Orthodoxy is adherence to correct or accepted creeds, especially in religion. In the Christian sense the term means conforming to the Christian faith as represented in the creeds of the early Church, the first seven Ecumenical Councils were held between the years of 325 and 787 with the aim of formalizing accepted doctrines. In classical Christian usage, the term refers to the set of doctrines which were believed by the early Christians. A series of councils, known as the First seven Ecumenical Councils, were held over a period of several centuries to try to formalize these doctrines. The most significant of these decisions was that between the Homoousian doctrine of Athanasius and Eustathius and the Heteroousian doctrine of Arius and Eusebius. The earliest recorded use of the term orthodox is in the Codex Iustinianus of 529–534, following the 1054 Great Schism, both the Western and Eastern Churches continued to consider themselves uniquely orthodox and catholic. Over time, the Western Church gradually identified with the Catholic label and this was in note of the fact that both Catholic and Orthodox were in use as ecclesiastical adjectives as early as the 2nd and 4th centuries respectively.
Today the two largest Orthodox Christian communions are the Eastern Orthodox Church and Oriental Orthodoxy, Orthodox Judaism is split into various different movements and factions. They have different ways of interpreting and following the laws and traditions of Judaism, Orthodox Judaism is distinct from Conservative Judaism. The term Orthodox Islam generally refers to the teachings and religious practices of traditional Sunni Islam. The term Orthodox Hinduism commonly refers to the teachings and practices of Sanātanī. In this sense, the term has a pejorative connotation. Among various orthodoxies in distinctive fields, most common terms are, Political orthodoxy, Social orthodoxy, Economic orthodoxy, Scientific orthodoxy, Orthodoxy is opposed to heterodoxy or heresy. A deviation lighter than heresy is commonly called error, in the sense of not being enough to cause total estrangement. Sometimes error is used to cover both full heresies and minor errors. The concept of orthodoxy is prevalent in many forms of organized monotheism, for example, plays a much wider role in non-monotheistic religion.
The prevailing governing norm within polytheism is often rather than the right belief of orthodoxy. Henderson, The Construction of Orthodoxy and Heresy, Neo-Confucian, Islamic and Early Christian Patterns, SUNY Press 1998
In April and May 1991, two consecutive rockslides occurred from a cliff above the town of Randa in the Matter valley of Switzerland. The rockslides released a volume of approximately 30 million cubic meters of debris. There were no fatalities resulting from either of the events, though livestock, farmhouses. The Matter valley in the region of Randa exhibits classical morphology of glacial erosion, with rock walls. Cliffs adjacent to the valley are exceptionally high, rising vertically some 800 m, while the peaks of the Weisshorn. Foliation dips gently to the west / southwest, cutting across the north-south trending Matter valley, the site of the 1991 rockslides sits on a nose of rock on the western wall of the Matter valley, which has been significantly incised to the south by the Bis glacier. To the south and west of the eventual rockslides, an older progressive slope instability had developed leaving a noticeable scarp and this scarp would eventually be cut by the 1991 rockslides. The 1991 rockslides at Randa consisted of two separate events on April 18 and May 9, which released in total a cumulative volume of approximately 30 million cubic meters of rock.
The elevation of the top of the scarp is 2320 m, precursory events noted immediately prior to the April,1991 rockslide included explosive ruptures of rock slabs and new forceful water discharges from the face. April 18,1991, This primary rockslide event occurred over the span of a few hours time, producing a large steep debris cone, the total volume released during this rockslide phase was estimated to be 22 million cubic meters. Had this volume been released instantaneously, a rock avalanche. A lesser failure followed on April 22, may 9,1991, Monitoring of deformation and microseismic activity led to accurate anticipation of this follow up rockslide event. The rockslide again occurred in a progressive manner over the course of a few hours and these failures resulted in retreat and reduced the inclination of the upper part of the rockslide scarp. The total volume released in second phase was estimated to be 7 million cubic meters. No one trigger can be assigned as responsible for the Randa rockslides of 1991.
The area has experienced a history of moderate seismicity. A warm period producing ample snow melt occurred in the prior to the April rockslide. Further, a period of rapid cooling occurred just one day before the April slide, however, it is unknown if this series of events combined to act as an exceptional trigger, or if they were rather part of the normal seasonal climatic and hydraulic cycles
Cantons of Switzerland
The 26 cantons of Switzerland are the member states of the Swiss Confederation. The nucleus of the Swiss Confederacy in the form of the first three confederate allies used to be referred to as the Waldstätte, with the Napoleonic period of the Helvetic Republic the term canton/cantone/Kanton was fully established. From 1833, there were 25 cantons, which became 26 after the secession of the canton of Jura from Bern in 1979. The term canton, now used as English term for administrative subdivisions of other countries, originates in French usage in the late 15th century, from a word for edge. After 1490, canton was increasingly used in French and Italian documents to refer to the members of the Swiss Confederacy, English use of canton in reference to the Swiss Confederacy dates to the early 17th century. It was increasingly replaced by Stand after 1550, the French term canton was not adopted into German usage prior to 1648, and after that only in occasional use. The prominent usage of Ort and Stand only gradually disappeared in German-speaking Switzerland with the Helvetic Republic, only with the Act of Mediation of 1803 did German Kanton become an official designation, retained in the Swiss Constitution of 1848.
