Sports Illustrated is an American sports magazine owned by Meredith Corporation. First published in August 1954, it has over 3 million subscribers and is read by 23 million people each week, including over 18 million men, it was the first magazine with circulation over one million to win the National Magazine Award for General Excellence twice. It is known for its annual swimsuit issue, published since 1964, has spawned other complementary media works and products. There were two magazines named Sports Illustrated before the current magazine began on August 16, 1954. In 1936, Stuart Scheftel created Sports Illustrated with a target market for the sportsman, he published the magazine from 1936 to 1938 on a monthly basis. The magazine was a life magazine size and focused on golf and skiing with articles on the major sports, he sold the name to Dell Publications, which released Sports Illustrated in 1949 and this version lasted 6 issues before closing. Dell's version focused on major sports and competed on magazine racks against Sport and other monthly sports magazines.
During the 1940s these magazines were monthly and they did not cover the current events because of the production schedules. There was no large-base, weekly sports magazine with a national following on actual active events, it was that Time patriarch Henry Luce began considering whether his company should attempt to fill that gap. At the time, many believed sports was beneath the attention of serious journalism and did not think sports news could fill a weekly magazine during the winter. A number of advisers to Luce, including Life magazine's Ernest Havemann, tried to kill the idea, but Luce, not a sports fan, decided the time was right; the goal of the new magazine was to be a magazine, but with sports. Many at Time-Life scoffed at Luce's idea. Launched on August 16, 1954, it was not profitable and not well run at first, but Luce's timing was good; the popularity of spectator sports in the United States was about to explode, that popularity came to be driven by three things: economic prosperity and Sports Illustrated.
The early issues of the magazine seemed caught between two opposing views of its audience. Much of the subject matter was directed at upper-class activities such as yachting and safaris, but upscale would-be advertisers were unconvinced that sports fans were a significant part of their market. After more than a decade of steady losses, the magazine's fortunes turned around in the 1960s when Andre Laguerre became its managing editor. A European correspondent for Time, Inc. who became chief of the Time-Life news bureaux in Paris and London, Laguerre attracted Henry Luce's attention in 1956 with his singular coverage of the Winter Olympic Games in Cortina d'Ampezzo, which became the core of SI's coverage of those games. In May 1956, Luce brought Laguerre to New York to become assistant managing editor of the magazine, he was named managing editor in 1960, he more than doubled the circulation by instituting a system of departmental editors, redesigning the internal format, inaugurating the unprecedented use in a news magazine of full-color photographic coverage of the week's sports events.
He was one of the first to sense the rise of national interest in professional football. Laguerre instituted the innovative concept of one long story at the end of every issue, which he called the "bonus piece"; these well-written, in-depth articles helped to distinguish Sports Illustrated from other sports publications, helped launch the careers of such legendary writers as Frank Deford, who in March 2010 wrote of Laguerre, "He smoked cigars and drank Scotch and made the sun move across the heavens... His genius as an editor was that he made you want to please him, but he wanted you to do that by writing in your own distinct way."Laguerre is credited with the conception and creation of the annual Swimsuit Issue, which became, remains, the most popular issue each year. In 1990, Time Inc. merged with Warner Communications to form the media conglomerate Time Warner. In 2014, Time Inc. was spun off from Time Warner. In November 2017, Meredith Corporation announced that it would acquire Time Inc. and the acquisition was completed in January 2018.
However, in March 2018, Meredith stated that it would explore selling Sports Illustrated and several other former Time properties, arguing that they did not properly align with the company's lifestyle brands and publications. From its start, Sports Illustrated introduced a number of innovations that are taken for granted today: Liberal use of color photos—though the six-week lead time meant they were unable to depict timely subject matter Scouting reports—including a World Series Preview and New Year's Day bowl game round-up that enhanced the viewing of games on television In-depth sports reporting from writers like Robert Creamer, Tex Maule and Dan Jenkins. Regular illustration features by artists like Robert Riger. High school football Player of the Month awards. Inserts of sports cards in the center of the magazine 1994 Launched Sports Illustrated Interactive CD-ROM with StarPress Multimedia, Incorporates player stats and highlights from the year in sports. In 2015 Sports Illustrated purchased a group of software companies and combined them to create Sports Illustrated Play, a platform that offers sports league management software as a service.
