The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of the Earths oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean in the south and is bounded by Asia and Australia in the west, the Mariana Trench in the western North Pacific is the deepest point in the world, reaching a depth of 10,911 metres. Both the center of the Water Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere are in the Pacific Ocean, the oceans current name was coined by Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan during the Spanish circumnavigation of the world in 1521, as he encountered favourable winds on reaching the ocean. He called it Mar Pacífico, which in both Portuguese and Spanish means peaceful sea, important human migrations occurred in the Pacific in prehistoric times. Long-distance trade developed all along the coast from Mozambique to Japan and therefore knowledge, extended to the Indonesian islands but apparently not Australia. By at least 878 when there was a significant Islamic settlement in Canton much of trade was controlled by Arabs or Muslims.
In 219 BC Xu Fu sailed out into the Pacific searching for the elixir of immortality, from 1404 to 1433 Zheng He led expeditions into the Indian Ocean. The east side of the ocean was discovered by Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa in 1513 after his expedition crossed the Isthmus of Panama and he named it Mar del Sur because the ocean was to the south of the coast of the isthmus where he first observed the Pacific. Later, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan sailed the Pacific East to West on a Castilian expedition of world circumnavigation starting in 1519, Magellan called the ocean Pacífico because, after sailing through the stormy seas off Cape Horn, the expedition found calm waters. The ocean was often called the Sea of Magellan in his honor until the eighteenth century, sailing around and east of the Moluccas, between 1525 and 1527, Portuguese expeditions discovered the Caroline Islands, the Aru Islands, and Papua New Guinea. In 1542–43 the Portuguese reached Japan, in 1564, five Spanish ships consisting of 379 explorers crossed the ocean from Mexico led by Miguel López de Legazpi and sailed to the Philippines and Mariana Islands.
The Manila galleons operated for two and a half centuries linking Manila and Acapulco, in one of the longest trade routes in history, Spanish expeditions discovered Tuvalu, the Marquesas, the Cook Islands, the Solomon Islands, and the Admiralty Islands in the South Pacific. In the 16th and 17th century Spain considered the Pacific Ocean a Mare clausum—a sea closed to other naval powers, as the only known entrance from the Atlantic the Strait of Magellan was at times patrolled by fleets sent to prevent entrance of non-Spanish ships. On the western end of the Pacific Ocean the Dutch threatened the Spanish Philippines, Spain sent expeditions to the Pacific Northwest reaching Vancouver Island in southern Canada, and Alaska. The French explored and settled Polynesia, and the British made three voyages with James Cook to the South Pacific and Australia and the North American Pacific Northwest, one of the earliest voyages of scientific exploration was organized by Spain in the Malaspina Expedition of 1789–1794.
It sailed vast areas of the Pacific, from Cape Horn to Alaska and the Philippines, New Zealand and the South Pacific. Growing imperialism during the 19th century resulted in the occupation of much of Oceania by other European powers, and later, Japan, in Oceania, France got a leading position as imperial power after making Tahiti and New Caledonia protectorates in 1842 and 1853 respectively. After navy visits to Easter Island in 1875 and 1887, Chilean navy officer Policarpo Toro managed to negotiate an incorporation of the island into Chile with native Rapanui in 1888, by occupying Easter Island, Chile joined the imperial nations
The Mexican Cession was the third largest acquisition of territory in US history. The northern boundary of the 42nd parallel north was set by the Adams–Onís Treaty signed by the U. S. and Spain in 1821 and ratified by Mexico in 1831. The eastern boundary of the Mexican Cession was the Texas claim at the Rio Grande and extending north from the headwaters of the Jojo Rivera, not corresponding to Mexican territorial boundaries. The southern boundary was set by the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo and it was uncertain whether any treaty could be reached. Although Mexico did not overtly cede any land under the treaty, the United States paid $15,000,000 for the land, and agreed to assume $3.25 million in debts to US citizens. While technically the territory was purchased by the United States, the $15 million payment was simply credited against Mexicos debt to the U. S. at that time. The Mexican Cession as ordinarily understood amounted to 525,000 square miles, if the disputed western Texas claims are included, that amounts to a total of 750,000 square miles.
