John Smith (Wendover MP)
John Smith was a British politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1806 to 1835 and a banker. John Smith was born on 6 September 1767, he was the sixth son of Abel Smith, a Nottingham banker, a Member of Parliament for Aldborough, St Ives, St Germans, the brother of Robert Smith, 1st Baron Carrington. He lived at Blendon Hall in Kent and at Dale Park in Sussex. There is a fine memorial to him in Chichester Cathedral, he served as a Tory Member of Parliament for Wendover from 1802 to 1806 and represented Nottingham from 1806 to 1818, Midhurst from 1818 to 1830, Chichester from 1830 to 1831, Buckinghamshire from 1831 to 1835. Between 1800 and 1831 when pocket boroughs were abolished 12 members of the Smith family sat for the Midhurst parliamentary seat alone. In 1806, Smith served as a Manager of the newly formed London Institution, he married three times. By his second wife, Mary Tucker, he had two sons, John Abel Smith, who succeeded him as MP for Midhurst, Martin Tucker Smith, who became MP for Wycombe.
He died on 20 January 1842 when he was accidentally poisoned by his wife who gave him an overdose of laudanum. His great-grandson Vivian Smith was created Baron Bicester in 1938. ThePeerage.com – John Smith Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by John Smith
Eton College is an English 13–18 independent boarding school and sixth form for boys in the parish of Eton, near Windsor in Berkshire. It was founded in 1440 by King Henry VI as The King's College of Our Lady of Eton besides Wyndsor, as a sister institution to King's College, making it the 18th-oldest Headmasters' and Headmistresses' Conference school. Eton is one of the original nine public schools as defined by the Public Schools Act 1868; the others are Harrow, Rugby, Westminster, Merchant Taylors' and St Paul's. Following the public school tradition, Eton is a full boarding school, which means pupils live at the school seven days a week, it is one of only five such remaining single-sex boys' public schools in the United Kingdom; the remainder have since become co-educational: Rugby, Charterhouse and Shrewsbury and Merchant Taylors', now a day school. Eton has educated 19 British prime ministers and generations of the aristocracy and has been referred to as "the chief nurse of England's statesmen".
Eton charges up to £12,910 per term, with three terms per academic year, in 2017/18. Eton was noted as being the sixth most expensive HMC boarding school in the UK in 2013/14, however the school admits some boys with modest parental income: in 2011 it was reported that around 250 boys received "significant" financial help from the school, with the figure rising to 263 pupils in 2014, receiving the equivalent of around 60% of school fee assistance, whilst a further 63 received their education free of charge. Eton has announced plans to increase the figure to around 320 pupils, with 70 educated free of charge, with the intention that the number of pupils receiving financial assistance from the school continues to increase. Eton College was founded by King Henry VI as a charity school to provide free education to 70 poor boys who would go on to King's College, founded by the same King in 1441. Henry took Winchester College as his model, visiting on many occasions, borrowing its statutes and removing its headmaster and some of the scholars to start his new school.
When Henry VI founded the school, he granted it a large number of endowments, including much valuable land. The group of feoffees appointed by the king to receive forfeited lands of the Alien Priories for the endowment of Eton were as follows: Archbishop Chichele Bishop Stafford Bishop Lowe Bishop Ayscough William de la Pole, 1st Marquess of Suffolk John Somerset, Chancellor of the Exchequer and the king's doctor Thomas Beckington, Archdeacon of Buckingham, the king's secretary and Keeper of the Privy Seal Richard Andrew, first Warden of All Souls College, Oxford the king's secretary Adam Moleyns, Clerk of the Council John Hampton of Kniver, Staffordshire, an Esquire of the Body James Fiennes, another member of the Royal Household William Tresham, another member of the Royal HouseholdIt was intended to have formidable buildings and several religious relics including a part of the True Cross and the Crown of Thorns, he persuaded the Pope, Eugene IV, to grant him a privilege unparalleled anywhere in England: the right to grant indulgences to penitents on the Feast of the Assumption.
The college came into possession of one of England's Apocalypse manuscripts. However, when Henry was deposed by King Edward IV in 1461, the new King annulled all grants to the school and removed most of its assets and treasures to St George's Chapel, Windsor, on the other side of the River Thames. Legend has it that Jane Shore, intervened on the school's behalf, she was able to save a good part of the school, although the royal bequest and the number of staff were much reduced. Construction of the chapel intended to be over twice as long, with 18, or 17, bays was stopped when Henry VI was deposed. Only the Quire of the intended building was completed. Eton's first Headmaster, William Waynflete, founder of Magdalen College and Head Master of Winchester College, built the ante-chapel that completed the chapel; the important wall paintings in the chapel and the brick north range of the present School Yard date from the 1480s. As the school suffered reduced income while still under construction, the completion and further development of the school has since depended to some extent on wealthy benefactors.