In 1965, offset printing bega
A dōjō is a hall or space for immersive learning or meditation. This is traditionally in the field of martial arts, but has been seen in other fields, such as meditation and software development; the term means "place of the Way" in Japanese. The word dōjō originates from Buddhism. Dōjō were adjunct to temples and were formal training place for any of the Japanese arts ending in "-dō", from the Chinese Tao, meaning "way" or "path". Sometimes meditation halls where Zen Buddhists practice zazen meditation were called dōjō; the alternative term zen-do is more specific, more used. European Sōtō Zen groups affiliated with the International Zen Association prefer to use dōjō instead of zendo to describe their meditation halls as did their founding master, Taisen Deshimaru. In Japan, any facility for physical training, including professional wrestling, may be called a dōjō. In the Western world, the term dōjō is used for Japanese martial arts such as aikidō, judō, karate-dō, etc. In American culture, the dojo was popularized by a young Jon Pep.
This is the origin of the phrase “sweep the leg Johnny”. A proper Japanese martial arts dōjō is well cared for by its users. Shoes are not worn in a dōjō. In many styles it is traditional to conduct a ritual cleaning of the dōjō at the beginning and/or end of each training session. Besides the obvious hygienic benefits of regular cleaning it serves to reinforce the fact that dōjō are supposed to be supported and managed by the student body, not the school's instructional staff; this attitude has become lost in many modern dōjō that are founded and run by a small group of people or instructors. In fact, it is not uncommon that in traditional schools, dōjō are used for training at all, instead being reserved for more symbolic or formal occasions; the actual training is conducted outdoors or in a less formal area. Many traditional dōjō follow a prescribed pattern with shomen and various entrances that are used based on student and instructor rank laid out precisely. Students will enter in the lower-left corner of the dōjō with instructors in the upper right corner.
Shomen contains a Shintō shrine with a sculpture, flower arrangement, or other artifacts. The term kamiza means "place of honor" and a related term, kamidana refers to the shrine itself. Other artifacts may be displayed throughout the dōjō, such as kanban that authorize the school in a style or strategy, items such as taiko drums or armor, it is not uncommon to find the name of the dōjō and the dōjō kun displayed prominently at shomen as well. Visitors may have a special place reserved, depending on their station. Weapons and other training gear will be found on the back wall. A honbu dōjō is the central training facility and administrative headquarters of a particular martial arts style; some well-known dōjō located in Japan are: Kodokan Judo Institute Aikikai Hombu Dōjō Noma Dōjō Nakazato Karate Weapons Gym Other names for training halls that are equivalent to "dojo" include the following: Akhara Dojang Gelanggang Heya Kalari Sasaran Wuguan The term dōjō is increasingly used for other forms of immersive-learning space.
The term dōjō is sometimes used to describe the meditation halls where Zen Buddhists practice zazen meditation. The alternative term zen-do is more specific, more used. European Sōtō Zen groups affiliated with the International Zen Association prefer to use dōjō instead of zendo to describe their meditation halls as did their founding master, Taisen Deshimaru. Coding dōjō: a space and associated technique for groups to practice computer programming skills Testing dōjō: a space and time where testers work together on a testing challenge Agile coaching dōjō: a space where a cross-functional team works for up to three months, surrounded by an agile coach and technical subject matter experts, to learn and practice agile and technical practices
Earnie Dee Shaver, best known as Earnie Shavers, is an American former professional boxer who competed from 1969 to 1983, with two further comebacks in 1987 and 1995. A two-time world heavyweight championship challenger, Shavers is considered by many boxing experts to be the hardest-punching boxer of all time, his knockout-to-win ratio stands at 91.8% Shavers is best known for his world title fights with Larry Holmes and Muhammad Ali. He scored a heavy knockdown against Holmes, hurt Ali badly in the second round and during the rounds of their fight. Shavers' most significant wins were his first-round knockouts of former world heavyweight champions Jimmy Ellis and Ken Norton, he defeated world heavyweight title challengers Jimmy Young and Joe Bugner. In 2001, he released an autobiography about his life and boxing career called Welcome to the Big Time. Today, he attends boxing events as a special guest, autograph signer, as a motivational speaker. Shavers started boxing at the late age of 22. Prior to turning professional, Shavers had a short but notable amateur career, winning the 1969 National AAU heavyweight title.
