History of California
The history of California can be divided into: the Native American period. California was settled from the North by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, it was one of the linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. After contact with Spanish explorers, most of the Native Americans died out from European diseases. After the Portolá expedition of 1769–70, Spanish missionaries began setting up 21 California Missions on or near the coast of Alta California, beginning with the Mission San Diego de Alcala near the location of the modern day city of San Diego, California. During the same period, Spanish military forces built three small towns. Two of the pueblos would grow into the cities of Los Angeles and San Jose. After Mexican Independence was won in 1821, California fell under the jurisdiction of the First Mexican Empire. Fearing the influence of the Roman Catholic church over their newly independent nation, the Mexican government closed all of the missions and nationalized the church's property.
They left behind a small "Californio" population of several thousand families, with a few small military garrisons. After the Mexican–American War of 1846-48, Mexico was forced to relinquish any claim to California to the United States; the unexpected discovery of gold at Sutter's Mill in 1848 produced a spectacular gold rush in Northern California, attracting hundreds of thousand of ambitious young men from around the world. Only a few struck it rich, many returned home disappointed. Most appreciated the other economic opportunities in California in agriculture, brought their families to join them. California played a small role in the American Civil War. Chinese immigrants came under attack from nativists; as gold petered out, California became a productive agricultural society. The coming of the railroads in 1869 linked its rich economy with the rest of the nation, attracted a steady stream of migrants. In the late 19th century, Southern California Los Angeles, started to grow rapidly. Different tribes of Native Americans lived in the area, now California for an estimated 13,000 to 15,000 years.
Over 100 tribes and bands inhabited the area. Various estimates of the Native American population in California during the pre-European period range from 100,000 to 300,000. California's population held about one-third of all Native Americans in what is now the United States; the native horticulturalists practiced various forms of forest gardening and fire-stick farming in the forests, mixed woodlands, wetlands, ensuring that desired food and medicine plants continued to be available. The natives controlled fire on a regional scale to create a low-intensity fire ecology which prevented larger, catastrophic fires and sustained a low-density agriculture in loose rotation. California was the name given to a mythical island populated only by beautiful Amazon warriors, as depicted in Greek myths, using gold tools and weapons in the popular early 16th-century romance novel Las Sergas de Esplandián by Spanish author Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this popular Spanish fantasy was printed in several editions with the earliest surviving edition published about 1510.
In exploring Baja California the earliest explorers thought the Baja California peninsula was an island and applied the name California to it. Mapmakers started using the name "California" to label the unexplored territory on the North American west coast. European explorers flying the flags of Spain and of England explored the Pacific Coast of California beginning in the mid-16th century. Francisco de Ulloa explored the west coast of present-day Mexico including the Gulf of California, proving that Baja California was a peninsula, but in spite of his discoveries the myth persisted in European circles that California was an island. Rumors of fabulously wealthy cities located somewhere along the California coast, as well as a possible Northwest Passage that would provide a much shorter route to the Indies, provided an incentive to explore further; the first European to explore the California coast was Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, working for Spain. He died in southern California in 1543. Cabrillo and his men found that there was nothing for the Spanish to exploit in California, located at the extreme limits of exploration and trade from Spain it would be left unexplored and unsettled for the next 234 years.
The Cabrillo expedition depicted the Indians as living at a subsistence level located in small rancherias of extended family groups of 100 to 150 people. They had no apparent agriculture as understood by Europeans, no domesticated animals except dogs, no pottery; some shelters were made of branches and mud. The Cabrillo expedition did not see the far north of California, where on the coast and somewhat inland traditional architecture consists of rectangular redwood or cedar plank semisubterranean houses. Traditional clothing was minimal in the summer, with tanned deerhide and other animal
History of California's state highway system
The state highway system in the U. S. state of California dates back to 1896, when the state took over maintenance of the Lake Tahoe Wagon Road. Construction of a large connected system began in 1912, after the state's voters approved an $18 million bond issue for over 3000 miles of highways; the last large addition was made by the California State Assembly in 1959, after which only minor changes have been made. The first state road was authorized on March 26, 1895, when a law created the post of "Lake Tahoe Wagon Road Commissioner" to maintain the Lake Tahoe Wagon Road, now US 50 from Smith Flat - 3 miles east of Placerville - to the Nevada state line; the 58 mile road had been operated as a toll road until 1886. Funding was only enough for minimal improvements, including a stone bridge over the South Fork American River in 1901. In 1895, on March 27, the legislature created the three-person Bureau of Highways to coordinate efforts by the counties to build good roads; the bureau traveled to every county of the state in 1895 and 1896 and prepared a map of a recommended system of state roads, which they submitted to the governor on November 25, 1896.
