardo Yorba and Teodosio Yorba were granted Rancho Cañón de Santa Ana and Rancho Lomas de Santiago, respectively. Other ranchos in Orange County were granted by the Mexican government during the Mexican period in Alta California.
A severe drought in the 1860s devastated the prevailing industry, cattle ranching, much land came into the possession of Richard O'Neill, Sr. James Irvine and other land barons. In 1887, silver was discovered in the Santa Ana Mountains, attracting settlers via the Santa Fe and Southern Pacific Railroads. After several failed attempts in previous sessions, the California legislature passed a bill authorizing the portion of Los Angeles County south of Coyote Creek to hold a referendum on whether to remain part of Los Angeles County or to secede and form a new county to be named “Orange” as directed by the legislature; such referendum required a 2/3 vote for secession to take place, subsequently on June 4th, 1889, the residents south of Coyote Creek voted 2,509 to 500 in favor of secession. After such referendum, Los Angeles County filed three lawsuits in the courts to stall and stop the secession from occurring, but such attempts were futile. On July 17, 1889, a second referendum was held south of the Coyote Creek to determine if the county seat of the to-be county to be in either Anaheim or Santa Ana, along with an election for every county officer.
In the end, Santa Ana defeated Anaheim in such referendum and elected right leaning officers, with some, including one of the primary lobbyists for the creation of the county, Henry W. Head, elected to the Board of Supervisors while being a member of the Ku Klux Klan, with Head’s son, Horace Head, elected as District Attorney of the soon to be county, known to, as stated by the OC Weekly, threaten “...any Mexicans who walked in front of their homes with shotguns when not burning crosses on front lawns,” along with Horace Head supporting and defending his fathers affiliation with the Ku Klux Klan. With the referendum taken place, the County of Orange was incorporated on August 1st, 1889, as prescribed by state law. Since the date of the incorporation of the county, the only geographical changes to have occurred which affected Orange County was when the County and Los Angeles County agreed to trade land around Coyote Creek to adjust the border of the two counties to conform with city blocks.
The county is said to have been named for the
Los Cerritos Ranch House
Los Cerritos Ranch House known as Rancho Los Cerritos or Casa de los Cerritos, in Long Beach, was "the largest and most impressive adobe residence erected in southern California during the Mexican period". Los Cerritos means "the little hills" in English, it was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1970. The structure, a Monterey Colonial adobe, was built in 1844 by merchant Jonathan Temple, a Yankee pioneer who became a Mexican citizen; the house was once the headquarters for a 27,000-acre ranch. The land was part of the 167,000-acre Rancho Los Nietos land grant to Manuel Nieto, divided into six parcels, one of, Rancho los Cerritos. In 1843, Temple purchased the rancho and built the adobe house in 1844 as headquarters for his cattle operations. In 1866, Temple sold the rancho to Flint, Bixby & Company which converted the ranch from cattle to sheep. Jotham Bixby, the brother of one of the company's founders and resided at the ranch from 1866-1871. Jotham Bixby, known as the "father of Long Beach" purchased the property for himself and raised seven children at the adobe.
One of Jotham's children, raised at the ranch house was Fanny Bixby Spencer, who became known as a philanthropist and pacifist. Beginning in the late 1870s, Bixby began leasing or selling portions of the ranch, which became the cities of Downey and Lakewood. Between the 1870s and 1920, the adobe fell into disrepair. In 1929, Llewellyn Bixby purchased the property, made extensive renovations to the house, including plaster cement coating, a new red-tiled roof, plumbing, fireplaces, a sun porch, new floors and much of the landscaping. Llewellyn Bixby died in 1942, the family sold the house to the City of Long Beach in 1955; the City turned the house into a museum dedicated to educating the public about California's rancho period. Rancho Los Cerritos Historic Site was converted into, remains, a public museum operated by the Rancho Los Cerritos Foundation in partnership with the City of Long Beach, it is open for tours and events on Wednesdays through Sundays. The house is furnished in a Victorian fashion as it would have been when Jotham Bixby raised his family there in the 1870s.
