YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California. Three former PayPal employees—Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim—created the service in February 2005. Google bought the site in November 2006 for US$1.65 billion. YouTube allows users to upload, rate, add to playlists, comment on videos, subscribe to other users, it offers a wide variety of corporate media videos. Available content includes video clips, TV show clips, music videos and documentary films, audio recordings, movie trailers, live streams, other content such as video blogging, short original videos, educational videos. Most of the content on YouTube is uploaded by individuals, but media corporations including CBS, the BBC, Hulu offer some of their material via YouTube as part of the YouTube partnership program. Unregistered users can only watch videos on the site, while registered users are permitted to upload an unlimited number of videos and add comments to videos. Videos deemed inappropriate are available only to registered users affirming themselves to be at least 18 years old.
YouTube and its creators earn advertising revenue from Google AdSense, a program which targets ads according to site content and audience. The vast majority of its videos are free to view, but there are exceptions, including subscription-based premium channels, film rentals, as well as YouTube Music and YouTube Premium, subscription services offering premium and ad-free music streaming, ad-free access to all content, including exclusive content commissioned from notable personalities; as of February 2017, there were more than 400 hours of content uploaded to YouTube each minute, one billion hours of content being watched on YouTube every day. As of August 2018, the website is ranked as the second-most popular site in the world, according to Alexa Internet. YouTube has faced criticism over aspects of its operations, including its handling of copyrighted content contained within uploaded videos, its recommendation algorithms perpetuating videos that promote conspiracy theories and falsehoods, hosting videos ostensibly targeting children but containing violent and/or sexually suggestive content involving popular characters, videos of minors attracting pedophilic activities in their comment sections, fluctuating policies on the types of content, eligible to be monetized with advertising.
YouTube was founded by Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim, who were all early employees of PayPal. Hurley had studied design at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Chen and Karim studied computer science together at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. According to a story, repeated in the media and Chen developed the idea for YouTube during the early months of 2005, after they had experienced difficulty sharing videos, shot at a dinner party at Chen's apartment in San Francisco. Karim did not attend the party and denied that it had occurred, but Chen commented that the idea that YouTube was founded after a dinner party "was very strengthened by marketing ideas around creating a story, digestible". Karim said the inspiration for YouTube first came from Janet Jackson's role in the 2004 Super Bowl incident, when her breast was exposed during her performance, from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Karim could not find video clips of either event online, which led to the idea of a video sharing site.
Hurley and Chen said that the original idea for YouTube was a video version of an online dating service, had been influenced by the website Hot or Not. Difficulty in finding enough dating videos led to a change of plans, with the site's founders deciding to accept uploads of any type of video. YouTube began as a venture capital-funded technology startup from an $11.5 million investment by Sequoia Capital and an $8 million investment from Artis Capital Management between November 2005 and April 2006. YouTube's early headquarters were situated above a pizzeria and Japanese restaurant in San Mateo, California; the domain name www.youtube.com was activated on February 14, 2005, the website was developed over the subsequent months. The first YouTube video, titled Me at the zoo, shows co-founder Jawed Karim at the San Diego Zoo; the video was uploaded on April 23, 2005, can still be viewed on the site. YouTube offered the public a beta test of the site in May 2005; the first video to reach one million views was a Nike advertisement featuring Ronaldinho in November 2005.
Following a $3.5 million investment from Sequoia Capital in November, the site launched on December 15, 2005, by which time the site was receiving 8 million views a day. The site grew and, in July 2006, the company announced that more than 65,000 new videos were being uploaded every day, that the site was receiving 100 million video views per day. According to data published by market research company comScore, YouTube is the dominant provider of online video in the United States, with a market share of around 43% and more than 14 billion views of videos in May 2010. In May 2011, 48 hours of new videos were uploaded to the site every minute, which increased to 60 hours every minute in January 2012, 100 hours every minute in May 2013, 300 hours every minute in November 2014, 400 hours every minute in February 2017; as of January 2012, the site had 800 million unique users a month. It is estimated that in 2007 YouTube consumed as much bandwidth as the entire Internet in 2000. According to third-party web analytics providers and SimilarWeb, YouTube is the second-most visited website in the world, as of December 2016.