The legislature replaced the Bureau of Highways with the Department of Highways on April 1, 1897, three days after it passed a law creating a second state highway from Sacramento to Folsom - another part of what became US 50 - to be maintained by three "Folsom Highway Commissioners". This was the last highway maintained by a separate authority, as the next state road, the Mono Lake Basin State Road, was designated by the legislature in 1899 to be built and maintained by the Department of Highways. Several more state highways were legislated in the next decade, the legislature passed a law creating the Department of Engineering on March 11, 1907; this new department, in addition to non-highway duties, was to maintain all state highways, including the Lake Tahoe Wagon Road. On March 22, 1909 the "State Highways Act" was passed, taking effect on December 31, 1910 after a successful vote by the people of the state in November; this law authorized the Department of Engineering to issue $18 million in bonds for a "continuous and connected state highway system" that would connect all county seats.
To this end, the department created the three-member California Highway Commission on August 8, 1911 to take full charge of the construction and maintenance of this system. As with the 1896 plan by the Bureau of Highways, the Highway Commission traveled the state to determine the best routes, which ended up stretching about 3100 miles. Construction began in mid-1912, with groundbreaking on Contract One - now part of SR 82 in San Mateo County - on August 7. Noteworthy portions of the system built by the commission included the Ridge Route in southern California and the Yolo Causeway west from Sacramento; because the first bond issue did not provide enough funding, the "State Highways Act of 1915" was approved by the legislature on May 20, 1915 and the voters in November 1916, taking effect on December 31. This gave the Department of Engineering an additional $12 million to complete the original system and $3 million for a further 680 miles specified by the law. At this time, each route was assigned a number from 1 to 34.
In 1917, the legislature gave the California Highway Commission statutory recognition, turned over the 750 miles of roads adopted by legislative act, until maintained by the State Engineer, to the commission. Where not serving as extensions of existing routes, these - and routes subsequently added legislatively in 1917 and 1919 - were given numbers from 35 to 45. A third bond issue was approved by the voters at a special election on July 1, 1919, provided $20 million more for the existing routes and the same amount for new extensions totaling about 1800 miles, adding Routes 46 to 64 to the system; the three bond issues together totaled 5560 miles, of which just over 40% was completed or under construction in mid-1920. The Department of Engineering became part of the new Department of Public Works in 1921, the California Highway Commission was separated as its own department in 1923. In order to pay for the roads, a 2-cent per gallon gasoline tax was approved in 1923; the legislature continued to add highways to the system, including the Mother Lode Highway in 1921 and the Arrowhead Trail in 1925.
In January 1928, the California State Automobile Association and Automobile Club of Southern California, placing guide and warning signs along state highways, marked the U. S. Highways along several of the most major state highways; the California Toll Bridge Authority was created in 1929 to acquire and operate all toll bridges on state highways, including the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge and Carquinez Bridge. After 1927 and 1929, in which no highways were added to the system, the legislature authorized the construction of 23 new routes in 1931, which were numbered from 72 to 80 when not forming extensions of existing routes. Two years another 213 sections of highway were added doubling the total length of state highways to about 14000 miles. Many of these new routes, as well as a number of existing routes, were incorporated into the initial system of state sign routes in 1934 posted by the auto clubs; the Division of Highways took over signage on stat
Californio is a term for a Hispanic person native of California, culturally or genetically descended from the Spanish-speaking community that has existed in the Californias since 1683, of varying Criollo Spaniard and Indigenous Californian origin. Alongside Tejanos and Neomexicanos, Californios are part of the larger Chicano/Mexican-American/Hispano community of the United States, which have lived in the American Southwest since the 16th century; the term "Californio" was applied to the Spanish-speaking residents of Las Californias during the periods of Spanish California and Mexican California, between 1683 and 1848. The first Californios were the children of the early Spanish military expeditions into northern reaches of the Californias which established the California presidios and subsequently allowed for the foundation of the California mission system; the primary cultural focus of the Californio population became the Vaquero tradition practiced by the landed gentry which received land grants creating the Rancho system.
