The California Republic was an unrecognized breakaway state that for 25 days in 1846 militarily controlled an area north of San Francisco, in and around what is now Sonoma County in California. In June 1846, thirty-three American immigrants in Alta California who had entered without official permission rebelled against the Mexican department's government. Among their grievances were that they had not been allowed to buy or rent land and had been threatened with expulsion. Mexican officials had been concerned about a coming war with the United States, coupled with the growing influx of Americans into California; the rebellion was covertly encouraged by U. S. Army Brevet Captain John C. Frémont, added to the troubles of the recent outbreak of the Mexican–American War; the name "California Republic" appeared only on the flag. It indicated their aspiration of forming a republican government under their control; the rebels elected military officers but no civil structure was established. The flag became known as the Bear Flag.
Three weeks on July 5, 1846, the Republic's military of 100 to 200 men was subsumed into the California Battalion commanded by Brevet Captain John C. Frémont; the Bear Flag Revolt and whatever remained of the "California Republic" ceased to exist on July 9 when U. S. Navy Lieutenant Joseph Revere raised the United States flag in front of the Sonoma Barracks and sent a second flag to be raised at Sutter's Fort. By 1845–46, Alta California had been neglected by Mexico for the twenty-five years since Mexican independence, it had evolved into a semi-autonomous region with open discussions among Californios about whether California should remain with Mexico. The 1845 removal of Manuel Micheltorena, the latest governor to be sent by Mexico and forcefully ejected by the Californians, resulted in a divided government; the region south of San Luis Obispo was ruled by Governor Pio Pico with his capital in The Town of Our Lady the Queen of Angels of the Porciúncula River, now known as Los Angeles. The area to the north of the pueblo of San Luis Obispo was under the control of Alta California's Commandante José Castro with headquarters near Monterey, the traditional capital and the location of the Customhouse.
Pico and Castro disliked each other and soon began escalating disputes over control of the Customhouse income. Decrees issued by the central government in Mexico City were acknowledged and supported with proclamations but ignored in practice. By the end of 1845, when rumors of a military force being sent from Mexico proved to be false, rulings by the other district government were ignored; the relationship between the United States and Mexico had been deteriorating for some time. Texas, which Mexico still considered to be its territory, had been admitted to statehood in 1845. Mexico had earlier threatened war. James K. Polk was elected President of the United States in 1844, considered his election a mandate for his expansionist policies. Mexican law had long allowed grants of land to naturalized Mexican citizens. Obtaining Mexican citizenship was not difficult and many earlier American immigrants had gone through the process and obtained free grants of land; that same year anticipation of war with the United States and the increasing number of immigrants coming from the United States resulted in orders from Mexico City denying immigrants from the United States entry into California.
The orders required California's officials not to allow land grants, sales or rental of land to non-citizen emigrants in California. All non-citizen immigrants, who had arrived without permission, were threatened with being forced out of California. Alta California's Sub-Prefect Francisco Guerrero had written to U. S. Consul Thomas O. Larkin that: a multitude of foreigners come into California and bought fixed property, a right of naturalized foreigners only, he was under the necessity of notifying the authorities in each town to inform such purchasers that the transactions were invalid and they themselves subject to be expelled whenever the government might find it convenient. During November 1845, California's Commandante General José Castro met with representatives of the 1845 American immigrants at Sonoma and Sutter’s Fort. In his decree dated November 6 he wrote: "Therefore conciliating my duty with of the sentiment of hospitality which distinguishes the Mexicans, considering that most of said expedition is composed of families and industrious people, I have deemed it best to permit them, provisionally, to remain in the department" with the conditions that they obey all laws, apply within three months for a license to settle, promise to depart if that license was not granted.
