The Lionchu or lionhead-ranchu is a fancy goldfish that has resulted from crossbreeding lionheads and ranchus. The Western criteria for lionchus combine the traditional characteristic side-view profiles of the ranchu and the lionhead; the ranchu's deep body and curved back, tail placement has been merged with the large headgrowth of the lionhead. Lionchus do not have dorsal fins, a trait inherited from both parent breeds. Although at first, the lionchus were considered as mongrels, being hybrids of the lionheads and ranchus, the lionhead have an ancestor from Japan in the 1800s; the shishigashira ranchu is a ranchu-like goldfish with small amounts of headgrowth and some having small knobs and bumps on the back. But the modern-day lionchu is considered to have originated from Thailand, was popularized by a group of goldfish hobbyists in Singapore through RafflesGold.com, an internet-based goldfish forum site. The lionchu was recognized as a unique class of fancy goldfish during the "My Fancy Goldfish Competition 2006", held in Singapore from May 26–28, 2006.
Lionchu Photographs from the Raffles Gold Forum Website Lionhead Ranchu
Pompoms or pompon or hana fusa are a type of fancy goldfish that have bundles of loose fleshy outgrowths between the nostrils, on each side of the head. The pompom has a similar body shape and finnage to the lionhead or Oranda but instead of supporting a headgrowth it has nasal outgrowths; the extent of the nasal outgrowths, which are enlargements of the nasal septum, vary in pompom goldfish. In some, the outgrowths hang down past the mouth; these skin outgrowths around the nostrils of pompoms are developed through selective breeding. Pompoms may have either metallic or nacreous scalation, can occur with or without a dorsal fin, it will be best if the lionhead variety of these fishes are engaged with the same variety or other dorsal fin less fishes. The Chinese submit this variety as the "Velvet ball". There are records for the existence of this fish being seen as far back as 1898; the first importation of these fish into the United Kingdom was in 1936 when the original fish were exported from Shanghai and others were displayed at an aquarium in Paris.
It was quite popular in the early days of the fancy goldfish, but is now rarely seen for sale or on display. The hana fusa or white pompom oranda is an elegant pompom with a dorsal fin. Varieties of Goldfish -About Pompom
Sumo is a form of competitive full-contact wrestling where a rikishi attempts to force his opponent out of a circular ring or into touching the ground with any body part other than the soles of his feet. The sport originated in the only country where it is practiced professionally, it is considered a gendai budō, which refers to modern Japanese martial art, but the sport has a history spanning many centuries. Many ancient traditions have been preserved in sumo, today the sport includes many ritual elements, such as the use of salt purification, from Shinto. Life as a wrestler is regimented, with rules regulated by the Japan Sumo Association. Most sumo wrestlers are required to live in communal sumo training stables, known in Japanese as heya, where all aspects of their daily lives—from meals to their manner of dress—are dictated by strict tradition. From 2008 to 2017, a number of high-profile controversies and scandals have rocked the sumo world, with an associated effect on its reputation and ticket sales.
These have affected the sport's ability to attract recruits. Despite this setback, sumo's popularity and general attendance has rebounded due to having multiple yokozuna for the first time in a number of years and other high-profile wrestlers such as Endō and Ichinojō grabbing the public's attention. In addition to its use as a trial of strength in combat, sumo has been associated with Shinto ritual; some shrines carry out forms of ritual dance where a human is said to wrestle with a kami, a Shinto divine spirit. It was an important ritual at the imperial court, where representatives of each province were ordered to attend the contest at the court and fight; the contestants were required to pay for their travel themselves. The contest was known as sumai no sechie, or "sumai party". Over the rest of recorded Japanese history, sumo's popularity changed according to the whims of rulers and the need for its use as a training tool in periods of civil strife; the form of wrestling combat changed into one where the main aim in victory was to throw one's opponent.