In the 1820s-40s, American and European settlers came to Mexican California, married Californio women, became Mexican citizens, learning Spanish and converting to Catholicism, are also considered Californios, for their adherence to Californio language and culture. There are 11.9 million Chicanos/Mexican Americans in California, making up the largest group of 15.2 million California Hispanics. 2004 studies estimated that between 300,000 and 500,000 Californios had ancestry descended from the Mexican and Spanish eras of California. Alta California was nominally controlled by a national-government appointed governor; the governors of California were at first appointed by the Viceroy, after 1821 by the approximate 40 Mexican Presidents from 1821 to 1846. The costs of the minimum Alta California government were paid by means of a 40–100% import tariff collected at the entry port of Monterey; the other center of Spanish power in Alta California was the Franciscan friars who, as heads of the 21 missions resisted the powers of the governors.
None of the Franciscan friars were Californios and their influence waned after the secularization of the missions in the 1830s. The instability of the Mexican government, Alta California's geographic isolation, the growing ability of the Alta California's inhabitants to make a success of immigrating and an increase in the Californio population created a schism with the national government; as Spanish and Mexican period immigrants were succeeded in number by those that increasing lost an affinity with the national government, an environment developed that did not suppress disagreement with the central government. Governors had little material support from far-away Mexico to deal with Alta Californians, who were left to resolve situations themselves. Mexico-born governor Manuel Victoria was forced to flee in 1831, after losing a fight against a local uprising at the Battle of Cahuenga Pass; as Californios matured to adulthood and assumed positions of power in the Alta California government, rivalries emerged between northern and southern regions.
Several times, Californio leaders attempted to break away from Mexico, most notably Juan Bautista Alvarado in 1836. Southern regional leaders, led by Pio Pico, made several attempts to relocate the capital from Monterey to the more populated Los Angeles; the independence-minded Californios were influenced by the increasing numbers of immigrant foreigners, who integrated with the Californios, becoming Mexican citizens and gaining land either independently granted to them or through marriage to Californio women. For example, the American Abel Stearns was an ally of the Californio José Antonio Carrillo in the 1831 Victoria incident, yet sided with the southern Californians against the Californio would-be governor Alvarado in 1836. Alvarado recruited a company of Tennessean riflemen, many of them former trappers who had settled in the Monterey Bay area; the company was led by another American, Isaac Graham. When the Americans refused to fight against fellow Americans, Alvarado was forced to negotiate a settlement.
Californios included the descendants of agricultural settlers and retired escort soldiers deployed from what is modern-day Mexico. Most were of mixed ethnicities Mestizo or mixed African-American and Indian backgrounds. Despite the depictions of the popular shows like Zorro, few Californios were of "pure" Spanish ancestry. Most with unmixed Spanish ancestry were Franciscan priests, along with career government officials and military officers who did not remain in California. According to mission records as well as Presidio roster listings, several "leather-jacket" soldiers operating as escorts, mission guards, other military duty personnel were described as europeo, while most of the civilian settlers were of mixed origins; the term "mestizo" was if used in mission records, the more common terms being "indio", "europeo", "mulatto", "coyote", "castizo" and other caste terms. An example of the number of European-born soldiers is the twenty-five from Lieutenant Pedro Fages detachment of Catalan Volunteers.
Most of the soldiers on the Portola-Serra expedition of 1769 and the de Anza
Castro Valley, California
Castro Valley is a census-designated place in Alameda County, United States. As of the 2010 census, it is the fifth most populous unincorporated area in California and the twenty-third most populous in the United States; the population was 61,388 at the 2010 census. Castro Valley is named after Don Guillermo Castro, a soldier in the Mexican army and a rancher. First known for chicken ranches, Castro Valley became a bedroom community. Before the arrival of European settlers the area was settled by the Chocheño subdivision of the Ohlone Native Americans. With the arrival of Europeans, Castro Valley was part of the land granted to Mission San Jose in 1797; the area Castro Valley now occupies was part of the extensive colony of New Spain in what was the state of Alta California. Castro Valley was part of the original 28,000 acre land grant given to Castro in 1840, called Rancho San Lorenzo; this land grant included Hayward, San Lorenzo, Castro Valley, including Crow Canyon, Cull Canyon, Palomares Canyons.
