San Diego is a city in the U. S. state of California. It is in San Diego County, on the coast of the Pacific Ocean in Southern California 120 miles south of Los Angeles and adjacent to the border with Mexico. With an estimated population of 1,419,516 as of July 1, 2017, San Diego is the eighth-largest city in the United States and second-largest in California, it is part of the San Diego–Tijuana conurbation, the second-largest transborder agglomeration between the U. S. and a bordering country after Detroit–Windsor, with a population of 4,922,723 people. The city is known for its mild year-round climate, natural deep-water harbor, extensive beaches, long association with the United States Navy, recent emergence as a healthcare and biotechnology development center. San Diego has been called "the birthplace of California". Home to the Kumeyaay people, it was the first site visited by Europeans on what is now the West Coast of the United States. Upon landing in San Diego Bay in 1542, Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area for Spain, forming the basis for the settlement of Alta California 200 years later.
The Presidio and Mission San Diego de Alcalá, founded in 1769, formed the first European settlement in what is now California. In 1821, San Diego became part of the newly independent Mexico, which reformed as the First Mexican Republic two years later. California became part of the United States in 1848 following the Mexican–American War and was admitted to the union as a state in 1850; the city is the seat of San Diego County and is the economic center of the region as well as the San Diego–Tijuana metropolitan area. San Diego's main economic engines are military and defense-related activities, international trade, manufacturing; the presence of the University of California, San Diego, with the affiliated UCSD Medical Center, has helped make the area a center of research in biotechnology. The original inhabitants of the region are now known as the San La Jolla people; the area of San Diego has been inhabited by the Kumeyaay people. The first European to visit the region was explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, sailing under the flag of Castile but born in Portugal.
Sailing his flagship San Salvador from Navidad, New Spain, Cabrillo claimed the bay for the Spanish Empire in 1542, named the site "San Miguel". In November 1602, Sebastián Vizcaíno was sent to map the California coast. Arriving on his flagship San Diego, Vizcaíno surveyed the harbor and what are now Mission Bay and Point Loma and named the area for the Catholic Saint Didacus, a Spaniard more known as San Diego de Alcalá. On November 12, 1602, the first Christian religious service of record in Alta California was conducted by Friar Antonio de la Ascensión, a member of Vizcaíno's expedition, to celebrate the feast day of San Diego. Permanent colonization of California and of San Diego began in 1769 with the arrival of four contingents of Spaniards from New Spain and the Baja California peninsula. Two seaborne parties reached San Diego Bay: the San Carlos, under Vicente Vila and including as notable members the engineer and cartographer Miguel Costansó and the soldier and future governor Pedro Fages, the San Antonio, under Juan Pérez.
An initial overland expedition to San Diego from the south was led by the soldier Fernando Rivera and included the Franciscan missionary and chronicler Juan Crespí, followed by a second party led by the designated governor Gaspar de Portolà and including the mission president Junípero Serra. In May 1769, Portolà established the Fort Presidio of San Diego on a hill near the San Diego River, it was the first settlement by Europeans in. In July of the same year, Mission San Diego de Alcalá was founded by Franciscan friars under Serra. By 1797, the mission boasted the largest native population in Alta California, with over 1,400 neophytes living in and around the mission proper. Mission San Diego was the southern anchor in Alta California of the historic mission trail El Camino Real. Both the Presidio and the Mission are National Historic Landmarks. In 1821, Mexico won its independence from Spain, San Diego became part of the Mexican territory of Alta California. In 1822, Mexico began its attempt to extend its authority over the coastal territory of Alta California.
The fort on Presidio Hill was abandoned, while the town of San Diego grew up on the level land below Presidio Hill. The Mission was secularized by the Mexican government in 1834, most of the Mission lands were granted to former soldiers; the 432 residents of the town petitioned the governor to form a pueblo, Juan María Osuna was elected the first alcalde, defeating Pío Pico in the vote. However, San Diego had been losing population throughout the 1830s and in 1838 the town lost its pueblo status because its size dropped to an estimated 100 to 150 residents. Beyond town Mexican land grants expanded the number of California ranchos that modestly added to the local economy. Americans gained increased awareness of California, its commercial possibilities, from the writings of two countrymen involved in the officially forbidden, to foreigners, but economically significant hide and tallow trade, where San Diego was a major port and the only one with an adequate harbor: William Shaler's "Journal of a Voyage Between China and the North-Western Coast of America, Made in 1804" and Richard Henry Dana's more substantial and convincing account, of his 1834–36 voyage, the classic Two Years Before the Mast.