A 62-man exploring and mapping expedition entered California in late 1845 under the command of U. S. Army Brevet Captain John C. Frémont. Frémont was well known in the United States as an explorer, he was the son-in-law of expansionist U. S. Senator Thomas Hart Benton. Early in 1846 Frémont acted provocatively with California's Commandante General José Castro near the pueblo of Monterey and moved his group out of California into Oregon Country, he was followed into Oregon by U. S. Marine Lt Archibald H. Gillespie, sent from Washington with a secret message to U. S. Consul Thomas O. Larkin and instructions to share the message with Frémont. Gillespie brought a packet of letters from Frémont's wife and father-in-law. Frémont's thoughts after readin
History of California's state highway system
The state highway system in the U. S. state of California dates back to 1896, when the state took over maintenance of the Lake Tahoe Wagon Road. Construction of a large connected system began in 1912, after the state's voters approved an $18 million bond issue for over 3000 miles of highways; the last large addition was made by the California State Assembly in 1959, after which only minor changes have been made. The first state road was authorized on March 26, 1895, when a law created the post of "Lake Tahoe Wagon Road Commissioner" to maintain the Lake Tahoe Wagon Road, now US 50 from Smith Flat - 3 miles east of Placerville - to the Nevada state line; the 58 mile road had been operated as a toll road until 1886. Funding was only enough for minimal improvements, including a stone bridge over the South Fork American River in 1901. In 1895, on March 27, the legislature created the three-person Bureau of Highways to coordinate efforts by the counties to build good roads; the bureau traveled to every county of the state in 1895 and 1896 and prepared a map of a recommended system of state roads, which they submitted to the governor on November 25, 1896.
The legislature replaced the Bureau of Highways with the Department of Highways on April 1, 1897, three days after it passed a law creating a second state highway from Sacramento to Folsom - another part of what became US 50 - to be maintained by three "Folsom Highway Commissioners". This was the last highway maintained by a separate authority, as the next state road, the Mono Lake Basin State Road, was designated by the legislature in 1899 to be built and maintained by the Department of Highways. Several more state highways were legislated in the next decade, the legislature passed a law creating the Department of Engineering on March 11, 1907; this new department, in addition to non-highway duties, was to maintain all state highways, including the Lake Tahoe Wagon Road. On March 22, 1909 the "State Highways Act" was passed, taking effect on December 31, 1910 after a successful vote by the people of the state in November; this law authorized the Department of Engineering to issue $18 million in bonds for a "continuous and connected state highway system" that would connect all county seats.
To this end, the department created the three-member California Highway Commission on August 8, 1911 to take full charge of the construction and maintenance of this system. As with the 1896 plan by the Bureau of Highways, the Highway Commission traveled the state to determine the best routes, which ended up stretching about 3100 miles. Construction began in mid-1912, with groundbreaking on Contract One - now part of SR 82 in San Mateo County - on August 7. Noteworthy portions of the system built by the commission included the Ridge Route in southern California and the Yolo Causeway west from Sacramento; because the first bond issue did not provide enough funding, the "State Highways Act of 1915" was approved by the legislature on May 20, 1915 and the voters in November 1916, taking effect on December 31. This gave the Department of Engineering an additional $12 million to complete the original system and $3 million for a further 680 miles specified by the law. At this time, each route was assigned a number from 1 to 34.
In 1917, the legislature gave the California Highway Commission statutory recognition, turned over the 750 miles of roads adopted by legislative act, until maintained by the State Engineer, to the commission. Where not serving as extensions of existing routes, these - and routes subsequently added legislatively in 1917 and 1919 - were given numbers from 35 to 45. A third bond issue was approved by the voters at a special election on July 1, 1919, provided $20 million more for the existing routes and the same amount for new extensions totaling about 1800 miles, adding Routes 46 to 64 to the system; the three bond issues together totaled 5560 miles, of which just over 40% was completed or under construction in mid-1920. The Department of Engineering became part of the new Department of Public Works in 1921, the California Highway Commission was separated as its own department in 1923. In order to pay for the roads, a 2-cent per gallon gasoline tax was approved in 1923; the legislature continued to add highways to the system, including the Mother Lode Highway in 1921 and the Arrowhead Trail in 1925.