Castro had to sell off portions of his land to pay gambling debts. The last of his holding was sold in a sheriff's sale in 1864 to Faxon Atherton for $400,000. Atherton in turn began selling off his portion in smaller parcels. Two gentlemen named Cull and Luce bought some 2,400 acres and began running a steam-operated saw mill in Redwood Canyon; the Jensen brothers bought land from Atherton in 1867. In 1866, Redwood school was built, the first public school in the area. Many Portuguese families immigrated to the surrounding canyons and farmed large amounts of land, where their descendants remain today. In the 1870s, Lake Chabot, a reservoir and popular park, was built by Chinese laborers living at Camp Yema-Po. During the 1940s and 1950s, Castro Valley was known for its chicken ranches, it developed into a bedroom community, where workers live and commute to their jobs in the surrounding communities. Lake Chabot lies in the northwest part of Castro Valley. Directly to the west is San Leandro. Hayward is to the south.
Dublin and San Ramon are to the east. The eastern hills of Castro Valley constitute the headwaters of the San Lorenzo Creek watershed and the origin of several creeks that flow into San Lorenzo Creek: Bolinas, Castro Valley, Crow, Eden, Kelly Canyon and Palomares Creeks; the 2010 United States Census reported that 61,388 people, 22,348 households, 16,112 families resided in the CDP. The population density was 3,690.3 people per square mile. There were 23,392 housing units at an average density of 1,382.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 58.0% White, 6.9% African American, 0.5% Native American, 21.4% Asian, 0.7% Pacific Islander, 6.1% from other races, 6.3% from two or more races. 17.4% of the population was Hispanic or Latino of any race. The Census reported that 98.0% of the population lived in households, 0.4% lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 1.5% were institutionalized. There were 22,348 households out of which 36.1% had children under the age of 18 living in them, 54.3% were opposite-sex married couples living together, 12.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.2% had a male householder with no wife present.
5.0% of households were unmarried opposite-sex partnerships and 1.0% were same-sex married couples or partnerships. 21.7% of households were made up of individuals and 8.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.69 and the average family size was 3.15. The population was spread out with 23.4% under the age of 18, 7.6% aged 18 to 24, 24.5% aged 25 to 44, 31.1% aged 45 to 64, 13.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41.2 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.0 males. There were 23,392 housing units, of which 22,348 were occupied, of which 69.0% were owner-occupied and 31.0% were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.3%. 68.8% of the population lived in owner-occupied housing units and 29.2% lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 57,292 people, 21,606 households, 15,016 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 3,971.6 people per square mile.
There were 22,003 housing units at an average density of 1,525.3 per square mile. There were 21,606 households out of which 32.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.0% were married couples living together, 11.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.5% were non-families. 23.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.58 and the average family size was 3.05. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 23.7% under the age of 18, 6.8% from 18 to 24, 29.8% from 25 to 44, 25.0% from 45 to 64, 14.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.0 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $76,197, the median income for a family was $91,713 as of a 2008 estimate. About 2.7% of families and 4.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.3% of those under age 18 and 4.5% of those age 65 or over.
The economy of Castro Valley consists of the provision of goods and services for local residents. Being a residential community, only about 5% of the area has bee
Imperial County, California
Imperial County is a county in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 174,528; the county seat is El Centro. Established in 1907 from a division of San Diego County, it was last county to be formed in California. Imperial County includes California Metropolitan Statistical Area, it is part of the Southern California border region, the smallest but most economically diverse region in the state. It is located in the Imperial Valley, in the far southeast of California, bordering both Arizona and the Mexican state of Baja California. Although this region is a desert, with high temperatures and low average rainfall of three inches per year, the economy is based on agriculture due to irrigation, supplied wholly from the Colorado River via the All-American Canal; the Imperial Valley is divided between the United States and Mexico, Imperial County is influenced by Mexican culture. 80% of the county's population is Hispanic, with the vast majority being of Mexican origin.