The term Stand remains in usage and is reflected in the name of the upper chamber of the Swiss Parliament. Republic Some cantonal constitutions provide for a formal name of the state. Most of Romandys cantons and Ticino call themselves république/Repubblica officially, at least within their constitutions, for example, the canton of Geneva refers to itself formally as the République et canton de Genève. Though they were part of the Holy Roman Empire, they had become de facto independent when the Swiss defeated Emperor Maximillian in 1499 in Dornach. The old system was abandoned with the formation of the Helvetic Republic following the French invasion of Switzerland in 1798, the cantons of the Helvetic Republic had merely the status of an administrative subdivision with no sovereignty. The Helvetic Republic collapsed within five years, and cantonal sovereignty was restored with the Act of Mediation of 1803, the status of Switzerland as a federation of states was restored, at the time including 19 cantons.
Three additional western cantons, Neuchâtel and Geneva, acceded in 1815, the process of Restoration, completed by 1830, returned most of the former feudal rights to the cantonal patriciates, leading to rebellions among the rural population. The Liberal Radical Party embodied these democratic forces calling for a new federal constitution and this tension, paired with religious issues escalated into armed conflict in the 1840s, with the brief Sonderbund War. The victory of the party resulted in the formation of Switzerland as a federal state in 1848. The cantons retained far-reaching sovereignty, but were no longer allowed to maintain standing armies or international relations. Each canton has its own constitution, legislature and courts, most of the cantons legislatures are unicameral parliaments, their size varying between 58 and 200 seats
Districts of Switzerland
In contrast to centrally organised states, in the federally constituted Switzerland each canton is completely free to decide its own internal organisation. Therefore, there exists a variety of structures and terminology for the subnational entities between canton and municipality, loosely termed districts, most cantons are divided into Bezirke. They are termed Ämter, district or distretto, the Bezirke generally provide only administration and court organization. However, for historical reasons districts in cantons Graubünden and Schwyz are their own legal entities with jurisdiction over tax, seven of the 26 cantons – Uri, Nidwalden, Zug, Basel-City and Geneva – have always existed without the district level of government. An eighth one, Appenzell Innerrhoden, uses no intermediate level either, bern in 2006 decided a reduction of its 26 districts to five administrative regions. Vaud decided a reduction from 19 to 10 districts, valais is planning a similar reduction and in Thurgau, a reduction of eight to four districts is under discussion.
From 2005, districts only have a statistical meaning, the districts are functionally equivalent to municipalities elsewhere in Switzerland, and are generally shown as municipalities on maps etc. The Canton is divided into 6 districts, Appenzell Gonten Oberegg Rüte Schlatt-Haslen Schwende Municipalities of Switzerland
The Dom is a mountain of the Pennine Alps, located between Randa and Saas-Fee in the canton of Valais. With its 4,545 m summit it is the third highest mountain in the Alps, the Dom is the main summit of the Mischabel group, which is the highest massif lying entirely in Switzerland. Although Dom is a German cognate for dome, it can mean cathedral and the mountain is named after Canon Berchtold of Sitten cathedral, the first person to survey the vicinity. The former name Mischabel comes from an ancient German dialect term for pitchfork, the chain lies entirely in the district of Visp. The two valleys separated by the range are the Mattertal on the west and the Saastal on the east, the towns of Randa and Saas-Fee lie both six kilometres from the summit. The elevation difference between the summit and the floor is 3,150 metres on the west side and 3,000 metres on the east side. On the Mattertal side, the Dom faces the almost equally high Weisshorn and, on the Saastal side, the Dom is the highest point of the Saastal and the second highest mountain of the Mattertal after Monte Rosa.
Since the Dom is not on the main Alpine chain, the rivers flowing on both the west and east side of the end up in the same major river, the Rhone, through the Mattervispa. The Dom is the highest mountain in the Alps with this peculiarity, the Mischabel group includes many subsidiary summits above 4,000 metres. To the north lies the Nadelgrat, composed of the Lenzspitze, the Nadelhorn, the Stecknadelhorn, the Hohberghorn, the Nadelgrat is easily visible from the north and gives the massif its characteristic pitchfork appearance. The second highest peak of the massif, the Täschhorn to the south, culminates at 4,491 metres, in total, eight summits above 4,000 metres make up the Mischabel massif. Other important peaks of the massif are the Ulrichshorn and the Balfrin, the Dom has a western shoulder and an eastern shoulder. The massif is almost entirely composed of gneiss from the Siviez-Mischabel nappe, the latter is part of the Briançonnais microcontinent and is located in the Penninic nappes.