If all of Texas had been seized, since Mexico had not previously acknowledged the loss of any part of Texas, eventually the Compromise of 1850 preserved the Union, but only for another decade. Passed by the United States House of Representatives in August 1846 and February 1847, an effort to attach the proviso to the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo failed. Failed amendments to the Wilmot Proviso by William W, the line was again proposed by the Nashville Convention of June 1850. Popular sovereignty, developed by Lewis Cass and Douglas as the eventual Democratic Party position, none of the area would be left as an unorganized or organized territory, avoiding the question of slavery in the territories. Senator Thomas Hart Benton in December 1849 or January 1850, Texass western and northern boundaries would be the 102nd meridian west, Texas dropped its claim to the disputed northwestern areas in return for debt relief, and the areas were divided between the two new territories and unorganized territory.
El Paso where Texas had successfully established county government was left in Texas, no southern territory dominated by Southerners was created. Also, the trade was abolished in Washington, D. C. It quickly became apparent that the Mexican Cession did not include a route for a transcontinental railroad connecting to a southern port. The topography of the New Mexico Territory included mountains that naturally directed any railroad extending from the southern Pacific coast northward, to Kansas City, St. Louis, or Chicago. Southerners, anxious for the business such a railroad would bring, agitated for the acquisition of land at the expense of Mexico. A Continent Divided, The U. S. -Mexico War, Center for Greater Southwestern Studies, the University of Texas at Arlington
In June 1846, a number of American immigrants in Alta California rebelled against the Mexican departments government. The immigrants had not been allowed to buy or rent land and had threatened with expulsion from California because they had entered without official permission. Mexican officials were concerned about a war with the United States coupled with the growing influx of Americans into California. The rebellion was soon overtaken by the beginning of the Mexican–American War, the name California Republic appeared only on the flag the insurgents raised in Sonoma. It indicated their aspiration of forming a government for California. The insurgents elected military officers but no structure was ever established. The flag featured an image of a California grizzly bear and became known as the Bear Flag and the revolt as the Bear Flag Revolt. Three weeks later, on July 5,1846, the Republics military of 100 to 200 men was subsumed into the California Battalion commanded by U. S. Army Brevet Captain John C.
By 1845–46, Alta California had been neglected by Mexico for the twenty-five years since Mexican independence. The 1845 removal of Manuel Micheltorena, the latest governor to be sent by Mexico and forcefully ejected by the Californians, resulted in a divided government. The region south of San Luis Obispo was ruled by Governor Pio Pico with his capital in The Town of Our Lady the Queen of Angels of the Porciúncula River and Castro disliked each other personally and soon began escalating disputes over control of the Customhouse income. Decrees issued by the government in Mexico City were often acknowledged and supported with proclamations. By the end of 1845, when rumors of a force being sent from Mexico proved to be false. The relationship between the United States and Mexico had been deteriorating for some time, which Mexico still considered to be its territory, had been admitted to statehood in 1845. Mexico had earlier threatened war if this happened, james K. Polk was elected President of the United States in 1844, and considered his election a mandate for his expansionist policies.
Mexican law had long allowed grants of land to naturalized Mexican citizens, obtaining Mexican citizenship was not difficult and many earlier American immigrants had gone through the process and obtained free grants of land. The orders required Californias officials not to land grants. All non-citizen immigrants, who had arrived without permission, were threatened with being forced out of California, Alta Californias Sub-Prefect Francisco Guerrero had written to U. S
San Simeon, California
San Simeon is a town and census-designated place on the Pacific coast of San Luis Obispo County, California. Its position along State Route 1 is approximately halfway between Los Angeles and San Francisco, each of those cities being roughly 230 miles away. A key feature of the area is Hearst Castle, a mansion built by William Randolph Hearst in the early 20th century that is now a tourist attraction. The area is home to a large northern elephant seal rookery. It is located seven miles north of San Simeon on Highway 1, the first European land exploration of Alta California, the Spanish Portolà expedition, traveled northwest along the coast in September,1769. On September 11–12, the party passed the location of San Simeon. At Ragged Point, about 15 miles past San Simeon, the party turned inland across the Santa Lucia Range, San Simeon was founded as an asistencia to Mission San Miguel Arcángel, founded in 1797 and located to the east across the Santa Lucia Range. San Simeon was named for Rancho San Simeon, although the town-site is actually north of that rancho, on the former Rancho Piedra Blanca, in 1865, Pico sold part of the rancho to George Hearst, the father of William Randolph Hearst.