In 1846, the United States went to war against Mexico and sent a naval and land expedition to conquer Alta California. At firs
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean in the south and is bounded by Asia and Australia in the west and the Americas in the east. At 165,250,000 square kilometers in area, this largest division of the World Ocean—and, in turn, the hydrosphere—covers about 46% of Earth's water surface and about one-third of its total surface area, making it larger than all of Earth's land area combined; the centers of both the Water Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere are in the Pacific Ocean. The equator subdivides it into the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean, with two exceptions: the Galápagos and Gilbert Islands, while straddling the equator, are deemed wholly within the South Pacific, its mean depth is 4,000 meters. The Mariana Trench in the western North Pacific is the deepest point in the world, reaching a depth of 10,911 meters; the western Pacific has many peripheral seas. Though the peoples of Asia and Oceania have traveled the Pacific Ocean since prehistoric times, the eastern Pacific was first sighted by Europeans in the early 16th century when Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa crossed the Isthmus of Panama in 1513 and discovered the great "southern sea" which he named Mar del Sur.
The ocean's current name was coined by Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan during the Spanish circumnavigation of the world in 1521, as he encountered favorable winds on reaching the ocean. He called it Mar Pacífico, which in both Portuguese and Spanish means "peaceful sea". Important human migrations occurred in the Pacific in prehistoric times. About 3000 BC, the Austronesian peoples on the island of Taiwan mastered the art of long-distance canoe travel and spread themselves and their languages south to the Philippines and maritime Southeast Asia. Long-distance trade developed all along the coast from Mozambique to Japan. Trade, therefore knowledge, extended to the Indonesian islands but not Australia. By at least 878 when there was a significant Islamic settlement in Canton much of this trade was controlled by Arabs or Muslims. In 219 BC Xu Fu sailed out into the Pacific searching for the elixir of immortality. From 1404 to 1433 Zheng He led expeditions into the Indian Ocean; the first contact of European navigators with the western edge of the Pacific Ocean was made by the Portuguese expeditions of António de Abreu and Francisco Serrão, via the Lesser Sunda Islands, to the Maluku Islands, in 1512, with Jorge Álvares's expedition to southern China in 1513, both ordered by Afonso de Albuquerque from Malacca.
The east side of the ocean was discovered by Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa in 1513 after his expedition crossed the Isthmus of Panama and reached a new ocean. He named it Mar del Sur because the ocean was to the south of the coast of the isthmus where he first observed the Pacific. In 1519, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan sailed the Pacific East to West on a Spanish expedition to the Spice Islands that would result in the first world circumnavigation. Magellan called the ocean Pacífico because, after sailing through the stormy seas off Cape Horn, the expedition found calm waters; the ocean was called the Sea of Magellan in his honor until the eighteenth century. Although Magellan himself died in the Philippines in 1521, Spanish Basque navigator Juan Sebastián Elcano led the remains of the expedition back to Spain across the Indian Ocean and round the Cape of Good Hope, completing the first world circumnavigation in a single expedition in 1522. Sailing around and east of the Moluccas, between 1525 and 1527, Portuguese expeditions discovered the Caroline Islands, the Aru Islands, Papua New Guinea.
In 1542–43 the Portuguese reached Japan. In 1564, five Spanish ships carrying 379 explorers crossed the ocean from Mexico led by Miguel López de Legazpi, sailed to the Philippines and Mariana Islands. For the remainder of the 16th century, Spanish influence was paramount, with ships sailing from Mexico and Peru across the Pacific Ocean to the Philippines via Guam, establishing the Spanish East Indies; the Manila galleons operated for two and a half centuries, linking Manila and Acapulco, in one of the longest trade routes in history. Spanish expeditions discovered Tuvalu, the Marquesas, the Cook Islands, the Solomon Islands, the Admiralty Islands in the South Pacific. In the quest for Terra Australis, Spanish explorations in the 17th century, such as the expedition led by the Portuguese navigator Pedro Fernandes de Queirós, discovered the Pitcairn and Vanuatu archipelagos, sailed the Torres Strait between Australia and New Guinea, named after navigator Luís Vaz de Torres. Dutch explorers, sailing around southern Africa engaged in discovery and trade.
