Rancho El Conejo
Rancho El Conejo was a 48,572-acre Spanish land grant in California given in 1803 to Jose Polanco and Ygnacio Rodriguez that encompassed the area now known as the Conejo Valley in southeastern Ventura and northwestern Los Angeles Counties. El Conejo means "The Rabbit" in Spanish, refers to the many rabbits common to the region; the east-west grant boundaries went from the border of Westlake Village near Lindero Canyon Road in the east to the Conejo Grade in the west. The north-south borders extended from the top of the Simi Hills at the end of Moorpark Road in the north to Hidden Valley in the Santa Monica Mountains in the south; the rancho is the site of the communities of Newbury Park, Thousand Oaks, Westlake Village. Former Santa Barbara Presidio soldiers Jose Polanco and Ygnacio Rodriquez were granted Rancho El Conejo in 1803. Polanco lost his land due to neglect. In 1822, influential Santa Barbara army officer José de la Guerra y Noriega was granted Polanco's claim by Spanish Governor Pablo Vicente de Solá.
With the cession of California to the United States following the Mexican-American War, the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo provided that the land grants would be honored. As required by the Land Act of 1851, a claim for Rancho El Conejo was filed with the Public Land Commission in 1852, the grant was patented to José de la Guerra y Noriega and María del Carmen de Rodríguez in 1873; the property stayed in the de la Guerra families and Rodriguez until the 1860s, when after drought and disease decimated local cattle, the two families began selling off their land. In 1872, H. W. Mills purchased one-half of the Conejo grant from the heirs of Captain Jose de la Guerra, which he called the Triunfo Ranch. Mills went bankrupt and Andrew D. Russell purchased his Triunfo Ranch in 1881. In 1882, 2,200 acres of the Newbury tract were sold. In 1910, Harold and Edwin Janss of the Janss Investment Company purchased about 10,000 acres of land of what is now Thousand Oaks from the heir of John Edwards, who had purchased the land from the de la Guerra heirs.
De la Guerra built an adobe in Westlake, submerged by the Westlake dam. De la Guerra Adobe Ruins are located at 4651 Tapo Canyon Road. Ranchos of California List of Ranchos of California Allen, Patricia, 1976, History of Rancho El Conejo, Ventura County Historical Society Quarterly, Spring. 3, p. 2-97. Bidwell, Carol A. 1989, The Conejo Valley: old and new frontiers, Windsor Publications. Russell, Joe. 1957, History of the Conejo Ranch, Ventura County Historical Society Quarterly, Vol. II, No. 2, p. 12-19. Map of old Spanish and Mexican ranchos in Los Angeles County
Santa Monica Mountains
The Santa Monica Mountains is a coastal mountain range in Southern California, paralleling the Pacific Ocean. It is part of the Transverse Ranges; because of its proximity to densely populated regions, it is one of the most visited natural areas in California. Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area is located in this mountain range; the range extends 40 miles east-west from the Hollywood Hills in Los Angeles to Point Mugu in Ventura County. The western mountains, separating the Conejo Valley from Malibu end at Mugu Peak as the rugged, nearly impassible shoreline gives way to tidal lagoons and coastal sand dunes of the alluvial Oxnard Plain; the mountain range contributed to the isolation of this vast coastal plain before regular transportation routes reached western Ventura County. The eastern mountains form a barrier between the San Fernando Valley and the Los Angeles Basin, separating "the Valley" on the north and west-central Los Angeles on the south; the Santa Monica Mountains are parallel to Santa Susana Mountains, which are located directly north of the mountains across the San Fernando Valley.
The range is of moderate height, with no craggy or prominent peaks outside the Sandstone Peak and Boney Mountains area. While rugged and wild, the range hosts a substantial amount of human activity and development. Houses, roads and recreational centers are dotted throughout the Santa Monica Mountains. A number of creeks in the Santa Monica Mountains are part of the Los Angeles River watershed. Beginning at the western end of the San Fernando Valley the river runs to the north of the mountains. After passing between the range and the Verdugo Mountains it flows south around Elysian Park defining the easternmost extent of the mountains; the Santa Monica Mountains have more than 1,000 archeology sites of significance from the Californian Native American cultures of the Tongva and Chumash people. The mountains were part of their regional homelands for over eight thousand years before the arrival of the Spanish; the Spanish mission system had a dramatic impact on their culture and by 1831, their population had dropped from over 22,000 to under 3,000.