Building resumed when Roger Lupton was Provost, around 1517. His name is borne by the big gatehouse in the west range of the cloisters, fronting School Yard the most famous image of the school; this range includes the important interiors of the Parlour, Election Hall, Election Chamber, where most of the 18th century "leaving portraits" are kept. "After Lupton's time nothing important was built until about 1670, when Provost Allestree gave a range to close the west side of School Yard between Lower School and Chapel". This was remodelled and completed in 1694 by Matthew Bankes, Master Carpenter of the Royal Works; the last important addition to the central college buildings was the College Library, in the south range of the cloister, 1725–29, by Thomas Rowland. It has a important collection of books and manuscripts. In the 19th century, the architect John Shaw Jr became surveyor to Eton, he designed New Buildings, Provost Francis Hodgson's addition to provide better accommodation for collegers, who until had lived in Long Chamber, a long f
Morgan, Grenfell & Co.
Morgan, Grenfell & Co. was a leading London-based investment bank regarded as one of the oldest and once most influential British merchant banks. The bank emerged from the merchant banking business commenced by George Peabody on his own account when he took up residence in London in 1838 pursuant to his commodities merchanting business in which had made his fortune; the banking business was formally incorporated in 1851 as George Peabody & Co. and by the time of Peabody's retirement in 1864 had become the largest American merchant bank in London. In 1854 Peabody had taken on Junius Spencer Morgan as a partner with just under a 9% interest in the capital of the firm and a 28% interest in its profits; the firm expanded especially in the business of extending credits for the transatlantic trade. However, it came under severe strain during the global financial crisis of 1857 principally as a result of the difficulties experienced by and in some cases the bankruptcy of Peabody & Co.'s American agents.
In late 1857 Peabody & Co. were obliged to seek help in the form of a loan from the Bank of England. Paradoxically, the fact that the Bank felt it necessary to support Peabody & Co. rather than risk its failure, underlined the important position the firm had by this time achieved and Peabody & Co. emerged from the crisis with reputation intact, if not enhanced, were able to repay the loan in March 1858. Peabody himself emerged from the crisis ill. While remaining senior partner for the time being, he withdrew from the business leaving Morgan as its effective head. Peabody's focus became the philanthropic use of his considerable fortune. Peabody, who died in 1869 retired in 1864 when his 10-year partnership agreement with Morgan came to an end. Morgan formally assumed control of the business but had to accept Peabody's unwillingness to see the firm continue to trade under the Peabody name benefitting from the reputational goodwill the Peabody & Co. name had in the marketplace. As a consequence the firm was re-styled J. S. Co..
The firm's New York agency was in due course to become J. P. Morgan & Co. named after Junius' son, John Pierpont Morgan. On the death of Junius in 1890 Pierpont became the senior partner of the London firm. By 1910 all the firm's Morgan family partners were resident in the US and to reflect this the London partnership was restructured with J. P. Morgan & Co. in the US assuming a 50% ownership of the London business, reconstituted as Morgan Grenfell & Co. in recognition of the senior London-based partner, Edward Grenfell. For many years the business was focused on transatlantic business; this led to the Morgan houses playing an important role in the First World War with J. P. Morgan and Co. acting as the British Government's purchasing and financial agent in the US with purchases and associated loans and exchange business channelled through Morgan Grenfell and J. P. Morgan & Co.. After the war the Morgan houses played a key role in European post-war financial reconstruction in the 1920s, it was during this period that the firm built a leading corporate finance business organising and advising on the issuance and underwriting of domestic securities.