In January 1928, the California State Automobile Association and Automobile Club of Southern California, placing guide and warning signs along state highways, marked the U. S. Highways along several of the most major state highways; the California Toll Bridge Authority was created in 1929 to acquire and operate all toll bridges on state highways, including the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge and Carquinez Bridge. After 1927 and 1929, in which no highways were added to the system, the legislature authorized the construction of 23 new routes in 1931, which were numbered from 72 to 80 when not forming extensions of existing routes. Two years another 213 sections of highway were added doubling the total length of state highways to about 14000 miles. Many of these new routes, as well as a number of existing routes, were incorporated into the initial system of state sign routes in 1934 posted by the auto clubs; the Division of Highways took over signage on stat
Mayor of San Francisco
The Mayor of the City and County of San Francisco is the head of the executive branch of the San Francisco city and county government. The officeholder has the duty to enforce city laws, the power to either approve or veto bills passed by the San Francisco Board of Supervisors, the legislative branch; the Mayor is limited to two successive terms. Because of San Francisco's status as a consolidated city-county, the mayor serves as the head of government of the county. There have been 45 individuals sworn into office. John W. Geary, elected in 1850, was the first mayor of the city. Charles James Brenham, who served as mayor during the 1850s, is the only person who has served two non-consecutive terms; the current mayor is former District 5 Supervisor and President of the Board of Supervisors London Breed, who won a special election following the death of Mayor Ed Lee on December 12, 2017. Breed will serve out the remainder of Lee's uncompleted term, after which she is eligible to run for two full terms of her own.
The mayor of San Francisco is elected every four years. Candidates must be registered to vote in San Francisco at the time of the election; the mayor is sworn in on the January 8 following the election. The next election for a full mayoral term will be in 2019. Under the California constitution, all city elections in the state are conducted on a non-partisan basis; as a result, candidates' party affiliations are not listed on the ballot, multiple candidates from a single party can run in the election since a primary election is not held. Mayoral elections were run under a two-round system. If no candidate received a simple majority of votes in the general election, the two candidates who received the most votes competed in a second runoff election held several weeks later. In 2002, the election system for city officials was overhauled as a result of a citywide referendum; the new system, known as instant-runoff voting, allows voters to select and rank three candidates based on their preferences.
If no one wins more than half of the first-choice votes, the candidate with the fewest votes is eliminated and second-choice votes are counted until a candidate captures the majority. This saves money; this was first implemented in the 2004 Board of Supervisors election after two years of preparation. In 2007, the new system was implemented in the mayoral election for the first time; as of 2017, the mayor is paid an annual salary of $297,386, the highest mayoral salary in the United States. Nine city public employees earned higher salaries than the mayor, including the chief investment officer and the managing director of the San Francisco Employees' Retirement System, who oversee the city's pension plan. Unlike a few other American cities, the San Francisco mayor does not have an official residence. S. Navy admirals as a ceremonial residence for the mayor; the mayor has the responsibility to enforce all city laws and coordinate city departments and intergovernmental activities, set forth policies and agendas to the Board of Supervisors, prepare and submit the city budget at the end of each fiscal year.
The mayor has the powers to either approve or veto bills passed by the San Francisco Board of Supervisors, participate in meetings of the Board of Supervisors and its committees, appoint a replacement to fill vacancies in all city elected offices until elections, appoint a member of the Board as acting mayor in his/her absence, to direct personnel in the case of emergency. If the mayor dies in office, resigns, or is unable to carry out his/her duties and he/she did not designate an acting mayor, the president of the Board of Supervisors becomes acting mayor until the full Board select a person to fill the vacancy and finish the previous mayoral term; this has happened seven times: James Otis died in office and was succeeded by George Hewston, Eugene Schmitz was removed and succeeded by Charles Boxton, Charles Boxton resigned and was succeeded by Edward Robeson Taylor, James Rolph resigned and was succeeded by Angelo Rossi, George Moscone was assassinated and was succeeded by Dianne Feinstein, Gavin Newsom resigned and was succeeded by Ed Lee, Lee died in office and was succeeded by Mark Farrell.