Robert Michael Gates is an American statesman, intelligence analyst, university president who served as the 22nd United States Secretary of Defense from 2006 to 2011. He was appointed by President George W. Bush, but was retained for service by President Barack Obama. Gates began his career serving as an officer in the United States Air Force but was recruited by the CIA. Gates served for 26 years in the Central Intelligence Agency and the National Security Council, was Director of Central Intelligence under President George H. W. Bush. After leaving the CIA, Gates became president of Texas A&M University and was a member of several corporate boards. Gates served as a member of the Iraq Study Group, the bipartisan commission co-chaired by James A. Baker III and Lee H. Hamilton, that studied the lessons of the Iraq War. Gates was nominated by Republican President George W. Bush as Secretary of Defense after the 2006 election, replacing Donald Rumsfeld, he was confirmed with bipartisan support.
In a 2007 profile written by former National Security Advisor Zbigniew Brzezinski, Time named Gates one of the year's most influential people. In 2008, Gates was named one of America's Best Leaders by U. S. News & World Report, he continued to serve as Secretary of Defense in President Barack Obama's administration. He retired in 2011. "He'll be remembered for making us aware of the danger of over-reliance on military intervention as an instrument of American foreign policy," said former Senator David L. Boren. Gates was presented the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the nation's highest civilian award, by President Obama during his retirement ceremony. Since leaving the Obama Administration, Gates has been elected President of the Boy Scouts of America, served as Chancellor of the College of William & Mary, served as a member on several corporate boards. Gates was born in Wichita, the son of Isabel V. and Melville A. "Mel" Gates. Gates attained the rank of Eagle Scout in the Boy Scouts of America and received the Distinguished Eagle Scout Award from the BSA as an adult.
He graduated from Wichita High School East in 1961. Gates is a Vigil Honor member within the Order of the Arrow, BSA's National Honor Society. Gates received a scholarship to attend the College of William and Mary, graduating in 1965 with a B. A. in history. At William & Mary, Gates was an active member and president of the Alpha Phi Omega chapter and the Young Republicans. At his William & Mary graduation ceremony, Gates received the Algernon Sydney Sullivan Award naming him the graduate who "has made the greatest contribution to his fellow man.. Gates received an M. A. in history from Indiana University Bloomington in 1966. He completed his Ph. D. in Russian and Soviet history at Georgetown University in 1974. The title of his Georgetown doctoral dissertation is "Soviet Sinology: An Untapped Source for Kremlin Views and Disputes Relating to Contemporary Events in China" and is available from University Microfilms International as document number 7421652, he received an Honorary Doctorate of Humane Letters from William & Mary, the University of Oklahoma, Georgetown University and an honorary doctorate award from Kansas State University.
He married his wife Becky on January 7, 1967 and they have two children. While at Indiana University, Gates was recruited by the Central Intelligence Agency and joined in 1966. On January 4, 1967, he was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the United States Air Force after attending Officer Training School under CIA sponsorship. From 1967 to 1969, he was assigned to the Strategic Air Command as an intelligence officer, which included a year at Whiteman Air Force Base in Missouri, where he delivered intelligence briefings to Intercontinental Ballistic Missile crews. After fulfilling his military obligation, he rejoined the CIA as an intelligence analyst. Gates left the CIA in 1974 to serve on the staff of the National Security Council, he returned to the CIA in late 1979, serving as the director of the Strategic Evaluation Center, Office of Strategic Research. He was named the Director of the DCI/DDCI Executive Staff in 1981, Deputy Director for Intelligence in 1982, Deputy Director of Central Intelligence from April 18, 1986, to March 20, 1989.
Gates was Deputy Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs from March until August 1989, was Assistant to the President and Deputy National Security Adviser from August 1989 until November 1991. Gates was nominated to become the Director of Central Intelligence in early 1987, he withdrew his name after it became clear the Senate would reject the nomination due to controversy about his role in the Iran-Contra affair. Gates was nominated, for the second time, for the position of Director of Central Intelligence by President George H. W. Bush on May 14, 1991, confirmed by the Senate on November 5, sworn in on November 6. During a Senate committee hearing on his nomination, former division chief Melvin Goodman testified that the agency was the most corrupt and slanted during the tenure of William Casey with Gates serving as Deputy. According to Goodman, Gates was part of an agency leadership that proliferated false information and ignored'reality'. National Intelligence Council chairman Harold P. Ford testified that during his tenure, Gates had transgressed professional boundaries.