The concept of pushing one's opponent out of a defined area came some time later. A ring, defined as something other than the area given to the wrestlers by spectators, is believed to have come into being in the 16th century as a result of a tournament organized by the principal warlord in Japan, Oda Nobunaga. At this point, wrestlers would wear loose loincloths rather than the much stiffer mawashi wrestling belts of today. During the Edo period, wrestlers would wear a fringed decorative apron called a keshō-mawashi during the match, whereas today these are worn only during pretournament rituals. Most of the rest of the current forms within the sport developed in the early Edo period. Professional sumo roots trace back to the Edo period in Japan as a form of sporting entertainment; the original wrestlers were samurai rōnin, who needed to find an alternative form of income. Current professional sumo tournaments began in the Tomioka Hachiman Shrine in 1684, were held in the Ekō-in in the Edo period.
Western Japan had its own sumo venues and tournaments in this period, with the most prominent center being in Osaka. Osaka sumo continued to the end of the Taishō period in 1926, when it merged with Tokyo sumo to form one organization. For a short period after this, four tournaments were held a year, two tournaments in locations in western Japan such as Nagoya and Fukuoka, two in the Ryōgoku Kokugikan in Tokyo. From 1933 onward, tournaments were held exclusively in the Ryōgoku Kokugikan, until the American occupation forces appropriated it and the tournaments moved to Meiji Shrine until the 1950s. An alternate location, the Kuramae Kokugikan near Ryōgoku, was built for sumo. In this period, the Sumo Association began expanding to venues in western Japan again, reaching a total of six tournaments a year by 1958, with half of them in Kuramae. In 1984, the Ryōgoku Kokugikan was rebuilt and sumo tournaments in Tokyo have been held there since; the winner of a sumo bout is either the first wrestler to force his opponent to step out of the ring, or the first wrestler to force his opponent to touch the ground with any part of his body other than the bottom of his feet.
A number of other less common rules can be used to determine the winner. For example, a wrestler using an illegal technique automatically loses, as does one whose mawashi comes undone. A wrestler failing to show up for his bout automatically loses. Bouts consist of a single round and last only a few seconds, as one wrestler is ousted from the circle or thrown to the ground. However, they can last for several minutes; each match is preceded by an elaborate ceremonial ritual. Traditionally, sumo wrestlers are renowned for their great girth and body mass, a winning factor in sumo. No weight divisions are used in professional sumo. However, with superior technique, smaller wrestlers can defeat much larger opponents; the average weight of top division wrestlers has continued to increase, from 125 kilograms in 1969 to over 150 kilograms by 1991, was a record 166 kilograms as of January 2019. In some situations a review of the gyōji's decision may be needed; the judges outside the ring, who sit at eye level may convene a conference in the middle of the ring, called a "mono-ii".
This is done if the judges decide that the decision over who won the bout needs to be rev
Celestial eye goldfish or Choutengan is a double-tailed breed of fancy goldfish that has a breed-defining pair of telescope eyes which are turned upwards, pupils gazing skyward. When the fry hatch, the eyes of young Celestials are normal but protrude sideways, as in the Telescope eye goldfish, but unlike the telescope, which has eyes facing outwards on each side, the eyes of the celestial eye turns upwards within a period of six months of development. Celestials first appeared as a direct mutation of the Telescope goldfish in the 18th century. Competing traditions lay claim as to where this happened first, Korea or China; the first documentation that Celestials existed appears on a Chinese scroll of 1772, where a goldfish lacking a dorsal fin and possessing protuberant upturned eyes is depicted. Celestials did not arrive in Japan until 1903 when thirty specimens arrived from China and became the foundation stock for Japanese breeders. Japan became the leading producer of Celestials for export.
This remained so until the outbreak of World War II. Celestials arrived in the United States from Japan in the first decade of the twentieth century and were included in the first edition of William T. Innes's Goldfish Varieties and Tropical Aquarium Fishes in 1917. American fanciers bred the fish and, in turn, exported foundation stock to Great Britain. After World War II, since, the majority of Celestials exported from Asia are of Chinese origin. A Celestial goldfish is depicted on a postage stamp issued in 1960 by the People's Republic of China; the Celestial is a goldfish. Like the Bubble Eye, the Celestial does not have a dorsal fin, their paired fins are of the Ryukin type. The caudal may be half as long, to as long as, the body, they are most seen with metallic scales colored shades of orange, white, or red and white. Celestials with nacreous scales are known but seen. Despite their limited vision and their lack of a dorsal fin, they are agile swimmers, they do require some special attention since, in addition to having damaged upward-oriented eyes, they are sensitive to cold water temperatures.