Known as the "Black Destroyer", Shavers compiled an impressive record, winning 44 of his first 47 fights by knockout. His KO streak included 27 consecutive knockouts, he suffered setbacks with losses to Stan Johnson. He began to rise through the ranks of the heavyweight division after he hired a Cleveland-based promoter and ex-con named Don King to be his manager, his wins included a novice Jimmy Young who would become a top contender. Stepping up the class of opposition, he came to public prominence with a first-round KO of one time WBA heavyweight champion Jimmy Ellis, his progress was halted when he was KO'd in the first round by Jerry Quarry, followed by another loss to a journeyman Bob Stallings. Shavers had a thunderous match with hard hitting Ron Lyle but was stopped after 6 brutal rounds, he knocked out hard hitter Howard King and beat powerful prospect Roy Williams in a brutal back and forward battle in which Shavers was nearly knocked out. The match Shavers always said. Shavers fought Muhammad Ali at Madison Square Garden on September 29, 1977.
Coming into the bout, Shavers had a record of 54-5-1, with 52 knockouts. Ali nicknamed Shavers "The Acorn" because of his shaved bald head, unlike early appearances; the fight was shown in prime time broadcast television by NBC, which did prime time fights and had the judges' scoring announced after each round to help avoid any controversial decision. Ali's cornerman Angelo Dundee had a crony in the dressing room watching the broadcast, would get signals from his friend on the scoring. In the second round, Shavers hurt Ali badly with an overhand right. Ali exaggerated his motions enough that it seemed he might be play acting and Shavers hesitated. On the scorecard they exchanged rounds. Ali won the fifth decisively. To win the fight Ali had to survive the last three rounds. Shavers, whose stamina was suspect before the fight, came alive in the 13th round. In the 14th, he battered Ali about the ring. Before the 15th, according to Sports Illustrated boxing writer Pat Putnam, "Ali was on wobbly legs."
Realizing Ali needed to last three more minutes, Dundee told him, "You don't look so good. You better go out and take this round." In a furious final round, the two men tagged each other, but Ali closed nearly dropping Shavers in the last 20 seconds. He won a unanimous decision; the next day, Garden Match Maker Teddy Brenner encouraged Ali to retire by stating the Garden would never make another offer to host an Ali fight. Brenner thought that Shavers deserved the nod against Ali; the fight made the cover of Sports Illustrated, with "ALI'S DESPERATE HOUR" featuring a photograph of Shavers scoring with an overhand right. Fight doctor Ferdie Pacheco urged Ali to retire after noting the damage Ali had absorbed against Shavers. Ali said Shavers was the hardest puncher he faced, stating "Earnie hit me so hard, it shook my kinfolk back in Africa" although Ali had used this amusing punch line in reference to various other hard hitting opponents. In a mandatory title challenge eliminator he knocked out former champion and Ali beater Ken Norton in the first round the best win of his career.
Shavers fought for the title against skilled champion Larry Holmes at Caesars Palace in Pardise on September 29, 1979 two years after his defeat by Ali. Shavers knocked Holmes down in round seven but was himself knocked out in round eleven after taking punishment. Holmes, known for his ability to take a punch said that Shavers' blow was the hardest he had taken in his career; the Holmes bout was the last big match for Shavers. In 1980, he was knocked out in the seventh round by durable prospect Randall "Tex" Cobb, he never again fought for the world title. In 1982 he fought Joe Bugner on the comeback trail. Bugner was stopped by cuts in the second round. Shavers continued to fight professionally for several years, retiring in 1995 after losing to Brian Yates. Many thought. Shavers suffered a similar retinal eye injury as boxer Sugar Ray Leonard. Shavers was a heavy-handed puncher who stalked his opponents, setting them up for his thunderous right, responsible for many of his knockouts. Although Angelo Dundee in a Sports Illustrated mid-1970s article explained "He
Temple University is a state-related research university located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It was founded in 1884 by the Baptist minister Russell Conwell. In 1882, Conwell came to Pennsylvania to lead the Grace Baptist Church while he began tutoring working-class citizens late at night to accommodate their work schedules; these students dubbed "night owls", were taught in the basement of Conwell's Baptist Temple, hence the origin of the university's name and mascot. By 1907, the institution was incorporated as a university; as of 2017, more than 40,000 undergraduate and professional students were enrolled in more than 500 academic degree programs offered at sites across the globe, including eight campuses across Pennsylvania and Tokyo. Temple is among the world's largest providers of professional education, preparing the largest body of professional practitioners in Pennsylvania. Temple University was founded in 1884 by Russell Conwell, a Yale-educated Boston lawyer and ordained Baptist minister, who had served in the Union Army during the American Civil War.