The first Europeans to settle in the area near the bay of San Simeon were Portuguese shore whalers under the command of Captain Joseph Clark from the Cape Verde Islands. In 1869, Captain Clark built a wharf near the point for his whaling station, a small community grew near the 1869 wharf, but the waves near the wharf were too high, and the wharf was abandoned. In 1878, Hearst built a new wharf, and the community moved near the new wharf. A general store was built near the Clark wharf, and relocated near the 1878 wharf, shore whaling continued on the point until the mid-1890s. It ceased for a time, started up again in 1897. In 1953, the Hearst Corporation donated the William Randolph Hearst Memorial Beach, including the Hearst Pier and it is currently part of Hearst San Simeon State Park. The present-day San Simeon pier was built in 1957, the name San Simeon refers to some geologic structures of the area, particularly elements of the coastal Jurassic Age landforms and ophiolite mineral formations.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the census-designated place covers an area of 0.8 square miles, the original townsite of San Simeon is at San Simeon Bay, and was the important 19th-century shipping point with the successive wharves that were built. San Simeon Acres, about four miles south of the townsite at the mouth of Pico Creek. Most of the development at San Simeon Acres was in the 1960s to the 1980s, many motels and cafes serve visitors to Hearst Castle
Juan Bautista Alvarado
Juan Bautista Valentín Alvarado y Vallejo was a Californio and Governor of Alta California from 1836 to 1842. He was governor during the Revolution of 1836, when the territorial Diputación declared free and sovereign independence from Mexico and forced the Mexican commander, Alvarado oversaw Californias brief rejoining with Mexico as a state. Alvarado was born in Monterey, Alta California, to Jose Francisco Alvarado and his grandfather Juan Bautista Alvarado accompanied Gaspar de Portolà as an enlisted man in the Spanish Army in 1769. His father died a few months after his birth and his mother remarried three years later, leaving Juan Bautista in the care of his grandparents, the Vallejo family and he and Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo grew up together in the Vallejo household. They were both taught by William Edward Petty Hartnell, an English merchant living in Monterey, in 1827 the eighteen-year-old Alvarado was hired as secretary to the territorial legislature. In 1829 he was arrested along with Vallejo and another friend, José Castro.
In 1831 he built a house in Monterey for his mistress, Juliana Francisca Ramona y Castillo, over the years, the pair had a total of at least two illegitimate daughters whom he recognized and perhaps several more he did not recognize, but he never married their mother. During this period Alvarado began drinking heavily, one of his daughters claimed that Raymunda had refused to marry Alvarado because of his excessive drinking. Alvarado supported secularization of the Spanish missions in California and he was appointed by José María de Echeandía to oversee the turn over of Mission San Miguel, even though Echeandía was no longer governor. The new governor Manuel Victoria rescinded the order and sought to have Alvarado, the pair fled and were hidden by their old friend Vallejo, who had become adjutant at the Presidio of San Francisco. However, Victoria was unpopular and Echeandía overthrew his rule and replaced him with Pío de Jesús Pico} near the end of 1831, secularization of the missions resumed in 1833.