To date, 44 individuals have served as San Francisco Mayor. There have been 45 mayoralties due to Charles James Brenham's serving two non-consecutive terms: he is counted chronologically as both the second and fourth mayor; the longest term was that of James Rolph, who served over 18 years until his resignation to become the California governor. The length of his tenure as mayor was due to his popularity. During his term, San Francisco saw the expansion of its transit system, the construction of the Civic Center and the hosting of the World's Fair; the shortest term was that of Charles Boxton, who served only eight days before resigning from office. Three mayors have died in office: Otis died from illness, Moscone was assassinated, Lee suffered a cardiac arrest. Dianne Feinstein and London Breed are the only women, Willie Brown and London Breed are the only African Americans, Ed Lee is the only Asian American to have been elected Mayor. Thirteen mayors are native San Franciscans: Levi Richard Ellert, James D. Phelan, Eugene Schmit
Noe Valley, San Francisco
Noe Valley is a neighborhood in the central part of San Francisco, California. Speaking, Noe Valley is bounded by 21st Street to the north, 30th Street to the south, Dolores Street to the east, Grand View Avenue to the west; the Castro is north of Noe Valley. The neighborhood is named after José de Jesús Noé, the last Mexican alcalde of Yerba Buena, who owned what is now Noe Valley as part of his Rancho San Miguel. Noé sold the land to be known as Noe Valley, to John Meirs Horner, a Mormon immigrant, in 1854. At this time the land was called Horner's Addition; the original Noé adobe house was located in the vicinity of the present day intersection of 23rd Street and Douglass Street. Along with nearby neighborhood Corona Heights, Noe Valley was the site of two quarries until 1914. Noe Valley was developed at the end of the 19th century and at the beginning of the 20th century in the years just after the 1906 San Francisco earthquake; as a result, the neighborhood contains many examples of the "classic" Victorian and Edwardian residential architecture for which San Francisco is famous.
As a working-class neighborhood, Noe Valley houses were built in rows, with some of the efficient, low-cost homes being more ornate than others, depending on the owner's taste and finances. Today, Noe Valley has one of the highest concentration of row houses in San Francisco, with streets having three to four and sometimes as many as a dozen on the same side. However, few facades in such rows of houses remain unchanged since their creation in the late 19th and early 20th century. Many Noe Valley streets were laid out and named by John Meirs Horner, who named Elizabeth Street after his wife and Jersey Street after the state where he was born. Most of Noe Valley is still called Horner's Addition for tax purposes by the city assessor's office. Present day 24th Street was named "Park Street," and 25th Street was named "Temple Street" to commemorate John Meirs Horner's Mormon faith. St. Paul's Catholic Church known as Parroquia De San Pablo, is a famous church located at Church and Valley Street.
It was the filming location for the movie Sister Act. Like many other San Francisco neighborhoods, Noe Valley started out as a working-class neighborhood for employees and their families in the area's once-thriving blue-collar economy but has since undergone successive waves of gentrification and is now considered an upscale neighborhood, it is home to many urban professionals young couples with children. It is colloquially known for the many strollers in the neighborhood; the median sale price for homes in Noe Valley as of September 2015 was $2.37 million. One of the attractions of Noe Valley is that the adjacent Twin Peaks blocks the coastal fog and cool winds from the Pacific, making the microclimate sunnier and warmer than surrounding neighborhoods. Traffic flow is limited – one main north access through Castro Street to Eureka Valley, one main west access up Clipper Street toward the former Twin Peaks toll plaza and west of the city, several east accesses to the Mission District through 24th Street, Cesar Chavez, other numbered streets, the main north–south Church Street access used by the J Church Muni Light Rail.
Public transit includes the J Church. The 24 Muni Bus runs through Noe Valley, its route switches to Noe Street at 26th Street. It exits the neighborhood via 30th Street; the neighborhood is residential, although there are two bustling commercial strips, the first along 24th Street, between Church Street and Diamond Street, the second, less dense corridor along Church Street, between 24th Street and 30th Street. Ruth Asawa was a resident of Noe Valley from 1962 until her death in August 2013. Carlos Santana graduated from James Lick Middle School on Noe Street in the early 1960s, as did Benjamin Bratt in the following decade. Famous residents include Scott Hutchins, Evan Williams, Mark Zuckerberg, Terry Karl. San Francisco Bay Area portal The Noe Valley Voice, the neighborhood's newspaper
History of the San Fernando Valley
The history of the San Fernando Valley from its exploration by the 1769 Portola expedition to the annexation of much of it by the City of Los Angeles in 1915 is a story of booms and busts, as cattle ranching, sheep ranching, large-scale wheat farming, fruit orchards flourished and faded. Throughout its history, settlement in the San Fernando Valley was shaped by availability of reliable water supplies and by proximity to the major transportation routes through the surrounding mountains. Before the flood control measures of the 20th century, the location of human settlements in the San Fernando Valley was constrained by two forces: the necessity of avoiding winter floods and need for year-round water sources to sustain communities through the dry summer and fall months. In winter, torrential downpours over the western-draining watershed of the San Gabriel Mountains entered the northeast Valley through Big Tujunga Canyon, Little Tujunga Canyon, Pacoima Canyon; these waters spread over the Valley floor in a series of braided washes, seven miles wide as late as the 1890s, periodically cutting new channels and reusing old ones, before sinking into the gravelly subterranean reservoir below the eastern Valley and continuing their southward journey underground.