Conwell came to Pennsylvania in 1882 to lead the Grace Baptist Church while he began tutoring working class citizens late at night to accommodate their work schedules. These students dubbed "night owls," were taught in the basement of Conwell's Baptist Temple, hence the origin of the university's name and mascot; the Grace Baptist Church grew popular within the North Philadelphia area. A temporary board of trustees was created to handle the growing formalities associated with the church's programs; when the board conducted its first meeting they named Russell H. Conwell president of "The Temple College." Within the following months, Grace Baptist Church appointed a new board of trustees, printed official admissions files, issued stock to raise funds for new teaching facilities. Regardless of whether they had the resources to support the school, Conwell's desire was “to give education to those who were unable to get it through the usual channels”. Philadelphia granted a charter in 1888 to establish “The Temple College of Philadelphia”, but the city refused to grant authority to award academic degrees.
By 1888, the enrollment of the college was nearly 600. It was in 1907 that Temple College revised its institutional status and incorporated as a university. Legal recognition as a university enhanced Temple in noticeable ways including its reputation and graduate programs, overall enrollment, financial support. Over time, Temple expanded: Samaritan Hospital was founded, a Medical School was added, Temple merged with the Philadelphia Dental College. After the merger, Temple reincorporated as Temple University on December 12, 1907. On April 2, 1965, Lester B. Pearson, Prime Minister of Canada and recipient of the Nobel peace prize was awarded the Temple University World Peace Prize. During his acceptance speech Pearson criticized American bombing of Vietnam: There are many factors which I am not in a position to weigh, but there does appear to be at least a possibility that a suspension of such air strikes against North Vietnam, at the right time, might provide the Hanoi authorities with an opportunity, if they wish to take it, to inject some flexibility into their policy without appearing to do so as the direct result of military pressure.
The speech infuriated President Lyndon B. Johnson who, the next day at Camp David, took Pearson out onto the terrace and began "laying into in no uncertain fashion". Pearson apologized for the speech. Since 1965, Temple has been a Pennsylvania state-related university, meaning the university receives state funds, subject to state appropriations, but is independently operated. Temple University has six campuses and sites across Pennsylvania, plus international campuses in Rome and Tokyo; the main campus is in North Philadelphia, about 1.5 miles north of Center City. It occupies 118 acres. Events for students and the public include concerts, clubs and lectures; the campus has notable landmarks. O'Connor Plaza surrounds the Founder's Garden between Liacouras Walk; the bronze statue of an owl, the university's mascot, is a popular photo spot at the heart of main campus. The Founder's Garden near Liacouras Walk, is the burial place of Russell Conwell, founder and 38-year president of Temple. A former Yale student, Civil War captain, Boston lawyer, Philadelphia minister, Conwell used the income from his famous “Acres of Diamonds” speech to fund Temple as a place where working-class Philadelphians might receive higher education.
It has been estimated that Conwell, who died at 82, helped more than 90,000 men and women pursue higher education. A bust of Conwell marks his grave. Another green area on campus is the Johnny Ring Garden, it is located near the faculty staff dining'Diamond Club', celebrates Conwell and Johnny Ring. The Bell Tower sits at 110 ft. tall in the center of the Main Campus between Paley Library and Beury Hall. The surrounding plaza and grassy area, the largest "green space" on the urban campus, are called "the beach"; the area is a meeting place and hangout location for students and their protests, speeches, political campaigning, charity drives. It hosts various official events such as Spring Fling. Health Sciences Campus is in North Philadelphia, spanning Broad Street from Allegheny Avenue to Venango street; the campus is home to a teaching hospital.