There is a visitor center with exhibits about the site's history from Native American times to the present. A formal Italian garden includes cypress trees planted by Temple; the center features a 3,000-volume California history research library and a gift shop. The Friends of Rancho Los Cerritos support its activities; the museum was closed for 17 months from 2001-2002 to allow for seismic retrofitting, removal of lead paint and asbestos insulation, brickwork repairs and modifications to improve accessibility for the disabled. Los Cerritos Neighborhood List of City of Long Beach Historic Landmarks National Register of Historic Places listings in Los Angeles County, California Ranchos of California Official website Historic American Buildings Survey No. CA-37-12, "Casa de los Cerritos, 4600 American Road, Long Beach, CA", 12 photos, 6 measured drawings, 2 data pages, supplemental material
Cerritos named Dairy Valley because of the preponderance of dairy farms in the area, is an affluent suburban city in Los Angeles County, United States, is one of several cities that constitute the Gateway Cities of southeast Los Angeles County. It was incorporated on April 24, 1956; as of the 2010 census, the population was 49,041. It is part of the Los Angeles–Long Beach–Anaheim, California Metropolitan Statistical Area designated by the Office of Management and Budget. Cerritos was inhabited by Native Americans belonging to the Tongva; the Tongva would be renamed the "Gabrieleños" by the Spanish settlers after the nearby Mission San Gabriel Arcangel. The Gabrieleños were the largest group of Southern California Indians as well as the most developed in the region; the Gabrieleños lived off the land, deriving food from the animals or plants that could be gathered, snared or hunted, grinding acorns as a staple. Beginning in the late 15th century, Spanish explorers arrived in the New World and worked their way to the California coast in 1542.
The colonization process included "civilizing" the native populations in California by establishing various missions. Soon afterward, a town called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles de Porciúncula would be founded and prosper with the aid of subjects from New Spain and Native American labor. One soldier, José Manuel Nieto, was granted a large plot of land by the Spanish King Carlos III, which he named Rancho Los Nietos, it covered 300,000 acres of what are today the cities of Cerritos, Long Beach, Downey, Santa Fe Springs, part of Whittier, Huntington Beach, Buena Park and Garden Grove. The rancho was divided five ways among Nieto's heirs during the nationalization of church property by the Mexican government, with Juan José Nieto retaining the largest plot, called Rancho Los Coyotes. Nieto called the area of Rancho Los Coyotes, where Cerritos is today, "cerritos" or "little hills", although no natural hills exist in modern-day Cerritos. After the Mexican-American war, the rancho would wind up in the hands of the Los Angeles and San Bernardino Land Company, which encouraged development and rail lines to be built by Henry E. Huntington and his Pacific Electric Railway company.
It was through rapid development, combined with improved transportation systems, that the modern-day city of Artesia was formed in Rancho Los Coyotes in 1875, from it, the city of Dairy Valley. Cranford Airport, a small general-aviation airport, was built around 1946 and consisted of two 2,300-foot runways, one oriented north/south & the other northeast/southwest; each runway had a parallel taxiway, a ramp along the south side of the field had two building hangars. The former airport site is on the northwest corner of the intersection of South Street & Carmenita Road. Cranford Airport closed at some point between 1953-54; the city of Dairy Valley was incorporated on April 24, 1956, as a reaction to nearby Artesia's rapid urbanization. The city's name symbolized the more than 400 dairies, 100,000 cows and 106,300 chickens found within its limits; the cows outnumbered the 3,439 residents by a factor of 29 to 1. The chickens outnumbered the residents by over 30 to 1; the first business license in the new city was for Walter Marlowe's "Dairy Valley Egg Farms".
Two years Dairy Valley voted to become a chartered California city. As land values and property taxes in California rose in the early 1960s, agriculture became unprofitable, development pressures increased. In a special election held on July 16, 1963, residents voted to permit large-scale residential development; as a reflection of its newly planned suburban orientation, the city's name was formally changed to Cerritos on January 10, 1967, after the nearby Spanish land grant Rancho Los Cerritos, which figured prominently in the region, after Cerritos College in neighboring Norwalk. Cerritos is a prime example of the "fiscalization" of California politics after the tax revolt of the 1970s and the passage of Proposition 13; the only way for California cities to raise long-term tax revenue in light of Proposition 13 was to create as many commercial zones as possible to take advantage of the percentage of county sales tax allocated back to municipalities as sales tax revenue. Cerritos was one of the first cities in Los Angeles County to develop large-scale retail zones, such as the Los Cerritos Center and Cerritos Auto Square, achieved stunning success.
City leaders reinvested funds into the community with large public works projects and an increasing number of community services and programs. The current progressive nature of the Cerritos government and the unusually strong tax base is best reflected in its facilities. In 1978, Cerritos dedicated the nation's first solar-heated City Hall complex. In 1993, the Cerritos Center for the Performing Arts opened its doors. In 1994, the City unveiled the Cerritos Towne Center project, combining office, lodging, fine arts and dining in an open-air location. In 1997, the city opened the Cerritos Sheriff's Station/Community Safety Center to provide public safety services. In 2002, the City rededicated its public library. In 2006, the City celebrated its golden anniversary with memorials and the unveiling of a sculpture garden; the assessed valuation of the city is $7,177,428,066. Between 1970 and 1972, Cerritos was the fastest-growing city in California. Since the 1980s, Cerritos has attracted a large number of Filipino, Taiwanese and Chinese immigrant families.
On August 31, 1986, Aeroméxico Flight 498, on approach to Los Angeles International Airport from Mexico City, was struck by a small Piper aircraft tha
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a