Deputy Directors during his tenure were Adm. William O. Studeman, he served until 1993. Because of his senior status in the CIA, Gates was close to many figures
Dallas the City of Dallas, is a city in the U. S. state of Texas and the seat of Dallas County, with portions extending into Collin, Denton and Rockwall counties. With an estimated 2017 population of 1,341,075, it is the ninth most-populous city in the U. S. and third in Texas after Houston and San Antonio. It is the eighteenth most-populous city in North America as of 2015. Located in North Texas, the city of Dallas is the main core of the largest metropolitan area in the Southern United States and the largest inland metropolitan area in the U. S. that lacks any navigable link to the sea. It is the most populous city in the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex, the fourth-largest metropolitan area in the country at 7.3 million people as of 2017. The city's combined statistical area is the seventh-largest in the U. S. as of 2017, with 7,846,293 residents. Dallas and nearby Fort Worth were developed due to the construction of major railroad lines through the area allowing access to cotton and oil in North and East Texas.
The construction of the Interstate Highway System reinforced Dallas's prominence as a transportation hub, with four major interstate highways converging in the city and a fifth interstate loop around it. Dallas developed as a strong industrial and financial center and a major inland port, due to the convergence of major railroad lines, interstate highways and the construction of Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, one of the largest and busiest airports in the world. A "beta" global city, the economy of Dallas has been considered diverse with dominant sectors including defense, financial services, information technology, telecommunications, transportation. Dallas is home to 9 Fortune 500 companies within the city limits; the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex hosts additional Fortune 500 companies, including American Airlines, ExxonMobil and J. C. Penney. Over 41 colleges and universities are in its metropolitan area, the most of any metropolitan area in Texas; the city has a population from a myriad of ethnic and religious backgrounds and the sixth-largest LGBT population in the United States as of 2016.
WalletHub named Dallas the fifth most-diverse city in the U. S. in 2018. Preceded by thousands of years of varying cultures, the Caddo people inhabited the Dallas area before Spanish colonists claimed the territory of Texas in the 18th century as a part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. France claimed the area but never established much settlement. In 1819, the Adams-Onís Treaty between the United States and Spain defined the Red River as the northern boundary of New Spain placing the future location of Dallas well within Spanish territory; the area remained under Spanish rule until 1821, when Mexico declared independence from Spain, the area was considered part of the Mexican state of Coahuila y Tejas. In 1836, with a majority of Anglo-American settlers, gained independence from Mexico and formed the Republic of Texas. Three years after Texas achieved independence, John Neely Bryan surveyed the area around present-day Dallas, he established a permanent settlement near the Trinity River named Dallas in 1841.
The origin of the name is uncertain. The official historical marker states it was named after Vice President George M. Dallas of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. However, this is disputed. Other potential theories for the origin include his brother, Commodore Alexander James Dallas, as well as brothers Walter R. Dallas or James R. Dallas. A further theory gives the origin as the village of Dallas, Scotland, similar to the way Houston, Texas was named after Sam Houston whose ancestors came from the Scottish village of Houston, Renfrewshire; the Republic of Texas was annexed by the United States in 1845 and Dallas County was established the following year. Dallas was formally incorporated as a city on February 2, 1856. With the construction of railroads, Dallas became a business and trading center and was booming by the end of the 19th century, it became an industrial city, attracting workers from Texas, the South, the Midwest. The Praetorian Building in Dallas of 15 stories, built in 1909, was the first skyscraper west of the Mississippi and the tallest building in Texas for some time.
It marked the prominence of Dallas as a city. A racetrack for thoroughbreds was built and their owners established the Dallas Jockey Club. Trotters raced at a track in Fort Worth; the rapid expansion of population increased competition for jobs and housing. In 1921, the Mexican president Álvaro Obregón along with the former revolutionary general visited Downtown Dallas's Mexican Park in Little Mexico; the small neighborhood of Little Mexico was home to a Latin American population, drawn to Dallas by factors including the American Dream, better living conditions, the Mexican Revolution. On November 22, 1963, President John F. Kennedy was assassinated on Elm Street while his motorcade passed through Dealey Plaza in Downtown Dallas; the upper two floors of the building from which alleged assassin Lee Harvey Oswald shot Kennedy, the Texas School Book Depository, have been converted into a historical museum covering the former president's life and accomplishments. On July 7, 2016, multiple shots were fired at a peaceful protest in Downtown Dallas, held against the police killings of two black men from other states.