Geologists consider the northern Channel Islands to be a westward extension of the Santa Monicas into the Pacific Ocean. The range was created by repeated episodes of uplifting and submergence by the Raymond Fault that created complex layers of sedimentary rock. Volcanic intrusions have been exposed, including the poorly named, andesitic, "Sandstone Peak" the highest in the range at 3,111 feet. Malibu Creek, which eroded its own channel while the mountains were uplifted, bisects the mountain range; the Santa Monica Mountains have dry summers with frequent coastal fog on the ocean side of the range and wet, cooler winters. In the summer, the climate is quite dry, which makes the range prone to wildfires during dry "Santa Ana" wind events. Snow is unusual in the Santa Monica Mountains, since they are not as high as the nearby San Gabriel Mountains; the highest slopes of the central and western Santa Monica Mountains average as much as 27 inches of rain per year, but 18-22 inches is more typical of the range.
The bulk of the rain falls between March. Rainfall is higher in the central and western parts of the range; this is reflected in the vegetation. The central and western portions of the range support more widespread woodlands than the eastern part of the range, where trees are restricted to the stream courses. On January 17, 2007, an unusually cold storm brought snow in the Santa Monica Mountains; the hills above Malibu picked up three inches of snow - the first measurable snow in five decades. Snow was reported on Boney Peak, in the winter of 2005. Snow fell on the peak of Boney Mountain in late December 2008; the latest recorded snowfall in the area was in February of 2019 where an unusual amount of snowfall accumulated in low passes in the mountains. The storm system brought rare snowfall to the Los Angeles area. Much of the mountains are located within the Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area. Preservation of lands within the region are managed by the Santa Monica Mountains Conservancy, the National Park Service, the California State Parks, County and Municipal agencies.
Today, the Santa Monica Mountains face pressure from local populations as a desirable residential area, in the parks as a recreational retreat and wild place that's rare in urban Los Angeles. In 2014 the California Coastal Commission and the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors approved the Santa Monica Mountains Local Coastal Program, a land-use plan that will distinguish between the private lands that need strict protection and property that could be developed in strict conformance with this detailed plan. Over twenty individual state and municipal parks are in the Santa Monica Mountains, including: Topanga State Park, Leo Carrillo State Park, Malibu Creek State Park, Point Mugu State Park, Will Rogers State Historic Park, Point Dume State Beach, Griffith Park, Marvin Braude Mulholland Gateway Park, Charmlee Wilderness Park, Franklin Canyon Park, Runyon Canyon Park, King Gillette Ranch Park, Paramount Ranch Park. At the eastern end of the Santa Monica Mountains are Griffith Park and lastly Elysian Park.
Griffith Park is separated from the rest of the Santa Monica Mountains to the west by the Cahuenga Pass, over which the 101 Freeway passes from the San Fernando Valley into Hollywood. Elysian Park is in the easternmost part of the mountains and is bordered
Newbury Park, California
Newbury Park is a town located within the western Thousand Oaks city limits in Ventura County, United States. It makes up all of ZIP code 91320, is within area code 805. Lying within the Conejo Valley in the northwestern part of the Greater Los Angeles Area, Newbury Park abuts the Santa Monica Mountains, it is 35 miles from Downtown Los Angeles and less than 7 mi from the Los Angeles County border in Westlake Village. The closest coastal city is Malibu, 22 mi from Newbury Park, which may be reached through winding roads or hiking trails crossing the Santa Monica Mountains. About 28,000 of Thousand Oaks' 110,000 residents reside in Newbury Park. Newbury Park makes up around 40 percent of Thousand Oaks' total land area. Newbury Park, along with Thousand Oaks proper, have numerous times ranked among the safest and wealthiest communities in the United States. Money Magazine has ranked Newbury Park as one of the most affluent cities in the United States, it has the 11th highest per-capita income and the fourth-highest median household income in the country.