Consequent to the Glass–Steagall Legislation of 1933 J. P. Morgan & Co. had to choose between being a commercial or an investment bank. The partners chose the former and as a result were required to relinquish their controlling interest in Morgan Grenfell, to continue to conduct both lending and investment banking business; this was achieved in 1934 by incorporating the London firm into Morgan Grenfell & Co. Ltd. with J. P. Morgan and Co. holding a one-third stake and the London partners holding the balance. Although J. P. Morgan's son, J. P. "Jack" Morgan, remained on the Morgan Grenfell board until his death in 1941, the relationship between the London and New York businesses which had to that time been a keystone to the firms' success became more remote coinciding with and contributing to a period of relative hibernation for Morgan Grenfell. Although still possessing a blue-chip client list and first-rate reputation the period from 1934 is regarded as one of drift and inertia. Morgan Grenfell started to emerge from its period of retreat in the 1960s when the second Viscount Harcourt, a great-grandson of Junius Morgan, brought in fresh talent leading to a new period of growth and resurgence.
One of the most important arrivals in 1967 was Sir John Stevens whose training as a solicitor and his experience working both at the IMF in Washington and at the Bank of England as well as his experience as British Economic Minister in Washington made him an ideal recruit. Harcourt needed a younger man to effect needed organisational changes and saw him as a natural successor to the chairmanship of the firm. Sadly in 1973 as arrangements were being made for Stevens to succeed Harcourt as chairman he unexpectedly died at the premature age of fifty-nine; the Stevens years had seen huge changes in the organisation and its culture. The firm became once again one of London's leading advisory and corporate finance businesses with a new emphasis on mergers and acquisitions in which it gained a reputation for innovation and daring, surprising for what was regarded as such a traditional firm. Banking business to date had been based on providing short-term finance to companies through the medium of acceptance credits – the process of guaranteeing repayment of companies' bills of exchange by way of the bank, for a fee or commission, providing their countersignat
Louisa McDonnell, Countess of Antrim
Louisa Jane McDonnell, VA, was the daughter of Hon. Charles Grey and his wife, Caroline Eliza née Farquhar. On 1 June 1875, Louisa married the 6th Earl of Antrim in the Chapel Royal at St. James's, they had three children: Lady Sybil Mary McDonnell, married Vivian Smith, 1st Baron Bicester. Randal McDonnell, 7th Earl of Antrim. Hon. Angus McDonnell. In 1890, the Countess became a Lady of the Bedchamber to Queen Victoria until the latter's death in 1901, she was reappointed as such under Queen Alexandra in 1901 and until Edward VII's death in 1910. The Countess of Antrim died in 1949, aged 94
The English people are a nation and an ethnic group native to England who speak the English language. The English identity is of early medieval origin, when they were known in Old English as the Angelcynn, their ethnonym is derived from the Angles, one of the Germanic peoples who migrated to Great Britain around the 5th century AD. England is one of the countries of the United Kingdom, the majority of people living there are British citizens; the English descend from two main historical population groups – the earlier Celtic Britons and the Germanic tribes who settled in Britain following the withdrawal of the Romans: the Angles, Saxons and Frisians. Collectively known as the Anglo-Saxons, they founded what was to become the Kingdom of England by the early 10th century, in response to the invasion and minor settlement of Danes beginning in the late 9th century; this was followed by the Norman Conquest and limited settlement of Anglo-Normans in England in the latter 11th century. In the Acts of Union 1707, the Kingdom of England was succeeded by the Kingdom of Great Britain.
Over the years, English customs and identity have become closely aligned with British customs and identity in general. Today many English people have recent forebears from other parts of the United Kingdom, while some are descended from more recent immigrants from other European countries and from the Commonwealth; the English people are the source of the English language, the Westminster system, the common law system and numerous major sports such as cricket, rugby union, rugby league and tennis. These and other English cultural characteristics have spread worldwide, in part as a result of the former British Empire; the concept of an'English nation' has become popular after the devolution process in Scotland and Northern Ireland resulted in the four nations having semi-independent political and legal systems. Although England itself has no devolved government, the 1990s witnessed a rise in English self-consciousness; this is linked to the expressions of national self-awareness of the other British nations of Wales and Scotland – which take their most solid form in the new devolved political arrangements within the United Kingdom – and the waning of a shared British national identity with the growing distance between the end of the British Empire and the present.
Many recent immigrants to England have assumed a British identity, while others have developed dual or mixed identities. Use of the word "English" to describe Britons from ethnic minorities in England is complicated by most non-white people in England identifying as British rather than English. In their 2004 Annual Population Survey, the Office for National Statistics compared the ethnic identities of British people with their perceived national identity, they found that while 58% of white people in England described their nationality as "English", the vast majority of non-white people called themselves "British". It is unclear. In the 2001 UK census, respondents were invited to state their ethnicity, but while there were tick boxes for'Irish' and for'Scottish', there were none for'English', or'Welsh', who were subsumed into the general heading'White British'. Following complaints about this, the 2011 census was changed to "allow respondents to record their English, Scottish, Northern Irish, Irish or other identity."