The remainder of the population is predominantly non-Hispanic white as well as smaller African American, Native American and Asian minorities. In 2016, Imperial County had the highest percentage of unemployed people of any county in the United States, at 23.5%. Spanish explorer Melchor Díaz was one of the first Europeans to visit the area around Imperial Valley in 1540; the explorer Juan Bautista de Anza explored the area in 1776. Years after the Mexican–American War, the northern half of the valley was annexed by the U. S. while the southern half remained under Mexican rule. Small scale settlement in natural aquifer areas occurred in the early 19th century, but most permanent settlement was after 1900. In 1905, torrential rainfall in the American Southwest caused the Colorado River to flood, including canals, built to irrigate the Imperial Valley. Since the valley is below sea level, the waters never receded, but collected in the Salton Sink in what is now called the Salton Sea. Imperial County was formed in 1907 from the eastern portion of San Diego County.
The county took its name from Imperial Valley, itself named for the Imperial Land Company, a subsidiary of the California Development Company, which at the turn of the 20th century had claimed the southern portion of the Colorado Desert for agriculture. Much of the Imperial Land Company's land existed in Mexico; the objective of the company was commercial crop farming development. By 1910, the land company had managed to settle and develop thousands of farms on both sides of the border; the Mexican Revolution soon after disrupted the company's plans. Nearly 10,000 farmers and their families in Mexico were ethnically cleansed by the rival Mexican armies. Not until the 1920s was the other side of California in America sufficiently peaceful and prosperous for the company to earn a return for a large percentage of Mexicans, but some chose to stay and lay down roots in newly sprouted communities in the valley; the county experienced a period of migration of "Okies" from drought-trodden dust bowl farms by the need of migrant labor, prosperous job-seekers alike from across the U.
S. arrived in the 1930s and 1940s in World War II and after the completion of the All American Canal from its source, the Colorado River, from 1948 to 1951. By the 1950 census, over 50,000 residents lived in Imperial County alone, about 40 times that of 1910. Most of the population was year-round but would increase every winter by migrant laborers from Mexico; until the 1960s, the farms in Imperial County provided substantial economic returns to the company and the valley. El Centro has one of the highest unemployment rates in the U. S. and ranks one of California's poorest counties or have a lower than state and national average annual household income. Fort Yuma is located on the banks of the Colorado River in California. First established after the end of the Mexican–American War in 1848, it was located in the bottoms near the Colorado River, less than 1 mile below the mouth of the Gila River, it was to defend the newly settled community of Yuma, Arizona on the other side of the Colorado River and the nearby Mexican border.
In March 1851 the post was moved to a small elevation on the Colorado's west bank, opposite the present city of Yuma, Arizona, on the site of the former Mission Puerto de Purísima Concepción. This site had been occupied by Camp Calhoun, named for John C. Calhoun, established in 1849. Fort Yuma was established to protect the southern emigrant travel route to California and to attempt control of the Yuma Indians in the surrounding 100-mile area. NAF El Centro is the winter home of the U. S. Navy Flight Demonstration Squadron, The Blue Angels. NAF El Centro kicks off the Blue Angels' season with their first air show, traditionally held in March. Imperial, CA is home to the California Mid-Winter Fair and Fiesta, the local county fair, held in late February to early March, it is home to the Imperial Valley Speedway, a race track of 3⁄8 mile. The name Algodones Dunes refers to the entire geographic feature, while the administrative designation for that portion managed by the Bureau of Land Management is the "Imperial Sand Dunes Recreation Area".
The Algodones Sand Dunes are the largest mass of sand dunes in California. This dune system extends for more than 40 miles along the eastern edge of the Imperial Valley agricultural region in a band averaging 5 miles in width. A major east-west route of the Union Pacific railroad skirts the e
Indigenous peoples of California
The indigenous peoples of California are the indigenous inhabitants who have lived or live in the geographic area within the current boundaries of California before and after the arrival of Europeans. With over forty groups seeking to be federally recognized tribes, California has the second largest Native American population in the United States; the California cultural area does not conform to the state of California's boundaries. Many tribes on the eastern border with Nevada are classified as Great Basin tribes, some tribes on the Oregon border are classified as Plateau tribes. Tribes in Baja California who do not cross into California are classified as indigenous peoples of Mexico. Before European contact, native Californians spoke over 300 dialects of 100 distinct languages; the large number of languages has been related to the ecological diversity of California, to a sociopolitical organization into small tribelets with a shared "ideology that defined language boundaries as unalterable natural features inherent in the land"."The majority of California Indian languages belong either to localized language families with two or three members or are language isolates."