The gunman identified as Micah Xavier Johnson, began firing at police officers at 8:58 p.m. killing five officers and injuring nine. Two bystanders were injured; this marked the deadliest day for U. S. law enforcement since the September 11 attacks. Johnson told police during a standoff that he
James S. Turley is an American business executive, he was chairman and chief executive officer of Ernst & Young from 2001 to 2013. He serves as the National Chairman of the Boy Scouts of America, he received a B. A. and a M. A. in Accounting from Rice University. He joined Ernst & Young in 1977 in the US firm's Houston office and served as chairman and CEO from July 2001 to June 2013, he co-chairs the Russia Foreign Investment Advisory Council. He is on the board of directors of the Citigroup, Emerson Electric, Northrop Grumman Corporation, Boy Scouts of America, the National Corporate Theater Fund, on the board of trustees of his alma mater, Rice University, he is a member of the Business Roundtable, International Business Leaders' Advisory Council for the Mayor of Shanghai and Transatlantic Business Dialogue. Turley was the chair of the governing board of the U. S. Center for Audit Quality in 2007–2011. In 2010, he was appointed by Barack Obama to the President's Export Council. Turley is a popular business leader.
In 2013, Turley was the 4th highest-rated CEO, with an approval rating of 96% as calculated by Glassdoor. Turley is married to Lynne Pounds from a suburb of St. Louis, Missouri, he and his wife have one adult son James "Jay" Stanton Turley Jr. Turley plays golf. Upon Turley's retirement, Rice University’s Jones School announced the launch of the James S. Turley-Ernst & Young Leadership Development Initiative that focusses on accounting education. In conjunction with this, the university received a $2.5 million gift that includes $1 million from Turley, $500,000 from Ernst & Young and $1 million from Ernst & Young Rice alumni and various partner donations in honor of Turley. In 2012, Turley was the first member of the Boy Scouts of America Executive Board to come out in public disapproval of its policy of excluding gays; the following year, the policy was reversed, allowing gay youths to join the organisation
Southwestern Bell Telephone Company is a wholly owned subsidiary of AT&T. It does business as other d/b/a names in its operating region, which includes Arkansas, Missouri, Oklahoma and portions of Illinois; the company is headquartered in Dallas, Texas at One AT&T Plaza. Southwestern Bell Telephone traces its roots to The Missouri and Kansas Telephone Company, founded in 1882, it was consolidated under the management of a single management unit of the Bell System with Southwestern Telegraph and Telephone Company of Texas-Arkansas, Pioneer Telephone and Telegraph Company of Oklahoma, The Bell Telephone Company of Missouri—also called The Missouri Bell Telephone Company—on March 1, 1912. These companies comprised the "Southwestern System" of the Bell System; the latter three companies were merged into Missouri and Kansas Telephone Company in 1917, renamed Southwestern Bell Telephone Company. The company was considered the first step of the AT&T corporate "ladder" before the 1984 breakup of that company.
While part of the Bell System, it was at times the biggest Bell Operating Company of AT&T's 22 local telephone companies. Southwestern Bell continued to grow in size. In 1950, the company absorbed the operations of Southeast Missouri Telephone Company, named Cape Girardeau Bell Telephone Company. In 1952, the company absorbed the operations of the Southwest Telephone Company, which served Kansas and Oklahoma. In 1953, it absorbed the Ozark Central Telephone Company Southwestern Bell provides service to Kaskaskia and McClure, Illinois, as those cities are located on the west side of the Mississippi River. For current information on SBC, see History of AT&T. On January 1, 1984, as part of the breakup of AT&T, Southwestern Bell Telephone became the namesake and leading subsidiary of the new Regional Bell Operating Company, Southwestern Bell Corporation. SBC was the smallest of all of the seven "Baby Bells"; the architect of divestiture for Southwestern Bell was Robert G. Pope, he became the Vice-Chairman of the board of directors and Chief Financial Officer of SBC while remaining the President and CEO of the several subsidiaries.