The Dom is a depositional mountain, the first ascent was made from the Festigrat by the Reverend John Llewelyn-Davies with guides Johann Zumtaugwald, Johann Krönig and Hieronymous Brantschen on 11 September 1858. They traversed the west face to reach the Festigrat before arriving to the summit, the first complete ascent on the western ridge was made in 1882 by Paul Güssfeldt and guides Alexander Burgener and B. The direct route on the west face was first ascended in 1962, the 1000-metre-high east face above Saas-Fee was climbed in 1875 by J. Petrus, A. and W. Puckle and L. Noti. A route on the face was first made in August 1906 by Geoffrey Winthrop Young and R. G. Major. According to Young it was more dangerous than the south-west face of the nearby Täschhorn, which they had climbed two weeks earlier
Social Democratic Party of Switzerland
The Social Democratic Party of Switzerland is a political party in Switzerland. It is represented by two Federal Councilors since 1960 and got the second-most votes in the 2015 national elections, the party was founded on 21 October 1888, and is currently the second largest of the four leading coalition political parties in Switzerland. It is the only left-wing party with representatives in the Swiss Federal Council and it is the second largest political party in the Swiss parliament. The current members in the Swiss Federal Council are, Alain Berset, the SP is the biggest pro-European party in Switzerland and supports Swiss membership of the European Union, unlike most other Swiss parties. Additionally, it is opposed to capitalism and maintains a long-term goal of overcoming capitalism. The party is a member of the Socialist International, the Progressive Alliance. With its foundation in October 1888, the Social Democratic Party was considered to be the opposition to the Radicals in government and parliament.
After the unsuccessful General strike in 1918, proportional representation was introduced which helped the SP gain 41 seats in parliament, the party was a member of the Labour and Socialist International between 1927 and 1940. After the strike the party took a line and in 1943 it became the strongest party in parliament. It picked up a seat in 1959. The partys historical archives is today hosted by the Swiss Social Archives, the SP supports classical social democratic policies. To that rule, the SP stands for a government offering strong public services, the SP opposes raising the retirement age. In addition, the SP is a proponent of increasing spending in some areas such as for a publicly financed maternity leave, universal health care. In tax policy the SP opposes the notion of lowering taxes for high-income citizens, by campaigning for the harmonisation of all tax rates in Switzerland, the SP seeks more redistribution. The SP is skeptical toward the privatization of state enterprises, the SP promotes more competition in the areas of agriculture and parallel imports.
In social policy, the SP is committed to social equity, the SP aims at making working conditions for women in families easier by promoting more external childcare centers and more opportunities for part-time jobs. It aims at reinforcing sexual equality in terms of eliminating wage differences based on gender, supports civil union for homosexuals, the SP rejects strengthening restrictions on asylum seekers and immigrants. Thus, it supports the integration of immigrants by which the immigrants are assigned to immigration procedures immediately after entering the country, the SP has a liberal stance toward drugs and is in favor of publicly regulated heroin consumption and the legalization of cannabis
Education in Switzerland
The education system in Switzerland is very diverse, because the constitution of Switzerland delegates the authority for the school system mainly to the cantons. The Swiss constitution sets the foundations, namely that primary school is obligatory for every child and is free in public schools, the minimum age for primary school is about six years in all cantons but Obwalden, where it is five years and three months. After primary schools, the split up according to their abilities. Roughly 20% of all students attend secondary schools leading, normally after 12 school years in total to the federal recognized matura which grants access to all universities. The other students split in two or more school-types, depending on the canton, differing in the balance between theoretical and practical education and it is obligatory for all children to attend school for at least 9 years. The first university in Switzerland was founded in 1460 in Basel and this place has a long tradition of chemical and medical research in Switzerland.
In addition, there are seven regional associations of Universities for Applied Sciences which require vocational education, Switzerland has a high rate of foreign students in tertiary education including one of the highest in the world of doctoral level students. Many Nobel prizes have been awarded to Swiss scientists, more recently Vladimir Prelog, Heinrich Rohrer, Richard Ernst, Edmond Fischer, Rolf Zinkernagel and Kurt Wüthrich have received nobel prizes in the sciences. In total,113 Nobel Prize winners stand in relation to Switzerland, geneva hosts the worlds largest particle physics laboratory, the CERN. Other important research centers are the Empa and Paul Scherrer Institute which belong to the ETH domain, the obligatory school system usually includes primary education and secondary education I. Before that, children go to Kindergarten, but it is not required in every canton. The minimum age for school is about six years in all cantons but Obwalden. The cantons Thurgau and Nidwalden allow five-year-olds to start school in exceptional cases.