They are unable to compete with more vigorous goldfish for food. Sharp ornaments and objects in the aquarium are inadvisable, they are best kept with other limited-vision breeds or in a tank of their own.] The original Celestial breed, described above, is still bred and exported by Chinese and Japanese breeders and is commercially available to fanciers, though they are not as stocked by aquarium shops and dealers as some other goldfish varieties. It is this 240+ year old form, described in the American standard adopted by the American Goldfish Association and the Goldfish Society of America. British fanciers prefer their Celestials to have deeper bodies and shorter fins, have selectively bred for these features as required by the British standard. In recent decades, the Chinese have crossed Celestials with several other breeds, most Lionheads and Pompoms, producing much larger fish with short ranchu-like fins and deep, blocky bodies with nasal'bouquets' and rudimentary headgrowths; some of these crosses tend to be less animated swimmers those that possess a short downturned, ranchu-like caudal peduncle with flared and short caudal fins, traits which are otherwise uncharacteristic for the breed.
Such fish can be quite sedentary, spending most of their time near the bottom of the aquarium. These hybrids are not available commercially outside Asia but can be acquired through specialist dealers and importers; the Deme-ranchu, is identical to the Celestial in conformation save for its telescopic eyes which do not turn upward. In any spawning of Celestials, many fry will be found to mature with telescopic eyes that never turn upwards; these fish are identical to deme-ranchu. The Toadhead or Hama-tou in Japanese, is similar to the Celestial in having upward-turned eyes, though they are not protuberant, each supporting a small bubble-like growth sacs beneath it, it is believed to be the ancestor to both bubble eye goldfish. Innes, Dr William T. "The Sacred Fish of Korea," Aquarium Highlights, Innes Publishing Co. Philadelphia, 1951. Innes, Dr. William T. Goldfish Varieties and Tropical Aquarium Fishes, 9th Edition, Innes Publishing Co, Philadelphia, 1926. Matsui, Dr. Yoshiichi, Goldfish Guide, 2nd Edition, TFH Publications, Neptune, N.
J. 1981 Hervey, G. F. & Hems, J. The Goldfish, 1st Edition, Batchworth Press, London, 1948. Varieties of Goldfish -About Celestial Eye
An oranda is a breed of goldfish characterized by a prominent bubble-like "hood" on the head. The headgrowth or hood may be a prominent growth on the top of the head or may encase the entire face except for the eyes and mouth; when it was first imported from China to Japan it was mistakenly thought to be native to the Netherlands, was therefore dubbed the "Holland Lionmask", Dutch Lionhead, "Netherlands Lion Head", from which its English name "oranda" derives. Due to the fleshy outgrowth on the upper half of its head and sides of its face, the oranda has become one of the most popular goldfish; the headgrowth is described as a'wen' by Chinese aquarists. The mass comes from selective breeding; the oranda is a metallic or matte scaled goldfish, similar in appearance to the veiltail. It has a large and deep body accompanied by a long quadruple tail; this four-lobed and contracted tail spreads out broadly when the oranda stops swimming. The back does not rise up to form a ryukin-like hump. Orandas are available in a variety of colors, most orange, red-and-white, red-and-black, blue, bronze, white or silver, black-and-white, red-black-and-white, calico colors.
The headgrowth of young fry may take one to two years to develop. The oranda can reach 20 to 31 centimeters in length. Sometimes the wen grows enormously covering the eyes of the goldfish. Due to this, the eyesight may become limited or blind. Special care should be given to the wen; the Oranda can tolerate temperatures from 17-28°C. More blue scale oranda have been developed but these fish are rare. Oranda goldfish are sensitive to cold temperatures, more so than other goldfish; the azuma nishiki is an attractive nacreous-colored form of the oranda. The red-cap oranda has a silver body with a prominent red headgrowth on the forehead. Chinese breeders have developed telescope eyed orandas, a cross-breeding of the telescope eye and oranda goldfish; the hana fusa or pompom oranda is an elegant pompom with a dorsal headgrowth like an oranda. Its a cross between the oranda and a dorsal formed pom-pom; the nagate oranda is a long body oranda developed in Shikoku, south west area of Japan. The Apache oranda, is a form of oranda that bares both black together.