Of the remainder, most are Athapaskan languages. Larger groupings have been proposed; the Hokan superstock has been most difficult to demonstrate. There is evidence suggestive that speakers of the Chumashan languages and Yukian languages, languages of southern Baja California such as Waikuri, were in California prior to the arrival of Penutian languages from the north and Uto-Aztecan from the east predating the Hokan languages. Wiyot and Yurok are distantly related to Algonquian languages in a larger grouping called Algic; the several Athapaskan languages are recent arrivals, no more recent than about 2000 years ago. Evidence of human occupation of California dates from at least 19,000 years ago. Prior to European contact, California Indians had 500 distinct sub-tribes or groups, each consisting of 50 to 500 individual members; the size of California tribes today are small compared to tribes in other regions of the United States. Prior to contact with Europeans, the California region contained the highest Native American population density north of what is now Mexico.
Because of the temperate climate and easy access to food sources one-third of all Native Americans in the United States were living in the area of California. Early Native Californians were hunter-gatherers, with seed collection becoming widespread around 9,000 BC. Due to the local abundance of food, tribes tilled the soil. Two early southern California cultural traditions include the La Jolla Complex and the Pauma Complex, both dating from ca. 6050—1000 BC. From 3000 to 2000 BC, regional diversity developed, with the peoples making fine-tuned adaptations to local environments. Traits recognizable to historic tribes were developed by 500 BC; the indigenous people practiced various forms of sophisticated forest gardening in the forests, mixed woodlands, wetlands to ensure availability of food and medicine plants. They controlled fire on a regional scale to create a low-intensity fire ecology. By burning underbrush and grass, the natives revitalized patches of land and provided fresh shoots to attract food animals.
A form of fire-stick farming was used to clear areas of old growth to encourage new in a repeated cycle. Different tribes encountered non-native European explorers and settlers at different times; the southern and central coastal tribes encountered Spanish and British explorers in the mid-16th century. Tribes such as the Quechan or Yuman Indians in present-day southeast California and southwest Arizona first encountered Spanish explorers in the 1760s and 1770s. Tribes on the coast of northwest California, like the Miwok and Yokut, had contact with Russian explorers and seafarers in the late 18th century. In remote interior regions, some tribes did not meet non-natives until the mid-19th century; the Spanish began their long-term occupation in California in 1769 with the founding of Mission San Diego de Alcalá in San Diego. The Spanish built 20 additional missions in California, their introduction of European invasive plant species and non-native diseases resulted in unintended havoc and high fatalities for the Native Californian tribes.
The population of Native California was reduced by 90% during the 19th century—from more than 200,000 in the early 19th century to 15,000 at the end of the century due to disease. Epidemics swept through California Indian Country, such as the 1833 malaria epidemic. Early to mid 19th Century, coastal tribes of northwest California had multiple contacts with Russian explorers due to Russian colonization of the Americas. At that time period, Russian exploration of California and contacts with local population were associated with the activity of the Russian-American Company. A Russian explorer, Baron Ferdinand von Wrangell, visited California in 1818, 1833, 1835. Looking for a potential site for a new outpost of the company in California in place of Fort Ross, Wrangell’s expedition encountered the Indians north of San Francisco Bay and visited their village. In his notes Wrangell remarked that local women, used to physical labor, seemed to be of stronger constitution than men, whose main activity was hunting.
Local provision consisted of fish and products made of seeds and grains: usually
Alex Giualini Plaza
Alex Giuliani Plaza is a park surrounding a vacant building in downtown Hayward, California. The building was Hayward's first city hall, it is located on D Street. Hayward City Hall opened in 1930. A circle-in-square design element on the building's facade was used to create the current city logo, it served as Hayward City Hall between 1930-1969. When the City Center Building opened in October 1969 the city government moved there; the current Hayward City Hall is located at 777 B Street, three blocks away from Giualini Plaza. A trace from the Hayward Fault runs directly under the old City Hall building; the building was abandoned due to structural damage caused by aseismic creep. The Hayward 9/11 Memorial, located adjacent to the city hall building, a small memorial featuring 5 black granite columns, was dedicated May 30, 2016, to the first responders who died, to the city's own fallen first responders, the city's fallen soldiers In 1999 the City of Hayward renamed the building and surrounding park Alex Giualini Plaza after the former mayor