Another complication in defining the English is a common tendency for the words "English" and "British" to be used interchangeably outside the UK. In his study of English identity, Krishan Kumar describes a common slip of the tongue in which people say "English, I mean British", he notes that this slip is made only by the English themselves and by foreigners: "Non-English members of the United Kingdom say'British' when they mean'English'". Kumar suggests that although this blurring is a sign of England's dominant position with the UK, it is "problematic for the English when it comes to conceiving of their national identity, it tells of the difficulty that most English people have of distinguishing themselves, in a collective way, from the other inhabitants of the British Isles". In 1965, the historian A. J. P. Taylor wrote, "When the Oxford History of England was launched a generation ago, "England" was still an all-embracing word, it meant indiscriminately Wales. Foreigners indeed continue to do so.
Bonar Law, by origin a Scotch Canadian, was not ashamed to describe himself as "Prime Minister of England" Now terms have become more rigorous. The use of "England" except for a geographic area brings protests from the Scotch."However, although Taylor believed this blurring effect was dying out, in his book The Isles, Norman Davies lists numerous examples in history books of "British" still being used to mean "English" and vice versa. In December 2010, Matthew Parris in The Spectator, analysing the use of "English" over "British", argued that English identity, rather than growing, had existed all along but has been unmasked from behind a veneer of Britishness. David Reich's laboratory found that 90% of Britain's Neolithic gene pool was overturned by a population from North Continental Europe characterized by the Bell Beaker culture around 1200BC who carried a large amount of Yamnaya ancestry from the Pontic-Caspian Steppe, including the R1b Haplogroup; this population lacked genetic affinity to other Bell Beaker populations, such as the Iberian Bell Beakers, but appeared to be an offshoot of the Corded Ware single grave people
The 17th Lancers was a cavalry regiment of the British Army, raised in 1759 and notable for its participation in the Charge of the Light Brigade during the Crimean War. The regiment was amalgamated with the 21st Lancers to form the 17th/21st Lancers in 1922. In 1759, Colonel John Hale of the 47th Foot was ordered back to Britain with General James Wolfe's final dispatches and news of his victory in the Battle of Quebec in September 1759. After his return, he was rewarded with land in Canada and granted permission to raise a regiment of light dragoons, he formed the regiment in Hertfordshire on 7 November 1759 as the 18th Regiment of Dragoons, which went by the name of Hale's Light Horse. The admiration of his men for General Wolfe was evident in the cap badge Colonel Hale chose for the regiment: the Death's Head with the motto "Or Glory"; the regiment saw service in Germany in 1761 and was renumbered the 17th Regiment of Dragoons in April 1763 In 1764 the regiment went to Ireland. In May 1766 it was renumbered again, this time as the 3rd Regiment of Light Dragoons.
It regained the 17th numeral in 1769 as the 17th Regiment of Dragoons. The regiment was sent to North America in 1775, arriving in Boston besieged by American rebels in the American Revolutionary War, it fought in the Battle of Bunker Hill, a costly British victory, in June 1775. The regiment was withdrawn to Halifax, it fought at the Battle of Long Island in August 1776 at the Battle of White Plains in October 1776 and at the Battle of Fort Washington in November 1776. It was in action again at the Battle of Forts Clinton and Montgomery in October 1777, the Battle of Crooked Billet in May 1778 and the Battle of Barren Hill that month; the regiment provided a detachment for operations in the southern colonies as part of Tarleton's Legion, a mixture of infantry and cavalry, was engaged in a number of battles. The legion, commanded by Banastre Tarleton, was founded in 1778 by Loyalist contingents from Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York; as the attached regular cavalry, the 17th Light Dragoons clung on to an identity separate from the provincials refusing to exchange their fading scarlet clothing for the legion's green jackets.
They sustained heavy losses in the Battle of Cowpens in January 1781 after being ordered by Tarleton to charge a formation of American militia. Although their charge was effective, the dragoons, numbering about 50, were surprised and outnumbered by concealed American cavalry, under Colonel William Washington, driven back in disarray; the American War of Independence ended in 1783. An officer of the regiment, Captain Stapleton, had the distinction of delivering to George Washington the despatch confirming the declaration of the cessation of hostilities; the regiment returned to Ireland, where it remained until 1795, when it sailed for the West Indies to reinforce depleted forces battling the French. Two troops were used to suppress an uprising by "Maroons" in Jamaica soon after arriving in the Caribbean. Other detachments were embarked aboard HMS Success as "supernumeraries", their experience at sea has been suggested by regimental historians to have gained the regiment the nickname "Horse Marines".