Professional boxing, or prizefighting, is regulated, sanctioned boxing. Professional boxing bouts are fought for a purse, divided between the boxers as determined by contract. Most professional bouts are supervised by a regulatory authority to guarantee the fighters' safety. Most high-profile bouts obtain the endorsement of a sanctioning body, which awards championship belts, establishes rules, assigns its own judges and referee. In contrast with amateur boxing, professional bouts are much longer and can last up to twelve rounds, though less significant fights can be as short as four rounds. Protective headgear is not permitted, boxers are allowed to take substantial punishment before a fight is halted. Professional boxing has enjoyed a much higher profile than amateur boxing throughout the 20th century and beyond. In Cuba professional boxing is banned. So was the case in Sweden between 1970 and 2007, Norway between 1981 and 2014. In 1891, the National Sporting Club, a private club in London, began to promote professional glove fights at its own premises, created nine of its own rules to augment the Queensberry Rules.
These rules specified more the role of the officials, produced a system of scoring that enabled the referee to decide the result of a fight. The British Boxing Board of Control was first formed in 1919 with close links to the N. S. C. and was re-formed in 1929 after the N. S. C. Closed. In 1909, the first of twenty-two belts were presented by the fifth Earl of Lonsdale to the winner of a British title fight held at the N. S. C. In 1929, the B. B. B. C. Continued to award Lonsdale Belts to any British boxer who won three title fights in the same weight division; the "title fight" has always been the focal point in professional boxing. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, there were title fights at each weight. Promoters who could stage profitable title fights became influential in the sport, as did boxers' managers; the best promoters and managers have been instrumental in bringing boxing to new audiences and provoking media and public interest. The most famous of all three-way partnership was that of Jack Dempsey, his manager Jack Kearns, the promoter Tex Rickard.
Together they grossed US$8.4 million in only five fights between 1921 and 1927 and ushered in a "golden age" of popularity for professional boxing in the 1920s. They were responsible for the first live radio broadcast of a title fight. In the United Kingdom, Jack Solomons' success as a fight promoter helped re-establish professional boxing after the Second World War and made the UK a popular place for title fights in the 1950s and 1960s. In the early twentieth century, most professional bouts took place in the United States and Britain, champions were recognised by popular consensus as expressed in the newspapers of the day. Among the great champions of the era were the peerless heavyweight Jim Jeffries and Bob Fitzsimmons, who weighed less than 12 stone, but won world titles at middleweight, light heavyweight, heavyweight. Other famous champions included light heavyweight Philadelphia Jack O'Brien and middleweight Tommy Ryan. On May 12, 1902 lightweight Joe Gans became the first black American to be boxing champion.
Despite the public's enthusiasm, this was an era of far-reaching regulation of the sport with the stated goal of outright prohibition. In 1900, the State of New York enacted the Lewis Law, banned prizefights except for those held in private athletic clubs between members. Thus, when introducing the fighters, the announcer added the phrase "Both members of this club", as George Wesley Bellows titled one of his paintings; the western region of the United States tended to be more tolerant of prizefights in this era, although the private club arrangement was standard practice here as well, San Francisco's California Athletic Club being a prominent example. On December 26, 1908, heavyweight Jack Johnson became the first black heavyweight champion and a controversial figure in that racially charged era. Prizefights had unlimited rounds, could become endurance tests, favouring patient tacticians like Johnson. At lighter weights, ten round fights were common, lightweight Benny Leonard dominated his division from the late teens into the early twenties.
Prizefighting champions in this period were the premier sports celebrities, a championship event generated intense public interest. Long before bars became popular venues in which to watch sporting events on television, enterprising saloon keepers were known to set up ticker machines and announce the progress of an important bout, blow by blow. Local kids hung about outside the saloon doors, hoping for news of the fight. Harpo Marx fifteen, recounted vicariously experiencing the 1904 Jeffries-Munroe championship fight in this way. In the 1920s, prizefighting was the pre-eminent sport in the United States, no figure loomed larger than Jack Dempsey, who became world heavyweight champion after brutally defeating Jess Willard. Dempsey was one of the hardest punchers of all time and as Bert Randolph Sugar put it, "had a left hook from hell", he is remembered for his iconic fight with Luis Ángel Firpo, followed by a lavish life of celebrity away from the ring. The enormously popular Dempsey would conclude his career with a memorable two bouts with Gene Tunney, breaking the $1 million gate threshold for the first time.