Only when the waters encountered the rocky roots of the Santa Monica Mountains were they pushed to the surface where they fed a series of tule marshes and the sluggish stream, now the Los Angeles River. By the time the Spanish conquest of Mexico reached Alta California in 1769, successive groups of indigenous peoples, or Native Americans, had inhabited the area for at least 7,000 years; these peoples tended to settle on wooded areas at the Valley's margins. The Tongva, who spoke the Tongva language, a Uto-Aztecan or Shoshonean language, had a series of villages in the southern Valley along or near the river, including Totongna and Kawengna. In the north-central Valley was an permanent village called Pasakngna, in the lower foothills of the mountains near natural springs and a tule marsh. Other characteristic place-names of Tongva origin in the Valley include Topanga; the Tataviam were established in the valleys to the north. The Hokan-speaking Chumash people inhabited Malibu, the Santa Monica Mountains, the Simi Hills in the western area of the Valley, much of the coastal areas to the northwest.
At Bell Creek below the rocky outcropping called Escorpión Peak, Chumash pictographs and other artifacts have been identified by archeologists at a site, Hu'wam, thought to have been a meeting place and trading center for the Tongva-Fernandeño and Chumash-Venturaño. In the Simi Hills the Burro Flats Painted Cave pictographs are located on Rocketdyne's Santa Susana Field Laboratory property, inaccessible but well protected; the Tataviam-Fernandeño people inhabited the foothills of the Santa Susana Mountains in the Valley. The Tongva-Fernandeño inhabited the Valley, along the tributaries to the Los Angeles River. In 1769, the expedition led by explorer Gaspar de Portolà reached the Los Angeles area of California overland from Baja California. Accompanying him were two Franciscan Padres, Junípero Serra and Juan Crespí, who recorded the expedition and identified locations for a proposed network of missions, along which the royal highway was built. After camping at and naming the location that would become the Pueblo de Los Angeles, the expedition proceeded westward before turning north through the Sepulveda Pass over the Santa Monica Mountains on the feast day of Saint Catherine of Bologna.
We saw a pleasant and spacious valley. We descended to it and stopped close to a watering place, a large pool. Near it we found a village of heathen friendly and docile. We gave to this plain the name of Santa Catalina de Bononia de Los Encinos, it has on its valleys many live oak and walnuts. The watering place was a pool fed by a perennial spring at what is now Encino, near the village of Siutangna; the name El Valle de Santa Catalina de Bononia de los Encinos refers to the encinos or evergreen Coast Live Oaks that studded the area. The expedition proceeded northward, camping at a site in the northern Valley before crossing over the mountains into the Santa Clarita Valley. Father Crespí had identified a location along the Los Angeles River that would be perfect for a settlement a mission, but in 1781, King Charles III of Spain ordered that a pueblo be built on the site, which would be the second town in Alta California after San José de Guadalupe, founded in 1777. By royal edict, all of the waters of the river and its tributaries were reserved for the Pueblo de Los Angeles, a condition which would have a profound impact on development of the Valley.