The regiment returned to England in August 1797. It was based in Ireland again from May 1803 to winter 1805. In 1806, the regiment took part in the disastrous expeditions to Spanish-controlled South America an ally of France during the Napoleonic Wars. Sir Home Riggs Popham had orchestrated an expedition against South America without the British government's sanction; this invasion failed. The regiment was part of this second force, under Sir Samuel Auchmuty; the British force captured Montevideo. In 1807, the regiment was part of the force, now under John Whitelocke, that tried to capture Buenos Aires, but this failed abysmally; the British force, was forced to surrender, did not return home until January 1808. The regiment was sent to India shortly after returning home, it took part in the attack on the Pindarees in 1817 during the Third Anglo-Maratha War. Disease ravaged the regiment during its residency. While in India, the British Army nominally re-classified the regiment as lancers, added "lancers" as a subtitle to its regimental designation in 1822.
The regiment did not learn of its new status until 1823, during a stopover at Saint Helena on its journey back to Britain, a copy of the Army List was obtained. Although the weapon's use had endured in parts of continental Europe, the lance had not been in British service for more than a century, its reintroduction by the Duke of York, Commander-in-Chief of the British Army, owed much to the performance of Napoleon Bonaparte's Polish Uhlans. The lancer regiments adopted their own version of the Uhlan uniform, including the czapka-style headdress. In 1826, Lord Bingham became the regiment's commanding officer when he bought its lieutenant-colonelcy for the reputed sum of £25,000 pounds. During his tenure, Bingham invested in the regiment, purchasing uniforms and horses, giving rise to the regimental nickname "Bingham's Dandies"; the regiment landed at Calamita Bay near Eupatoria in September 1854 for service in the Crimean War and saw action, as part of the light brigade under the command of Major General the Earl of Cardigan, at the Battle of Alma in September 1854.
The regiment, commanded by Captain William Morris, was in the first line of cavalry on the left flank during the Charge of the Light Brigade at the Battle of Balaclava in October 1854. The brigade drove through the Russian artillery before smashing straight into the Russian cavalry and pushing them back.
Charles Grey (British Army officer)
General Charles Grey was a British army officer, member of the British House of Commons and political figure in Lower Canada. In life, he served as private secretary to Prince Albert and Queen Victoria, he was born in Northumberland, England, in 1804, the second son of Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey, by his wife, the Hon. Mary Ponsonby, daughter of William Ponsonby, 1st Baron Ponsonby, he was the younger brother of the 3rd Earl Grey. After a good private education he joined the British Army as a sub-lieutenant in 1820 and commanded the 73rd Regiment from 1833 to 1842. Grey represented Wycombe in the British House of Commons from 1832 to 1837, defeating Disraeli to win the seat, which he held until 1837. In 1838 he went to Canada with his brother-in-law, John Lambton, 1st Earl of Durham, where he was named a member of the Executive Council and Special Council of Lower Canada in June of that year, serving until 2 November, he returned to England with Lambton that month and obtained the influential position of secretary to Prince Albert from 1849 to 1861 and secretary to the Queen from 1861 until his death in 1870.
He was given the colonelcy of the 3rd Regiment of Foot in 1860, transferred to the 71st Regiment of Foot in 1863, a position he held until his death. He was promoted full general in 1865. In 1836, he had married daughter of Sir Thomas Harvie Farquhar, 2nd baronet, their children included: Charles Mary Caroline Grey, married the 4th Earl of Minto Sybil Mary Grey, married William Beauclerk, 10th Duke of St Albans Albert Henry George, the 4th Earl Grey, served as Governor-General of Canada. Louisa Grey, married William McDonnell, 6th Earl of Antrim, served as pro tempore Mistress of the Robes to Queen Victoria A re-imagined version of Grey appears as a character in popular manga and anime franchise Black Butler, with a key role in Black Butler: Book of Murder, as he was a popular character through the series. "Biography". Dictionnaire des parlementaires du Québec de 1792 à nos jours. National Assembly of Quebec.bookcase from Charles C Gray 1848 Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Charles Grey