In 1834 Alvarado was elected to the legislature as a delegate, Governor José Figueroa granted Rancho El Sur, the vast wilderness south of Monterey, to Alvarado on October 30,1834. After Figueroas death in September 1835, Nicolás Gutiérrez was appointed as governor in January 1836. He was replaced by Mariano Chico in April, but Chico was very unpopular, thinking a revolt was coming, Chico went to Mexico to gather troops, but was reprimanded for leaving his post. Gutierrez, the commandant, re-assumed the governorship, but he too was unpopular. The Americans wanted California independence, but Alvarado instead preferred staying a part of Mexico, Alvarados rebellion adopted a new flag - a single red star on a white background. The flag never became a flag of Alta California, and was not used after Alvarado made peace with the central government. Alvarado, at age 27, was appointed governor
Indigenous peoples of California
With over forty groups seeking to be federally recognized tribes, California has the second largest Native American population. The California cultural area does not exactly conform to the state of Californias boundaries, many tribes on the eastern border with Nevada are classified as Great Basin tribes, and some tribes on the Oregon border are classified as Plateau tribes. Tribes in Baja California who do not cross into California are classified as Indigenous peoples of Mexico, before European contact, native Californians spoke over 300 dialects of approximately 100 distinct languages. The majority of California Indian language belong either to highly localized language families with two or three members or are language isolates, of the remainder, most are Uto-Aztecan or Athapaskan languages. The Hokan superstock has the greatest time depth and has been most difficult to demonstrate and Yurok are distantly related to Algonquian languages in a larger grouping called Algic. The several Athapaskan languages are relatively recent arrivals, no more recent than about 2000 years ago, evidence of human occupation of California dates from at least 19,000 years ago.
Prior to European contact, California Indians had 500 distinct sub-tribes or groups, the size of California tribes today are small compared to tribes in other regions of the United States. Prior to contact with Europeans, the California region contained the highest Native American population density north of what is now Mexico. Because of the climate and easy access to food sources. Early Native Californians were hunter-gatherers, with seed collection becoming widespread around 9,000 BCE, due to the local abundance of food, tribes never developed agriculture or tilled the soil. Two early southern California cultural traditions include the La Jolla Complex, from 3000 to 2000 BCE, regional diversity developed, with the peoples making fine-tuned adaptations to local environments. Traits recognizable to historic tribes were developed by approximately 500 BCE, the indigenous people practiced various forms of sophisticated forest gardening in the forests, mixed woodlands, and wetlands to ensure availability of food and medicine plants.
They controlled fire on a scale to create a low-intensity fire ecology. By burning underbrush and grass, the natives revitalized patches of land, a form of fire-stick farming was used to clear areas of old growth to encourage new in a repeated cycle, a primitive permaculture. Different tribes encountered non-native European explorers and settlers at widely different times, the southern and central coastal tribes encountered Spanish and British explorers in the mid-16th century. Tribes such as the Quechan or Yuman Indians in present-day southeast California, tribes on the coast of northwest California, like the Miwok and Yokut, had contact with Russian explorers and seafarers in the late 18th century. In remote interior regions, some tribes did not meet non-natives until the mid-19th century, the Spanish began their long-term occupation in California in 1769 with the founding of Mission San Diego de Alcalá in San Diego. The Spanish built 20 additional missions in California and their introduction of European invasive plant species and non-native diseases resulted in unintended havoc and high fatalities for the Native populations
Piedras Blancas Motel
Piedras Blancas Motel is a vintage roadside motel-and-diner complex located along the Central Coast of California approximately seven miles north of the historic village of San Simeon. It is now owned by the park system of California which has yet to respond to a variety of preservation efforts. The exact construction date is uncertain, but the 12-room facility is known to have built in the early 1950s. The hotel served vacationing families of returning American GIs throughout that decade, in 2007, the demolition of a motel annex which contained three suites was blamed by the State on coastal erosion. Historic Highway One and the context for the motel have endangered by new housing construction in the area. As of March 2008, the Piedras Blancas Motel remains physically neglected and closed to the public
George Hearst was a wealthy American businessman and United States Senator, and the father of newspaperman William Randolph Hearst. Hearst, of Scots-Irish origin, was born near present-day Sullivan, Missouri, to William G. Hearst, Hearst was raised in a log cabin on his familys farm in rural Franklin County. His father operated three small farms, all of which were mortgaged, with slave labor, William Hearst sold his products in his own local general store. George Hearst grew up before public education was accessible in Missouri, so his elementary education was inconsistent. Hearst supplemented the gaps in his education by observing the local mines. When his father died in 1846, Hearst took over the care of his mother and sister, in addition, he did some mining and ran a general store. He first heard of the discovery of gold in California in 1849, before deciding to depart, he continued to read further news on the subject so that he could be more certain it was true. Finally, in 1850, as a member of a party of 16, after arriving in 1850, he and his companions first tried placer mining in the vicinity of Sutters Mill on the American River.