In the 16th and 17th centuries Spain considered the Pacific Ocean a mare clausum—a sea closed to other naval powers. As the only known entrance from the Atlantic, the Strait of Magellan was at times patrolled by fleets sent to prevent entrance of non-Spanish ships. On the western side of the Pacific Ocean the Dutch threatened the Spanish Philippines; the 18th cen
Age of Discovery
The Age of Discovery, or the Age of Exploration, is an informal and loosely defined term for the period in European history in which extensive overseas exploration emerged as a powerful factor in European culture and, the beginning of globalization. It marks the rise of the period of widespread adoption in Europe of colonialism and mercantilism as national policies. Many lands unknown to Europeans were discovered by them during this period, though most were inhabited. From the perspective of many non-Europeans, the Age of Discovery marked the arrival of invaders from unknown continents. Global exploration started with the Portuguese discoveries of the Atlantic archipelagos of Madeira and the Azores in 1419 and 1427, the coast of Africa after 1434 and the sea route to India in 1498; these discoveries led to numerous naval expeditions across the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, land expeditions in the Americas, Asia and Australia that continued into the late 19th century, ended with the exploration of the polar regions in the 20th century.
European overseas exploration led to the rise of global trade and the European colonial empires, with the contact between the Old World and the New World producing the Columbian Exchange, a wide transfer of plants, food, human populations, communicable diseases and culture between the Eastern and Western Hemispheres. This represented one of the most significant global events concerning ecology and culture in history; the Age of Discovery and European exploration allowed the global mapping of the world, resulting in a new worldview and distant civilizations coming into contact, but led to the propagation of diseases that decimated populations not in contact with Eurasia and Africa and to the enslavement, military conquest and economic dominance by Europe and its colonies over native populations. It allowed for the expansion of Christianity throughout the world: with the spread of missionary activity, it became the world's largest religion; the Portuguese began systematically exploring the Atlantic coast of Africa from 1418, under the sponsorship of Prince Henry.
Under the direction of Henry the Navigator, the Portuguese developed a new, much lighter ship, the caravel, which could sail further and faster, above all, was manoeuvrable and could sail much nearer the wind, or into the wind. In 1488 Bartolomeu Dias reached the Indian Ocean by this route. In 1492 the Catholic Monarchs of Castile and Aragon funded Christopher Columbus's plan to sail west to reach the Indies by crossing the Atlantic, he seen as a new world, the Americas. To prevent conflict between Portugal and Castile, the Treaty of Tordesillas was signed dividing the world into two regions of exploration, where each had exclusive rights to claim newly discovered lands. In 1498, a Portuguese expedition commanded by Vasco da Gama reached India by sailing around Africa, opening up direct trade with Asia. While other exploratory fleets were sent from Portugal to northern North America, in the following years Portuguese India Armadas extended this Eastern oceanic route, touching sometimes South America and by this way opening a circuit from the New World to Asia, explored islands in the South Atlantic and Southern Indian Oceans.
Soon, the Portuguese sailed further eastward, to the valuable Spice Islands in 1512, landing in China one year later. In 1513, Spanish Vasco Núñez de Balboa crossed the Isthmus of Panama and reached the "other sea" from the New World. Thus, Europe first received news of the eastern and western Pacific within a one-year span around 1512. East and west exploration overlapped in 1522, when a Castilian expedition, led by Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan and by Spanish Basque navigator Juan Sebastián Elcano, sailing westward, completed the first circumnavigation of the world, while Spanish conquistadors explored the interior of the Americas, some of the South Pacific islands. Since 1495, the French and English and, much the Dutch entered the race of exploration after learning of these exploits, defying the Iberian monopoly on maritime trade by searching for new routes, first to the western coasts of North and South America, through the first English and French expeditions, into the Pacific Ocean around South America, but by following the Portuguese around Africa into the Indian Ocean.