Apaches can not be named. The panda oranda is a variety of oranda, bi-colored or tri-colored, most identifiable by the black-and-white coloration for which it is named; the Ingot oranda known as the Yuan-Bao oranda, is a new Chinese variety of oranda, crossed from a ryukin with a Ranchu. Its large, short round body has a characteristics of a Ranchu, with its box shaped face containing wen, its tail is somewhat equal as to the ryukin, though short-finned ingots are popular and produced today. The Chakin named as the chocolate oranda, is a colored varient of an oranda, it has brownish scales with a color like that of chocolate. The Seibungyo or Seibun is a blue oranda, named for its bluish grey silver coloration; the "blue" is combined with both black areas on the outside skin, black from the inside layers, to form a blue-like sheen. The black oranda is a developed color variety, crossed from the black moor; the jade seal oranda is a type of color pattern that consist of a white, clear cap on its head, the rest of the body is red or orange.
Orandas can be kept with other goldfish. If their wen grows too much, it may hinder vision, so it is advised to keep them with other goldfish with poor vision in order to make sure that they do not starve because of the able-sighted competition; some aquarists prefer to trim the wen off of the goldfish by using a scissor to prevent blindness and doused with peroxide to prevent from damaging essential areas around the face or body. Their wen is susceptible to injury from rough objects placed in their residence. Varieties of Goldfish -About Oranda Varieties of Goldfish -About Calico Oranda Varieties of Goldfish -About Blue Oranda Varieties of Goldfish -About Chocolate Oranda Varieties of Goldfish -About Redcap Oranda
The Bubble Eye is a small variety of fancy goldfish with upward pointing eyes that are accompanied by two large fluid-filled sacs. It is a dorsal-less fish -- good specimens will have a clean back and eye bubbles that match in color and size, their bubbles are quite delicate, so the fish should be kept separately from boisterous types, as well as sharp tank decor. Although the bubbles will regrow if punctured, injury could leave the fish prone to infections; the bubbles can disadvantage the fish as it is not a strong swimmer, with a low bobbing head at times. The Bubble Eye has an evenly curved back that lacks a dorsal fin; the pair of large pouches of skin attached under its eyes jiggle. Bubble Eyes have metallic scales and they are similar to the celestial eye goldfish; the eyes of the Bubble Eye goldfish are normal in the young fry, but will start to develop eye bladders three months after hatching. Like ranchu, the bubble eye goldfish has a double tail, they grow up to 3 to 4 inches in length.
If one of their "Bubbles" pop due to pressure or collision with a sharp object, there is a risk of infection where the inside of the sac has been exposed. The precursor to the Bubble Eye, known as the Toadhead or hama-tou, had upturned eyes and small, bladder like sacs. Through selective breeding, the bubble eye is available with either a long or more rounded body, the choice between matte, metallic or nacreous scales. A recent development of the bubble eye has four eye sacs rather than the usual two. Desirable colors for these fish include red, orange and white, the rare black. Due to the delicate eye sacs, enthusiasts must ensure that their bubble eye is kept in aquariums free from sharp objects; the water must be changed three times a month to prevent infection, the gravel filter vacuumed if the aquarium lacks aquatic plants. Some inexperienced owners keep a single fish to minimise the risk of collisions, but the majority of experts consider this unnecessary. However, due to the fish's visual impairment, it is recommended that they are kept with other bubble eyes, black moors and celestial goldfish to ensure fair competition for food.
Researchers in Japan have theorized that the liquid in the bubble eye's sacs could be a stimulant to cell growth. Due to the eye sac's ability to regenerate and refill itself, scientists can milk the same fish every few months with a syringe. Celestial Eye Bristol Aquarist's Society - Describes the appearance of the standard, show-quality Bubble Eye Goldfish, Part 2 - An excellent article on keeping Bubble Eyes, as well as fancy goldfish in general Happy bubble fish video! - A video showing some Bubble Eye fish in action. Varieties of Goldfish - About Bubble Eye