Although Tunney dominated both fights, Dempsey retained the public's sympathy after the controversy of a "long count" in their second fight. This fight introduced the new rule that the counting of a downed opponent w
Abilene is a city in Taylor and Jones counties in Texas, United States. The population was 117,463 at the 2010 census, making it the 27th-most populous city in the state of Texas, it is the principal city of the Abilene Metropolitan Statistical Area, which had a 2017 estimated population of 170,219. It is the county seat of Taylor County. Dyess Air Force Base is located on the west side of the city. Abilene is located between exits 279 on its western edge and 292 on the east. Abilene is 150 miles west of Fort Worth; the city is looped by I-20 to the north, US 83/84 on the west, Loop 322 to the east. A railroad divides the city down the center into south; the historic downtown area is on the north side of the railroad. Established by cattlemen as a stock shipping point on the Texas and Pacific Railway in 1881, the city was named after Abilene, the original endpoint for the Chisholm Trail; the T&P had bypassed the town of the county seat at the time. A landowner north of Buffalo Gap, Clabe Merchant, known as the father of Abilene, chose the name for the new town.
According to a Dallas newspaper, about 800 people had begun camping at the townsite before the lots were sold. The town was laid out by Colonel J. Stoddard Johnson, the auction of lots began early on March 15, 1881. By the end of the first day, 139 lots were sold for a total of $23,810, another 178 lots were sold the next day for $27,550. Abilene was incorporated soon after being founded in 1881, Abilenians began to set their sights on bringing the county seat to Abilene, in a three-to-one vote, won the election. In 1888, the Progressive Committee was formed to attract businesses to the area, which became the Board of Trade in 1890. By 1900, 3,411 people lived in Abilene, in that decade, the Board of Trade changed its name to the 25,000 Club in the hope of reaching 25,000 people by the next census. However, this committee failed when the population only hit 9,204 in 1910. Replacing it was the Young Men's Booster Club, which became the Abilene Chamber of Commerce in 1914; the cornerstone was laid for the first of three future universities in Abilene, called Simmons College, in 1891, which became Hardin–Simmons University.
Childers Classical Institute followed in 1906 Abilene Christian University, the largest of the three. In 1923, McMurry College was founded and became McMurry University. Much more Abilene succeeded in bringing Cisco Junior College and Texas State Technical College branches to Abilene, with the Cisco Junior College headquarters being located in Abilene. In 1940, Abilene raised the money to purchase land for a U. S. Army base, southwest of town, named Camp Barkeley, at the time twice the size of Abilene with 60,000 men; when the base closed, many worried that Abilene could become a ghost town, but in the post-World War II boom, many servicemen returned to start businesses in Abilene. In the early-1950s, residents raised $893,261 to purchase 3,400 acres of land for an Air Force base. Today, Dyess Air Force Base is the city's largest employer, with 6,076 employees. Abilene's population nearly doubled in 10 years from 45,570 in 1950 to 90,638. In the same year, a second high school was added, Cooper High School.
In 1966, the Abilene Zoo was created near Abilene Regional Airport. The following year, one of the most important bond elections in the city's history passed for the funding of the construction of the Abilene Civic Center and the Taylor County Coliseum, as well as major improvements to Abilene Regional Airport. In 1969, the Woodson elementary and high school for black students closed as the school system was integrated. In 1982, Abilene became the first city in Texas to create a downtown reinvestment zone. Texas State Technical College opened an Abilene branch three years later; the 2,250-bed French Robertson Prison Unit was built in 1989. A half-cent sales tax earmarked for economic development was created after the decline in the petroleum business in the 1980s. A branch of Cisco Junior College was located in the city in 1990; the Grace Museum and Paramount Theatre revitalizations, along with Artwalk in 1992, sparked a decade of downtown restoration. In 2004, Frontier Texas!, a multimedia museum highlighting the history of the area from 1780 to 1880, was constructed, a new $8 million, 38-acre Cisco Junior College campus was built at Loop 322 and Industrial Boulevard.