Meanwhile, from the 1580s to the 1640s, Russians explored and conquered the whole of Siberia, Alaska in the 1730s. Between the 12th and 15th centuries the European economy was transformed by the interconnecting of river and sea trade routes, causing Europe to become one of the world's most prosperous trading networks. Before the 12th century the main obstacle to trade east of the Strait of Gibraltar was lack of commercial incentive rather than inadequate ship design. Economic growth of Spain followed the reconquest of the siege of Lisbon; the decline of Fatimid Caliphate naval strength that started
Marineland of the Pacific
Marineland of the Pacific was a public oceanarium and tourist attraction located on the Palos Verdes Peninsula coast in Los Angeles County, California, USA. Architect William Pereira designed the main structure, it was known as Hanna-Barbera's Marineland during the late 1970s and early 1980s. Marineland operated from 1954 until 1987; the new owners moved the popular killer whales and other animals to their San Diego facility and abruptly closed Marineland. When it opened in 1954, one year before Disneyland, Marineland of the Pacific was the world's largest oceanarium; the park was designed by William Pereira whose work, which included the Transamerica Pyramid, the Los Angeles International Airport, the Geisel Library helped define the architectural look of mid-20th century California. Marineland was best known for its performing orcas or "killer whales", it was noteworthy for its Baja Reef concept, a first-of-its-kind swim-through aquarium featuring a wide array of sea life. Visitors could enter the winding aquarium wearing a swim mask and snorkel and swim with the fish and sharks.
Marineland contained educational and research facilities in addition to its unique entertainment structures. Marineland was home to Orky and Corky, two of the most famous orcas on exhibit at any oceanarium at the time, they should not be confused with the original "Orky" and "Corky", which did not live long in captivity and had no calves. Marineland was home to the first pilot whales captured for display, as well as dolphins, sea lions, harbor seals, a variety of other related sea creatures. After Harcourt Brace Jovanovich purchased the facility in December 1986, Orky and Corky were moved to SeaWorld's San Diego park, where Corky was given the new name of "Shamu". Although the company had promised to keep Marineland open, it was closed in February 1987, six weeks after the sale was completed; the animals were trucked out in the middle of the night, the new owners poured concrete into the drains so the park could not be reopened. Many local residents complained about the sudden closure. Much of the infrastructure was left abandoned for nearly 20 years.
Marineland's most visible landmark, the 414-foot high tower, remained standing until 1995. The Marineland Restaurant continued operating through 2004 as the "Catalina Room". Several other structures remained through 2006. In 1995, developer York Long Point purchased 480 acres of coastal land that included the Marineland location for $24 million. After several false starts, development began in 2007 on a new $450 million resort, a project by Lowe Destination Development, planned to include a hotel owned "casitas", full spa and resort facilities. Projected to include an 18-hole golf course, the plan was changed to include only an "Executive Par 3" golf course on the resort property. In early 2006, two small temporary sales offices replaced the abandoned gas station at the park entrance, the large concrete sign along Palos Verdes Drive South was altered to feature the logo and artist's impression of the resort. In July 2007, principal construction commenced, starting with the demolition of the remains of Marineland.
The resort was completed in 2009. The Point Vicente Interpretive Center, located a half-mile north on the same road, reopened in July 2006 after extensive remodeling, it has a number of items related to Marineland in an exhibit, including a "Save Marineland" pin and various publications from the park. One of the original dolphin statues that adorned the entrance to Marineland is on display; the Marineland of the Pacific Historical Society was formed in 2003 "to provide information and access to historical information and images of the park to students, industry professionals, interested parties". While still in operation, the park was prominently featured in several television shows, including two episodes of The Beverly Hillbillies, The Munsters, The Partridge Family, Hart to Hart, The Six Million Dollar Man, Emergency!, The Colbys, Wonder Woman, Sea Hunt, Simon & Simon and an A Team episode a year before the park closed. Two episodes of The Chevy Show were taped there with Roy Rogers and Dale Evans featuring an "Aquarodeo" on May 1, 1960 and January 15, 1961.