By the end of the century, Spain had issued two grazing concessions north of the pueblo that included the southeastern corner of the Valley, Rancho San Rafael and Rancho Portesuelo. Francisco Reyes, alcalde or mayor of Los Angeles from 1793–1795, had set up a grazing operation which he called Rancho Encino located in what is now Mission Hills near the village of Pasakngna. Reyes's property had a substantial water supply from artesian wells and limestone for building, was situated a day's walk from the existing missions San Gabriel and San Buenaventura. In or shortly before 1797 he was persuaded to cede this land to the Franciscans to be the site of a new mission, receiving in exchange a square league of land in the southern valley by the perennial spring wher
Castro District, San Francisco
The Castro District referenced as The Castro, is a neighborhood in Eureka Valley in San Francisco. The Castro was one of the first gay neighborhoods in the United States. Having transformed from a working-class neighborhood through the 1960s and 1970s, the Castro remains one of the most prominent symbols of lesbian, gay and transgender activism and events in the world. San Francisco's gay village is concentrated in the business district, located on Castro Street from Market Street to 19th Street, it extends down Market Street toward Church Street and on both sides of the Castro neighborhood from Church Street to Eureka Street. Although the greater gay community was, is, concentrated in the Castro, many gay people live in the surrounding residential areas bordered by Corona Heights, the Mission District, Noe Valley, Twin Peaks, Haight-Ashbury neighborhoods; some consider it to include Duboce Triangle and Dolores Heights, which both have a strong LGBT presence. Castro Street, which originates a few blocks north at the intersection of Divisadero and Waller Streets, runs south through Noe Valley, crossing the 24th Street business district and ending as a continuous street a few blocks farther south as it moves toward the Glen Park neighborhood.
It reappears in several discontinuous sections before terminating at Chenery Street, in the heart of Glen Park. Castro Street was named for José Castro, a Californian leader of Mexican opposition to U. S. rule in California in the 19th century, alcalde of Alta California from 1835 to 1836. The neighborhood known as the Castro, in the district of Eureka Valley, was created in 1887 when the Market Street Railway Company built a line linking Eureka Valley to downtown. In 1891, Alfred E. Clarke built his mansion at the corner of Douglass and Caselli Avenue at 250 Douglass, referenced as the Caselli Mansion, it survived the 1906 fire which destroyed a large portion of San Francisco. Up to the 19th century, the areal possession of the Russian Empire in North America included the modern-day U. S. state of Alaska and settlements in the modern-day U. S. states of Hawaii. These Russian possessions were collectively and referred to by the name Russian America from 1733 to 1867. Formal incorporation of the possessions by Russia did not take place until the establishment of the Russian-American Company in 1799.
In 1809–1917, Finland was an autonomous part of the Russian Empire and was referred to as the Grand Duchy of Finland. During this era, the operations of both merchant and naval fleets as well as construction of naval vessels, relied on Finnish know-how and officers. At the time, Russia was a young naval power, gaining access to the Baltic Sea only after the city of Saint Petersburg was founded on its coast in 1703, becoming part of Russia only at the end of the Great Northern War in 1721. In 1839, Sitka Lutheran Church, the first Protestant congregation on the west coast of the Americas and the first Lutheran congregation on the entire Pacific Rim was founded in Sitka, Alaska, by Finns who worked for the Russian-American Company. From the start, in 1840–1865, three consecutive Finnish pastors served this pastorate: Uno Cygnaeus, Gabriel Plathan and Georg Gustaf Winter; the Finns Aaron Sjöstrom and Otto Reinhold Rehn served as the parish organists/sextons during this period. In 1841, under the governorship of Russian America by Finnish Arvid Adolf Etholén, the Russian-American area of Fort Ross in Bodega Bay, was sold to Johann Sutter.
On January 24, 1848, the first California gold was discovered on Sutter's land in Coloma, leading to the California Gold Rush, after news of this were spread abroad by the Finnish seamen in the service of the Russian-American Company. During the final three decades of the existence of Russian America, Finnish Chief Managers of Russian America included Arvid Adolf Etholén in 1840–1845 and Johan Hampus Furuhjelm in 1859–1864. A third Finn, Johan Joachim von Bartram, declined the offer for the five-year term between 1850 and 1855. All three were high ranking Imperial naval officers. In reference to San Francisco, researcher Maria J. Enckell states the following about the Finns in the Russian-American Company: Russia relied on Finnish seamen; these seamen manned Russian naval ships as well as its deep-sea-going vessels. Company records show that in the early 1800s these ships were crewed predominantly by merchant seamen from Finland. From 1840 onward the Company's around-the-world ships were manned by Finnish merchant skippers and crews.