After spending a winter and making meager findings, they moved to Grass Valley on the news of a new lode. Using his mining education and experience in Missouri, Hearst switched to prospecting and dealing in quartz mines. After almost ten years, Hearst was making a decent living as a prospector, and otherwise engaged in running a general store, raising livestock and farming in Nevada County. In the summer of 1859, Hearst learned of the wonderful silver assays of the blue stuff someone had picked up over what was to become the Comstock Lode, and sent to a Nevada County assayer. Hearst hurried over to the Washoe district of western Utah territory and that winter and his partners managed to mine 38 tons of high-grade silver ore, packed it across the Sierra on muleback, had it smelted in San Francisco, and made $91,000 profit. It was the sight of the bars of Ophir silver that started the rush to Washoe, G. Hearst knew Marcus Daly from the Comstock Lode work and in the summer of 1872 Daly suggested the possibilities of the Ontario silver mine in Park City, Utah.
The Ontario carried Hearst through the Panic of 1873 and produced seventeen million dollars in ten years, Hearst financed Marcus Daly to operate his Anaconda mine in Butte and acquired an interest in that mine as well. As a partner of Hearst, Tevis and Co, the company grew to be the largest private mining firm in the United States. His son insisted on taking control of one of his fathers holdings, the San Francisco Examiner, Hearst bought the newspaper as a sign of loyalty to his friends by accepting it as payment for a gambling debt owed to him. Hearst primarily used the Examiner to promote the interests of the Democratic Party, one of his biggest investments was the Homestake Mine in South Dakota in 1877
Piedras Blancas Light Station
Piedras Blancas Light Station is located at Point Piedras Blancas, about 5.5 miles west by northwest of San Simeon, California. The first-order Fresnel lens at Piedras Blancas was first illuminated on February 15,1875, the Piedras Blancas lighthouse was originally 100 feet high to the top of the ventilator ball, but earthquakes damaged the structure over the years. On December 31,1948, final damage from an earthquake centered 6 miles off the point led to the decision to remove the three floors, the fourth landing, watch room, and lantern. Missing the ornate upper floors, the lighthouse now stands about 70 feet tall. The lens was moved and is on display in the community of Cambria. A sound signal was added in 1906, in 1939, management was transferred from the United States Lighthouse Service to the United States Coast Guard. In 1975, the light was automated, the sound signal removed, a group of biologists with the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service received permission to establish a biological research station in 1977.
The Piedras Blancas Light Station Association is a partner of the BLM, helping to raise funds for restoration. The lighthouse continues to serve as an aid to navigation, a Vega VRB-25 produces a flash every 10 seconds. The light station is managed as a park and wildlife sanctuary. The Piedras Blancas Light Station has been designated as an Outstanding Natural Area, access to the 19-acre site is by guided tours, available every Tuesday and Saturday year round. From June 15 through August 31, tours are offered Mondays through Saturdays, the fee is $10 for adults, $5 for ages 6 to 17, and free for ages 5 and under. Special tours for parties of 10 or more may be arranged, the tour lasts two hours and includes the historic lighthouse and support buildings, wildlife viewing, and spectacular scenery along an easy half-mile interpretive trail. The largest elephant seal rookery on the West Coast is located about a mile south of the lighthouse along California Highway One, a large parking area and boardwalk offer easy access to view the elephant seals.
Docents from Friends of the Elephant Seal provide insight as to what the visitor is viewing, Piedras Blancas State Marine Reserve and Marine Conservation Area are marine protected areas offshore from Piedras Blancas Light Station. Like underwater parks, these protected areas help conserve ocean wildlife. The 1959 movie The Monster of Piedras Blancas was not shot at Point Piedras Blancas,2008, Arcadia Images of America series. ISBN 978-0738558196 United States Coast Guard Piedras Blancas Light Station Outstanding Natural Area, Bureau of Land Management Piedras Blancas Light Station Association