In an episode of the Lucy Show, Lucille Ball falls into a Marineland animal exhibit, featured on the August 28, 1965 cover of TV Guide. In 1958, Dixieland jazz artist Red Nichols recorded a live album at Marineland. In an episode of Wonderbug, titled Fish Story, Marineland was integral to the plot. Marineland was briefly featured in the Charles Bronson film, The Mechanic, the Elvis Presley film, Live a Little, Love a Little, the John Carradine film "Blood of Dracula's Castle"; the "Poor Little Kangaroo Rat" episode of "Route 66" starring Martin Milner and George Maharis was filmed there with guest stars Ronny Howard, Leslie Nielsen, Maggie Pierce, Joanne Linville, in season 3 and episode 10 and aired on 11-23-62. Since its closing, scenes for several feature films have been shot at the location, including Mermaids of Tiburon, the first three Pirates of the Caribbean films, Charlie's Angels, Inspector Gadget, Fun with Dick and Jane, Pearl Harbor, The Aviator and Life As A House. For the latter, the suburban neighborhood exterior was constructed from scratch on the site, as it was for Fun with Dick and Jane.
Mel Gibson's trailer was parked at the bottom of the cliff for Lethal Weapon 2. Beastmaster 2 was filmed there as well. Several TV shows have used the s
Pío de Jesús Pico was a Californio rancher and politician, the last governor of Alta California under Mexican rule. He served from 1845 to 1846, he was elected to one term on the Los Angeles Common Council. Pico was a first-generation Californio, born in Alta California to parents who emigrated from the part of New Spain, now Mexico, he was born at the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel to José María Pico and his wife María Eustaquia Gutiérrez, with the aid of midwife Eulalia Pérez de Guillén Mariné. His paternal grandmother, María Jacinta de la Bastida, was listed in the 1790 census as mulata, meaning mixed race with African ancestry, his paternal grandfather, Santiago de la Cruz Pico, was described as a Mestizo in the same census. Santiago de la Cruz Pico was one of the soldiers who accompanied Juan Bautista de Anza on the expedition that left Tubac, Arizona for California in 1775 to explore the region and colonize it. Pio Pico and his siblings were thus of Spanish and Native American ancestry. After the death of his father in 1819, Pico settled in California.
He married María Ignacia Alvarado there on February 24, 1834. His younger brother was General Andrés Pico. John Bidwell, an early California settler, mentioned Pico among the people he knew: Los Angeles I first saw in March 1845, it had 250 people, of whom I recall Don Abel Stearns, John Temple, Captain Alexander Bell, William Wolfskill, Lemuel Carpenter, David W. Alexander. By the 1850s Pico was one of the richest men in Alta California. In 1850 he purchased the 8,894-acre Rancho Paso de Bartolo, which included half of present-day Whittier. Two years he built a home on the ranch and lived there until 1892, it is preserved today as Pio Pico State Historic Park. Pico owned the former Mission San Fernando Rey de España, Rancho Santa Margarita y Las Flores, several other ranchos for a total of over 500,000 acres. In 1868, he constructed the three-story, 33-room hotel, Pico House on the old plaza of Los Angeles, opposite today's Olvera Street. At the time of its opening in 1869, it was the most lavish hotel in Southern California.
Before 1900, however, it, the surrounding neighborhood declined, as the business center moved further south. After decades as a shabby flophouse, the hotel was deeded to the State of California in 1953, it is now a part of El Pueblo de Los Angeles State Historic Monument. It is used on occasion for special events. Pico twice served as Governor of Alta California, taking office the first time from Manuel Victoria in 1832, when Victoria was deposed for refusing to follow through with orders to secularize the mission properties; as governor pro tem and "Vocal" of the Departmental Assembly, Pico began secularization. After 20 days in office, he abdicated in favor of Zamorano and Echeandía, who governed the north and south until José Figueroa reunified the governorship in 1833. Pico ran for office in 1834 as the first alcalde of San Diego after secularization of the mission but was defeated, he challenged Governor Juan Bautista Alvarado on political issues and was imprisoned on several occasions. In 1844 he was chosen as a leader of the California Assembly.
In 1845, he was again appointed governor. Pico made Los Angeles the province's capital. In the year leading up to the Mexican–American War, Governor Pico was outspoken in favor of California's becoming a British Protectorate rather than a U. S. territory. When U. S. troops occupied Los Angeles and San Diego in 1846 during the Mexican–American War, Pico fled to Baja California, Mexico, to argue before the Mexican Congress for sending troops to defend Alta California. Pico did not return to Los Angeles until after the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, he reluctantly accepted the transfer of sovereignty. Automatically granted United States citizenship, he was elected to the Los Angeles Common Council in 1853, but he did not assume office. In 2010, scientists published an article about Pio Pico asserting that he showed signs of acromegaly, a disease not characterized until in the nineteenth century, they say that images of Pico from 1847 through 1858 show a characteristic pattern of progressive acromegaly, a disease caused by excessive and unregulated release of growth hormone from a growth hormone-secreting adenoma of the anterior pituitary gland.