Primary school continues until grade four, five or six, depending on the school/canton, any child can take part in school if they choose to, but pupils are separated depending on whether they speak French, German or Italian. At the end of school, pupils are separated according to their capacities. Students who aspire to an academic career enter Mittelschule to be prepared for further studies and this so-called dual system splitting academic and vocational training has its continuation in the higher education system. If in addition to the training the Berufsmaturitätsschule is completed the Fachhochschule may be visited instead. Rather recently introduced is a third, middle path via the Fachmittelschule which leads to an access to a Fachhochschule after a successful graduation of a Fachmatura
Swiss Reformed Church
Since 1920, the Swiss Reformed Churches have been organized in 26 member churches of the Federation of Swiss Protestant Churches. According to a 2012 Swiss census,26. 9% of Swiss population were reported as registered members of a Reformed cantonal church, the Swiss Reformed Churches, have approximately 2.4 million members. The Reformation spread primarily in the cities of Switzerland, which was composed of loosely connected cantons. Breakthrough began in the 1520s in Zurich under Zwingli, in Bern in 1528 under Berchtold Haller, after the early death of Zwingli in 1531, the Reformation continued. The French-speaking cities Neuchâtel and Lausanne changed to the Reformation ten years under William Farel, the German Reformed ideological center was Zurich, the French speaking Reformed movement bastion was Geneva. A distinctive feature of the Swiss Reformed churches in the Zwinglian tradition is their historically almost symbiotic link to the state, which is only loosening gradually in the present.
One of these secessionist churches still exists today, the Evangelical Free Church of Geneva, founded in 1849, an important issue to liberal theologians was the Apostles Creed. Until the late 1870s, most cantonal reformed churches stopped prescribing any particular creed, like many European Protestant denominations, several of the Swiss Reformed churches have openly welcomed gay and lesbian members to celebrate their civil unions within a church context. As early as 1999, the Reformed Churches in St. Gallen, since then, the Reformed Church in Aaargau has allowed for prayer services to celebrate same-sex couples. Organizationally, the Reformed Churches in Switzerland remain separate, cantonal units, the German churches are more in the Zwinglian tradition, the French more in the Calvinist tradition. They are governed synodically and their relation to the canton ranges from independent to close collaboration
The Glacier Express is an express train connecting railway stations of the two major mountain resorts of St. Moritz and Zermatt in the Swiss Alps. The train is operated jointly by the Matterhorn Gotthard Bahn and Rhaetian Railway, for much of its journey, it passes along and through the World Heritage Site known as the Rhaetian Railway in the Albula / Bernina Landscapes. The train is not an express in the sense of being a high-speed train, in fact it has the reputation of being the slowest express train in the world. As St. Moritz and Zermatt are home to two mountains, the Glacier Express is said to travel from Piz Bernina to Matterhorn. The Glacier Express first ran in 1930, initially, it was operated by three railway companies, the Brig–Visp–Zermatt Bahn, the Furka Oberalp Bahn, and the RhB. Since 2003, the train has operated by RhB and a newly established company, the MGB. The trip on the Glacier Express is a 7½ hour railway journey across 291 bridges, through 91 tunnels and across the Oberalp Pass on the highest point at 2,033 m in altitude.
The entire line is metre gauge, and large portions of it use a rack-and-pinion system both for ascending steep grades and to control the descent of the train on the side of those grades. The completion of the portion of the FO in 1926 opened up the Cantons of Valais. In particular, a pathway was laid for the introduction of Kurswagen between Brig and Chur, and between Brig and St. Moritz. In early June 1930, the Visp–Zermatt Bahn was extended to Brig by the opening of a metre gauge line along the Rhone Valley between Visp and Brig. For the first time, it was feasible to operate through all the way from Zermatt to St. Moritz. On 25 June 1930, the first train of such coaches set out from Zermatt to St. Moritz, the new trains name honoured the Rhone Glacier, which is near Gletsch, on the Furka Pass. Until 1982, the Glacier Express operated only in the months, because the Furka Pass. Initially, the train was made up of first to third class salon and passenger coaches, between Chur and Disentis/Mustér, passengers could enjoy a hot lunch in a Mitropa dining car.
From 1933, the Glacier Express through coaches were attached to passenger trains between Brig and Zermatt. In the earliest years of the Glacier Express, electric locomotives were used to haul the Glacier Express on the BVZ and the RhB and that changed in 1941-1942, when overhead catenary was installed on the FO, enabling completely electric operation for the full length of the route. However, no trains were operated between 1943 and 1946, due to World War II