Most Company ships stationed in Sitka and the Northern Pacific were manned by Finnish skippers and Finnish crews. During the California Gold Rush and in its aftermath, a substantial Finnish population had settled in San Francisco. In addition to Etholén, Furuhjelm and Niebaum, a number of Finns had become household names in the social circles of San Francisco by the time when the Finnish corvette Kalevala anchored in San Francisco on November 14, 1861. Accordingly, Kalevala's visit in the city received a warm welcome and created much attention. In 1863, a six-vessel Russian Imperial Navy squadron, a part of the Russian Pacific Fleet, sailed via Vladivostok to the West Coast of the United States, to help defend the waters there against a possible attack by the United Kingdom or France, during the American Civil War. In addition to the Finnish-built corvette Kalevala now returning to the U. S. West Coast, this squadron included three other corve
History of California
The history of California can be divided into: the Native American period. California was settled from the North by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, it was one of the linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. After contact with Spanish explorers, most of the Native Americans died out from European diseases. After the Portolá expedition of 1769–70, Spanish missionaries began setting up 21 California Missions on or near the coast of Alta California, beginning with the Mission San Diego de Alcala near the location of the modern day city of San Diego, California. During the same period, Spanish military forces built three small towns. Two of the pueblos would grow into the cities of Los Angeles and San Jose. After Mexican Independence was won in 1821, California fell under the jurisdiction of the First Mexican Empire. Fearing the influence of the Roman Catholic church over their newly independent nation, the Mexican government closed all of the missions and nationalized the church's property.
They left behind a small "Californio" population of several thousand families, with a few small military garrisons. After the Mexican–American War of 1846-48, Mexico was forced to relinquish any claim to California to the United States; the unexpected discovery of gold at Sutter's Mill in 1848 produced a spectacular gold rush in Northern California, attracting hundreds of thousand of ambitious young men from around the world. Only a few struck it rich, many returned home disappointed. Most appreciated the other economic opportunities in California in agriculture, brought their families to join them. California played a small role in the American Civil War. Chinese immigrants came under attack from nativists; as gold petered out, California became a productive agricultural society. The coming of the railroads in 1869 linked its rich economy with the rest of the nation, attracted a steady stream of migrants. In the late 19th century, Southern California Los Angeles, started to grow rapidly. Different tribes of Native Americans lived in the area, now California for an estimated 13,000 to 15,000 years.
Over 100 tribes and bands inhabited the area. Various estimates of the Native American population in California during the pre-European period range from 100,000 to 300,000. California's population held about one-third of all Native Americans in what is now the United States; the native horticulturalists practiced various forms of forest gardening and fire-stick farming in the forests, mixed woodlands, wetlands, ensuring that desired food and medicine plants continued to be available. The natives controlled fire on a regional scale to create a low-intensity fire ecology which prevented larger, catastrophic fires and sustained a low-density agriculture in loose rotation. California was the name given to a mythical island populated only by beautiful Amazon warriors, as depicted in Greek myths, using gold tools and weapons in the popular early 16th-century romance novel Las Sergas de Esplandián by Spanish author Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this popular Spanish fantasy was printed in several editions with the earliest surviving edition published about 1510.
In exploring Baja California the earliest explorers thought the Baja California peninsula was an island and applied the name California to it. Mapmakers started using the name "California" to label the unexplored territory on the North American west coast. European explorers flying the flags of Spain and of England explored the Pacific Coast of California beginning in the mid-16th century. Francisco de Ulloa explored the west coast of present-day Mexico including the Gulf of California, proving that Baja California was a peninsula, but in spite of his discoveries the myth persisted in European circles that California was an island. Rumors of fabulously wealthy cities located somewhere along the California coast, as well as a possible Northwest Passage that would provide a much shorter route to the Indies, provided an incentive to explore further; the first European to explore the California coast was Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, working for Spain. He died in southern California in 1543. Cabrillo and his men found that there was nothing for the Spanish to exploit in California, located at the extreme limits of exploration and trade from Spain it would be left unexplored and unsettled for the next 234 years.
The Cabrillo expedition depicted the Indians as living at a subsistence level located in small rancherias of extended family groups of 100 to 150 people. They had no apparent agriculture as understood by Europeans, no domesticated animals except dogs, no pottery; some shelters were made of branches and mud. The Cabrillo expedition did not see the far north of California, where on the coast and somewhat inland traditional architecture consists of rectangular redwood or cedar plank semisubterranean houses. Traditional clothing was minimal in the summer, with tanned deerhide and other animal