He demonstrates progressive coarsening of his facial features with a large bulbous nose, broad forehead, protuberant lips and forward-jutting jaw. His hands reveal the diagnostic massive enlargement so typical of this illness. With a height of 67 inches in his forties, his acromegaly must have begun after puberty, or he would have manifested gigantism. Images of his younger brother Andrés Pico and elder brother, Jose Antonio Pico, show normal body features, suggesting Governor Pico's condition was a disease and not a benign familial trait. Pio Pico had never been recognized or diagnosed with acromegaly; the apparent pituitary adenoma had at least three additional secondary effects on his medical condition besides causing acromegaly. First, his eyes show progressive misalignment, indicating the tumor grew laterally into the cavernous sinus and compromised the cranial nerves controlling eye muscle power. Second, he has a hairless face. Although just a personal choice, in the presence of a large pituitary tumor, this is more due to testosterone deficiency.
This condition results from the enlarging tumor interfering with the normal function of gonadotropin pituitary
To cities, towns, charter townships and boroughs. The term can be used to describe municipally owned corporations. Municipal incorporation occurs when such municipalities become self-governing entities under the laws of the state or province in which they are located; this event is marked by the award or declaration of a municipal charter. A city charter or town charter or municipal charter is a legal document establishing a municipality, such as a city or town. In Canada, charters are granted by provincial authorities; the Corporation of Chennai is the oldest Municipal Corporation in the world after UK. The title "corporation" was used in boroughs from soon after the Norman conquest until the Local Government Act 2001. Under the 2001 act, county boroughs were renamed "cities" and their corporations became "city councils". After the Partition of Ireland, the corporations in the Irish Free State were Dublin, Cork and Waterford and Drogheda, Sligo and Wexford. Dún Laoghaire gained borough status in 1930 as “The Corporation of Dun Laoghaire".
Galway's borough status, lost in 1840, was restored in 1937. The New Zealand Constitution Act 1852 allowed municipal corporations to be established within the new Provinces of New Zealand; the term fell out of favour following the abolition of the Provinces in 1876. In the United States, such municipal corporations are established by charters that are granted either directly by a state legislature by means of local legislation, or indirectly under a general municipal corporation law after the proposed charter has passed a referendum vote of the affected population. Under the enterprise meaning of the term, municipal corporations are "organisations with independent corporate status, managed by an executive board appointed by local government officials, with majority public ownership"; some MOCs rely on revenue from user fees, distinguishing them from agencies and special districts funded through taxation, although this is not always the case. Municipal corporation follows a process of externalization that requires new skills and orientations from the respective local governments, follow common changes in the institutional landscape of public services.
They are argued to be more efficient than bureaucracy but have higher failure rates because of their legal and managerial autonomy. Unincorporated area German town law Municipal incorporationA Brief Summary of Municipal Incorporation Procedures by State - University of Georgia Characteristics and State Requirements for Incorporated Places - United States CensusMunicipal disincorporation / dissolutionDissolving Cities - University of California, Berkeley Municipal Disincorporation in California - California City Finance
Palos Verdes Peninsula
The Palos Verdes Peninsula is a landform and a geographic sub-region of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, within southwestern Los Angeles County in the U. S. state of California. Located in the South Bay region, the peninsula contains a group of affluent cities in the Palos Verdes Hills, including Palos Verdes Estates, Rancho Palos Verdes, Rolling Hills and Rolling Hills Estates; the South Bay city of Torrance borders the peninsula on the north, the Pacific Ocean is on the west and south, the Port of Los Angeles is east. The population of the Palos Verdes Peninsula is 42,364; the hill cities on the peninsula are known for dramatic ocean and city views, distinguished schools, extensive horse trails, high value homes. The peninsula was the homeland of the Tongva-Gabrieliño Native Americans people for thousands of years. In other areas of the Los Angeles Basin archeological sites date back 8,000 years, their first contact with Europeans occurred in 1542 with João Cabrilho. Chowigna and Suangna were two Tongva settlements of many in the peninsula area, a departure point for their rancherías on the Channel Islands.