As of 2013, the median household income in Newbury Park is $107,302, compared to $60,190 for California as a whole and $53,046 nationwide. Timberville was a previous 19th century name for Newbury Park. Newbury Park is named after Egbert Starr Newbury, the founder of Newbury Park, as well as the first postmaster in the Conejo Valley in 1875. Egbert Starr Newbury called his ranch here "Newbury Park", which became the name for the entire town. Egbert Starr Newbury and his family owned thousands of acres in the Conejo Valley, but only lived in Newbury Park for a total of six years, he moved from Michigan to Southern California for health reasons in 1871, opened Conejo Valley's first post office in 1875, but left California only two years later. The Newbury Park Post Office has changed locations numerous times but the Newbury Park name has survived and is still used though much of the area was incorporated into the city of Thousand Oaks. Egbert Starr Newbury chose the name "Newbury Park" due to its similarities to a park, he believed the area looked like a park community and therefore ought to have "park" in its name.
The first written material on the Conejo Valley was written by anthropologist John P. Harrington in about 1900. C. the ancestral grandfather from whom I took my name, headed west on one of his most adventurous hunting trips ever… As the group climbed Old Boney, they looked back to the north and could see the pleasant openings of the Conejo- and Hidden Valleys. There, there appeared to be good grazing ground for the mammoth herd and they proceeded thence; this story may be related to the lore about the Paleo-Indians, who are believed by some to be the distant ancestors of the Chumash. Mammoth fossils were unearthed in Newbury Park in 1961 and in 1971, are on display at the Stagecoach Inn Museum; the Newbury Park area is believed to have been inhabited by people of the Chumash culture for at least the past 6,000, 7,000, 8,000, or 10,000 years. Newbury Park has been home of three Chumash villages: Satwiwa by the southern edge of town, as well as two villages that were located by today's Ventu Park Road.
These villages were settled 2,000 years ago, had a population of 100–200 inhabitants in each village. In addition to those three, a large Chumash village was located just north of Arroyo Conejo Open Space by Wildwood Regional Park. Other nearby villages include Lalimanux at the base of the Conejo Grade by westernmost Newbury Park, as well as Kayɨwɨš or Kayiwish by the Conejo Grade; this region contains numerous pictographs. Newbury Park contains many ancient burial sites, most near the Santa Monica Mountains in the southern portion of the community. Many burial items have been discovered in the area, most notably by Rancho Sierra Vista in southern Newbury Park. Satwiwa, Chumash for "the bluffs", was the name of a nearby village by the Big Sycamore Canyon; the canyon was a popular trading route for the Chumash- and Tongva people, connecting the Conejo Valley to Mugu Lagoon through the Santa Monica Mountains. Unlike Satwiwa, now protected as a part of the Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area, the two other Chumash villages once located within Newbury Park are located on private lands by Ventu Park Road.
These are known as CA-Ven-65, CA-Ven-261, CA-Ven-260 near the Fieldhouse in Newbury Park. At CA-Ven-261 is an ancient Chumash burial site as suggested by a village of long duration; the Ventureño Chumash settled in the west end of the Santa Monica Mountains because of the abundant food supply. Roots, seeds, bulbs and walnuts, were plentiful in the region, a variety of wildlife including birds and squirrels made for good hunting. Shellfish and fish were transported from the nearby Mugu Lagoon across the Santa Monicas. Here they discovered an abundance of jackrabbits and other rabbit species, which were hunted for fur and meat. At one point, the Chumash here gathered a group of 27 men and killed hundreds of rabbits during a rabbit round-up, a significant event of late summers in the Conejo Valley. Along with Rancho Sierra Vista, various Chumash artifacts from these older settlements, along with petroglyphs, have been found along the Arroyo Conejo in the Santa Monica Mountains; the Satwiwa Native American Indian Culture Center and the Stagecoach Inn Museum in Newbury Park have displays built around some of these finds, as does the Chumash Indian Museum in Thousand Oaks.
In partnership with Friends of Satwiwa, the National Park Service began talks of establishing the current Satwi
Moorpark College is a public community college in Moorpark, California. It was established in 1967 with enrollment of 2,500 students and enrolled 14,254 students in 2014. An Exotic Animal Training and Management center houses over 200 animals on campus; the Board of the Ventura County Community College District established Moorpark College in 1967. In addition to the land owned by the District, Moorpark College expanded into a 134-acre parcel of land on Moorpark's eastern boundary, donated by a local ranching family, the Strathearns. In 1965, the citizens of Ventura County passed a bond for 8 million dollars to build the first part of the college. Construction of the administration, technology and Maintenance buildings, the Library and Campus Center began in 1966. Moorpark College opened on September 11, 1967; the College's first president, Dr. John Collins, welcomed 1,400 students and 50 faculty members. Dr. Robert Lombardi became the College's second president in 1971. Under his direction, enrollment doubled, the college added emphasis on preparing students to transfer to four-year schools.