Subdivisions and businesses started locating along the freeway, on the same side as the CJC campus, showing a slow but progressive trend for Abilene growth on the Loop. Abilene has become the commercial, retail and transportation hub of a 19-county area more known as "The Big Country", but known as the "Texas Midwest", is part of the Central Great Plains ecoregion. By the end of 2005, commercial and residential development had reached record levels in and around the city. Abilene is located in northeastern Taylor County; the city limits extend north into Jones County. Interstate 20 leads west 148 miles to Midland. Three U. S. highways pass through the city. US 83 runs west of the city center, leading south 55 miles to Ballinger. US 84 runs with US 83 through the southwest part of the city but leads southeast 52 miles to Coleman and west with I-20 40 miles to Sweetwater. US 277 follows US 83 around the northwest side of the city and north to Anson but heads southwest from Abilene 89 miles so San Angelo.
According to the United States Census Bureau, Abilene has a total area of 112.2 square miles, of which 106.8 square miles are land and 5.4 square miles are covered by
Black belt (martial arts)
In East Asian martial arts, the black belt is associated with expertise, but may indicate only competence, depending on the martial art. The use of colored belts is a recent invention dating from the 1880s; the systematic use of belt colour to denote rank was first used in Japan by Jigoro Kano, the founder of judo in the 1880s. Japanese Koryu instructors tended to provide rank certificates only; the wide obi was used. As practitioners trained in a kimono, only white and black obi were used, it was not until the early 1900s, after the introduction of the judogi, that other colours were added. Other martial arts adopted the custom; this includes martial arts. This kind of ranking is less common in arts that do not claim a far Eastern origin, though it is used in the Marine Corps Martial Arts Program. Rank and belts are not equivalent between arts, styles, or within some organisations. In some arts, a black belt may be awarded in three years or less, while in others it takes dedicated training of ten years or more.
Testing for black belt is more rigorous and more centralised than for lower grades. In contrast to the "black belt as master" stereotype, a black belt indicates the wearer is competent in a style's basic technique and principles. Since in many styles a black belt takes three to six years of training to achieve, a possible analogy might be a bachelor's degree: the student has a good understanding of fundamental concepts and ability, but has not yet perfected their skills. In this analogy a graduate degree would represent advancement past the first degree. Brazilian jiu-jitsu would be a notable exception to this, as a black belt for a jiu-jitsu practitioner takes 7–12 years of training to earn, a black belt holder is viewed as an expert in the art. Another way to describe this links to the terms used in Japanese arts; the shodan black belt is not the end of training but rather as a beginning to advanced learning: the individual now "knows how to walk" and may thus begin the "journey". As a "black belt" is viewed as conferring some status, achieving one has been used as a marketing gimmick.
For example a school might guarantee that one will be awarded within a certain period, or for a certain amount of money. Such schools are sometimes referred to belt factories. In some Japanese schools, after obtaining a black belt the student begins to instruct, may be referred to as a senpai or sensei. In others, a black belt student should not be called sensei until they are sandan, or the titles kyosa or sabom in Korean martial arts as second degree or higher, as this denotes a greater degree of experience and a sensei must have this and grasp of what is involved in teaching a martial art. In Japanese martial arts the further subdivisions of black belt ranks may be linked to dan grades and indicated by'stripes' on the belt. Yūdansha is used to describe those who hold a black belt rank. While the belt remains black, stripes or other insignia may be added to denote seniority, in some arts senior grades will wear differently colored belts. In judo and some forms of karate, a sixth dan will wear a white belt.
The red and white belt is reserved only for ceremonial occasions, a regular black belt is still worn during training. At 9th or 10th dan some schools award red. In some schools of Jujutsu, the Shihan rank and higher wear purple belts; these other colors are still referred to collectively as "black belts". Brazilian jiu-jitsu ranking system Kyū Rank in Judo Origins of the Karate Rank System