In 1846 José Dolores Sepúlveda and José Loreto received a Mexican land grant from Alta California Governor Pío Pico for a parcel from the huge original 1784 Spanish land grant of Rancho San Pedro to Manuel Dominguez. It was named Rancho de los Palos Verdes, or "ranch of the green sticks", used as a cattle ranch, it was a whaling station in the mid-19th century, albeit only for a brief period. By 1882 ownership of the land had passed from the Sepulveda family through various mortgage holders to Jotham Bixby of Rancho Los Cerritos, who leased the land to Japanese farmers. Frank Vanderlip, representing a group of wealthy east coast investors, purchased 25 square miles of land on the Palos Verdes Peninsula in 1913 for $1.5 million. In 1914, Vanderlip vacationed at Palos Verdes in order to recover from an illness, he was astounded by scenery he compared to "the Sorrentine Peninsula and the Amalfi Drive." He initiated development of Palos Verdes. He hired the Olmsted Brothers, the landscaping firm of John Charles Olmsted and Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr. to plan and landscape a new subdivision.
The Olmsted Brothers contracted Koebig & Koebig to perform engineering work, including surveying and road planning. However, the project stalled as World War I started, Vanderlip accepted a chairmanship to the War Savings Committee in Washington, D. C. in 1916. By 1921, Vanderlip had lost interest in overseeing development of Palos Verdes and enticed Edward Gardner Lewis to take over the project with an option to buy the property for $5 million. Lewis lacked the capital to purchase and develop Palos Verdes. Instead, he established a real estate trust, capitalizing the project through the sale of notes which were convertible to Palos Verdes property. Under the terms of the trust, Lewis sought to raise $30 million for infrastructure improvements borrowing from investors for both the land and the improvements, he succeeded in attracting $15 million in capital, but far short of the $35 million needed. The trust dissolved and ownership of Palos Verdes reverted to Vanderlip. Vanderlip established a new real estate trust to purchase 3200 acres from his land syndicate and establish the subdivision of Palos Verdes Estates.
The new trust assumed not just the land, but the improvements made by Lewis. They were not complete, but they were substantial: many sewers, water mains, roads, they opened Palos Verdes for public inspection in June 1923. Palos Verdes Estates was organized and landscaped by the Olmsted Brothers and in their planning, they dedicated a quarter of the land area to permanent open undeveloped space, giving the subdivision its unique rural characteristic and culture of scenic beauty. Somewhat around the 1980s, Rancho Palos Verdes acquired Eastview, a unincorporated neighborhood of L. A. County with a San Pedro ZIP Code. Areas of commerce include historic Mediterranean Revival style Malaga Cove Plaza, the Promenade on the Peninsula. Smaller shopping centers include Lunada Bay Plaza and Golden Cove Plaza; the largest peninsula commercial district is in Rolling Hills Estates, with many shopping centers including The Promenade on the Peninsula with a megaplex movie theater and an ice rink. The Palos Verdes area has coastline views and city light views.
The Palos Verdes Peninsula Transit Authority provides bus service within and to the Palos Verdes Peninsula. The Palos Verdes Peninsula is within 40 minutes of both Los Angeles International Airport and Long Beach Airport, which together provide access to most of the United States aboard all major carriers; the Palos Verdes Peninsula Unified School District has one of the highest rated API scores in California and has one of the highest average SAT scores and one of the highest percentage of students completing the Advanced Placement exams in the county. There are three high schools, Palos Verdes Peninsula High School, Palos Verdes High School, Rancho Del Mar High School. Marymount California University, a co-ed Roman Catholic four-year college is located in Rancho Palos Verdes. A private K–12 school, Chadwick School, is located there. Rolling Hills Country Day School, adjacent to the Botanic Garden, offers a private K-8 education. In summary, there are 11 elementary schools, 3 intermediate schools, 3 high schools located on the peninsula.
In the Eastview neighborhood of Rancho Palos Verdes, residents have the option to choose either PV schools or the surrounding LAUSD