Dr. Ray Hearon is the longest-serving president, in office from 1974 to 1989. In 1980, the Moorpark College Foundation was formed to fund construction of an athletic stadium and observatory; the 6,000 seat stadium, completed in 1985, was named after Paul Griffin Jr. a major benefactor. In 1987, the Charles Temple Observatory, the only public observatory in Ventura County, Carlsberg Amphitheater were dedicated at the college's 20th anniversary celebration; the nearby Oxnard College solicited Moorpark's help in establishing a Camarillo Center, located on California State University, Channel Islands's campus. In 2000, a high school for juniors and seniors opened on the college campus, called The High School at Moorpark College; the first class to graduate in 2001 numbered 25. In 2004 and 2005, various bond projects were completed, such as a parking lot renovation and all-weather track. For the 2007 transferring cohort of eligible students, Moorpark College transferred 130 to a 4-year accredited universities in two years, 480 in three years, 793 and four years.
Bernard Luskin was appointed interim president of Moorpark College in September, 2013. The current president, Luis Pablo Sanchez, was appointed for a term beginning February 3, 2015. Jamal Anderson – former NFL running back Chris Beal – CIF State Champion wrestler. Ken Lutz – American football player Matt Mahurin – illustrator, photographer Isaiah Mustafa – former football player, The Old Spice Man Jose Pasillas – Incubus Elliot Rodger – perpetrator of the 2014 Isla Vista killings Julie Scardina – Sea World Busch Gardens Animal Ambassador Dan Winters – photographer Official website
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal government's official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance. A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred preserving the property; the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register and the process for adding properties to it. Of the more than one million properties on the National Register, 80,000 are listed individually; the remainder are contributing resources within historic districts. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service, an agency within the United States Department of the Interior, its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States.
While National Register listings are symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties. Protection of the property is not guaranteed. During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places; the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Historic sites outside the country proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, multiple property submissions; the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties: district, structure, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties; some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service.
These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks, National Memorials, some National Monuments. On October 15, 1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices; the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Register's creation, as well as any other historic sites in the National Park system. Approval of the act, amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy; the 1966 act required those agencies to work in conjunction with the SHPO and an independent federal agency, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, to confront adverse effects of federal activities on historic preservation. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, with director George B.
Hartzog Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law. Ernest Connally was the Office's first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register; the division administered several existing programs, including the Historic Sites Survey and the Historic American Buildings Survey, as well as the new National Register and Historic Preservation Fund. The first official Keeper of the Register was an architectural historian. During the Register's earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. However, funds were still being supplied for the Historic Preservation Fund to provide matching grants-in-aid to listed property owners, first for house museums and institutional buildings, but for commercial structures as well. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U.
S. National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two "Assistant Directorates." Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation. From 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs. Jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate, he was described as a skilled administrator, sensitive to the need for the NPS to work with SHPOs, local governments. Although not described in detail in the 1966 act, SHPOs became integral to the process of listing properties on the National Register; the 1980 amendments of the 1966 law further defined the responsibilities of SHPOs concerning the National Register.
Several 1992 amendments of the NHPA added a category to the National Register, known as Traditional Cultural Properties: those properties associated with Native American or Hawaiian groups
Westlake Village, California
Westlake Village is a city in Los Angeles County on its western border with Ventura County. The population was estimated to be at 8,473 in 2014, up from 8,368 at the 2000 census; the headquarters of the Dole Food Company is located in Westlake Village. The planned community of Westlake was built with a lake at the center straddling the line between Los Angeles and Ventura counties. Two-thirds of it was annexed by the city of Thousand Oaks in two portions, in 1968 and 1972. In 1981, the remaining third incorporated into the City of Westlake Village which became the 82nd municipality of Los Angeles County. About 3,000 years ago, Chumash Indians moved into the region and lived by hunting rabbits and other game, gathering grains and acorns. On-going excavations, archaeological sites, polychrome rock paintings in the area provide a glimpse into the social and economic complexity of the ancient Chumash world, it is unknown when the first people settled in what is now Westlake, however, a Chumash village was settled here in 500 BCE, known as Hipuc.
The local Chumash Indians spent days preparing for the day's meal. Acorns and other seeds were large parts of their diet, were collected in the fall when the Chumash traveled inland; the Chumash got their food by hunting wild animals and gathering plants. Their diet consisted of acorns, cottontail rabbits, jack rabbits, rats and seeds, they made their clothing from the skins of animals such as rabbits and sea otters. Women wore long skirts weaved from grass or soft bark, while men wore pieces of deerskin tied around their waists. Both men and women wore shell beads. On a return trip from Northern California in January 1770, a group of men led by Gaspar de Portola are believed to be the first Europeans to encounter the Chumash Indians in the Conejo Valley. Father Juan Crespi and diarist of the expedition, wrote about El Triumfo, a Chumash village, he wrote that there were plenty of water and firewood in the village, that the land was covered with pastures. He wrote: "We are on a plain of considerable extent and much beauty, forested on all parts by live oaks and oak trees, with much pasturage and water."
Crespi named the place El triunfo del Dulcísimo Nombre de Jesús to a camping place by a creek. Other villages were found throughout the valley, including Satwiwa and two villages by where Ventu Park Road is in Newbury Park; these Chumash villages are believed by archeologists to have first been settled over 2,000 years ago. Another village was located by Lake Sherwood. In 1795, the area became part of one of the first Spanish land grants, Rancho Simi, given to the Pico family; when Mexico won independence from Spain in 1821, Alta California became Mexican territory, the Rancho Simi grant was confirmed in 1842. At the time California was admitted to the union in 1850, most of the land that became Ventura County was divided among only 19 families. Rising knolls, arroyos and ancient oaks were found on two Mexican land grants: Rancho El Conejo and Rancho Las Virgenes. In 1881, the Russell brothers purchased a large portion of the land for cattle ranching. According to Patricia Allen and family descendant, Andrew Russell beat the competition in buying the land by racing across 6,000 acres on a fifteen-minute trip in a buckboard and sealed the deal with a $20 gold piece.
The price per acre was $2.50. The area continued to be known as the Russell Ranch although it was sold in 1925 to William Randolph Hearst and again in 1943 to Fred Albertson; the Russell family leased back part of the land to continue its successful cattle ranch operation while the Albertson Company used the vast area as a movie ranch. Many movies and television shows were filmed here, including Robin Hood, King Rat and various episodes of Tarzan, Buck Rogers and Bonanza; the 1940 film Danger Ahead was filmed on Westlake Boulevard. In 1963, Daniel K. Ludwig's American-Hawaiian Steamship Company bought the 12,000 acre ranch for $32 million and, in partnership with Prudential Insurance Company, commissioned the preparation of a master plan by architectural and planning firm A. C. Martin and Associates; this new "city in the country" planned to have a firm economic base including commercial areas, residential neighborhoods, ample green space with the lake as a focal point. Prominent architects and land planners participated in designing the new community, a prominent example of planned 1960s-style suburbanism.
The original tract was divided by the Los Angeles/Ventura county line. In 1968 and 1972, the Ventura County side, two portions of the Westlake development consisting of 8,544 acres, were annexed into the city of Thousand Oaks. In 1981, the Los Angeles County portion of the Westlake master-planned community was incorporated as the City of Westlake Village. California state law prevents a city from existing in two separate counties, so the areas in Ventura County remained part of Thousand Oaks. Much of Westlake Village is surrounded by open space, including hiking and horse trails, as well as the vast Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area; the town is in the northwestern Santa Monica Mountains area, is 9 miles inland from the Pacific Ocean. The lake lies within the watershed of Malibu Creek. Water from the lake must be released into the creek in compliance with an agreement between the California State Water Resources Control Board and the Westlake Lake Management Association, a private entity that oversees the operation of the lake.
In addition to its role as a bedroom community for Los Angeles via the Ventura Freeway, it is home to many large comme
Satwiwa was a former Chumash village in the Santa Monica Mountains of Newbury Park, California. The current Satwiwa Native American Indian Culture Center is operated by the National Park Service in cooperation with the Friends of Satwiwa. Satwiwa has been inhabited by Chumash Indians for over 10,000 years, it is situated at the foothills of a sacred mountain for the Chumash. Bordering thousands of acres of wilderness in the Santa Monica Mountains, the fauna surrounding Satwiwa includes golden eagles, mountain lions, Valley coyotes, bobcats, foxes and hawks; the main trail from Satwiwa is nicknamed the backdoor to the Point Mugu State Park. Satwiwa is one of the four primary entrances to the Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area. Satwiwa is Chumashan and directly translates to "the bluffs." By strict definition, the name, which can translate to "higher places" referred to the neighboring mountain, known as Boney Mountain. Satwiwa was the Chumashan name used for a former village near the current culture center.
The original Chumash village was just north of Big Sycamore Canyon in southern Newbury Park, at the foothills of Mount Boney. Satwiwa is adjacent to the Santa Monica Mountains and Rancho Sierra Vista within the Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area, it is situated at the western end of the Santa Monica Mountains of Newbury Park, CA and borders National Park land. Satwiwa and surrounding areas have been inhabited by the Chumash people for over 10,000 years; the former Native-American village is home to a natural center with a Chumash Indian demonstration area where Native-American docents or park rangers are available for presentations during weekends. Art shows and interactive exhibits take place at Satwiwa. Hiking trails connect to the larger Point Mugu State Park, including trails to nearby waterfalls in the Santa Monica Mountains. Satwiwa and surrounding Point Mugu State Park make up 16,000 acres at the northwest edge of the Santa Monica Mountains; the landscape is characterized by the dramatic backdrops of Boney Mountain, rocky canyons, coastal shrubs, oak- and sycamore trees, rolling green slopes, chaparral.
It is home to a multitude of trails, connecting to open-space areas such as the Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area, Los Robles Open Space, Dos Vientos Open Space, Circle X Ranch, Ventu Park, others. Native American Indians have lived in the area for over 10,000 years. With a lifestyle based on the food abundance and materials provided by the environment, they fished in the Pacific Ocean and hunted deer and rabbits in the canyons, they gathered acorns from the surrounding oak trees in which they grinded for food. Prosperous, the tribes lived in the center of a commerce that extended up and down the coast, as far west as the California Channel Islands; the Spaniards were the first Europeans to arrive here. During the colonization, the Spanish established various nearby missions to claim the territory for Spain. With the arrival of the Spanish, Satwiwa became a portion of Rancho El Conejo. Native-Americans of Chumash, Tataviam and Vanyume ancestries are still utilizing Satwiwa in order to keep traditions alive.
Native-American culture is showcased through a variety of contemporary programs and displays. Traditional- and religious ceremonies and dances are still held at Satwiwa. Satwiwa was purchased by the U. S. National Park Service in 1980. Situated in the Santa Monica Mountains of Newbury Park, the Satwiwa Native-American Indian Culture Center is operated in partnership between Native Chumash Indians and the U. S. National Park Service; the center offers a diverse range of educational lectures and workshops, Native-American art displays, more. The Ventureño Chumash Indians first settled in Satwiwa 13,000 years ago, lived in the village as as 2,000 years ago; the village served as a post for travelers and traders who crossed the Santa Monica Mountains through the Sycamore Canyon in order to get from the Conejo Valley to the Mugu Lagoon and the Pacific Ocean. The Chumash traded with the Gabrieleño-Tongva Indians, who lived in areas of Los Angeles County. Numerous Chumash artifacts and petroglyphs have been discovered in the surrounding area along the Arroyo Conejo on its way to its estuary in the Mugu Lagoon.
Satwiwa is situated at the foothills of Boney Mountain, a sacred mountain for the Chumash people. Many of the artifacts are for display at the Satwiwa Native American Indian Culture Center and the Chumash exhibit at the Stagecoach Inn Museum in Newbury Park, as well as at the Chumash Indian Museum in Thousand Oaks. Satwiwa is still used by Native-American groups by the Chumash Barbareño-Ventureño Band of Mission Indians for events such as community dancing and celebrations of various ceremonies, e.g. summer solstice and the Hutash ceremony. The original inhabitants of the village of Satwiwa recognized Boney Mountain as the sacred home of all of creation; the peak remains sacred to the Chumash people today. The cultural center houses a Chumash demonstration village which sits across the path from the center; this reconstructed Chumash village houses the traditionally made ‘ap. It is visited during weekends when Native-American teachers and National Park rangers are present. Over 100 miles of trails can be found within Point Mugu State Park, one of California’s largest state parks.
Half the state park’s total area make up Boney Mountain State Wilderness Area, a natural wilderness surrounding Mount Boney, a sacred mountain to the Chumash people. Several tra