Although "Southwestern Bell" referred to the operations of the entire Baby Bell, in 1995, SBC decided to change its corporate name to SBC Communications in order to reposition itself as a national telecommunications company. Southwestern Bell Telephone underwent a branding overhaul and adopted the slogan, "Your friendly neighborhood global telecommunications company." The slogan was shortened to, "Friendly. Neighborhood. Global." On December 30, 2001, the original Southwestern Bell Telephone Company, incorporated in Missouri, ceased to exist when it was merged into Southwestern Bell Texas, Inc. a separate operating company incorporated in Texas. Southwestern Bell Texas converted itself into a limited partnership and renamed itself Southwestern Bell Telephone, L. P. incorporated in Texas. This company ceased to exist on June 29, 2007, when it was merged into SWBT Inc. incorporated in Missouri, founded just 8 days prior. At that point, SWBT Inc. took the dormant name Southwestern Bell Telephone Company and Southwestern Bell again became a resident company in Missouri.
From its name change in 1917 until 2001, SWBT was branded as Southwestern Bell. Starting in 1999, SBC Communications began branding its operating companies as part of the "SBC Global Network," with the name enclosed in a circle with the Pacific Telesis "access" mark to the logos of its divisions. In 2000, the Bell logo was dropped from the mark of Southwestern Bell. In 2001, SBC standardized its operating company branding logos, placed the SBC corporate logo toward the northwest of the name "Southwestern Bell", the branding for SWBT became SBC Southwestern Bell; the Southwestern Bell brand vanished in 2002 when SBC dropped the names of all its operating companies to use "SBC" as a national brand. Since d/b/a names weren't approved before publishing deadlines for telephone directories distributed in December 2002 and January 2003, the Southwestern Bell Telephone Co. name remained on telephone directories issued in December 2002 and January 2003. After d/b/a names were approved, SBC began to use the Southwestern Bell Telephone, L.
P. name conjoined with the following titles: d/b/a SBC Arkansas d/b/a SBC Kansas d/b/a SBC Missouri d/b/a SBC Oklahoma d/b/a SBC Southwest d/b/a SBC Texas SBC Communications bought AT&T Corp. on November 18, 2005, changed its name to AT&T Inc. Shortly afterwards, on January 15, 2006, AT&T companies were given new d/b/a names; as a result Southwestern Bell Telephone, L. P. is now joined with the titles: d/b/a AT&T Arkansas d/b/a AT&T Kansas d/b/a AT&T Missouri d/b/a AT&T Oklahoma d/b/a AT&T TexasThe collective d/b/a name is now AT&T Southwest
Boy Scouts of America
The Boy Scouts of America is one of the largest scouting organizations and youth organizations in the United States, with about 2.4 million youth participants and about one million adult volunteers. The BSA was founded in 1910, since about 110 million Americans have been participants in BSA programs at some time; the BSA is part of the international Scout Movement and became a founding member organization of the World Organization of the Scout Movement in 1922. The mission of the Boy Scouts of America is to prepare young people to make ethical and moral choices over their lifetimes by instilling in them the values of the Scout Oath and Law. Youth are trained in responsible citizenship, character development, self-reliance through participation in a wide range of outdoor activities, educational programs, and, at older age levels, career-oriented programs in partnership with community organizations. For younger members, the Scout method is part of the program to instill typical Scouting values such as trustworthiness, good citizenship, outdoors skills, through a variety of activities such as camping and hiking.
To further these outdoor activities, the BSA has four high-adventure bases: Northern Tier, Philmont Scout Ranch, Sea Base, Summit Bechtel Reserve, as well as close to a hundred separate camps and reservations dedicated to scouts. The traditional Scouting divisions are Cub Scouting for ages 5 to 11 years, Scouts BSA for ages 11 to 17, Venturing for ages 14 through 21. Learning for Life is a non-traditional affiliate. On February 1, 2019, the Boy Scouts of America renamed their flagship program, Boy Scouting, to Scouts BSA to reflect their change of policy to allow girls to join in separate troops; the BSA operates traditional Scouting by chartering local organizations, such as churches, civic associations, or educational organization, to implement the Scouting program for youth within their communities. Units are led by volunteers appointed by the chartering organization, who are supported by local councils using both paid professional Scouters and volunteers; the progressive movement in the United States was at its height during the early 20th century.
With the migration of families from farms to cities, there were concerns among some people that young men were no longer learning patriotism and individualism. The YMCA was an early promoter of reforms for young men with a focus on social welfare and programs of mental, physical and religious development.:72–82 BSA had two notable predecessors in the United States: the Woodcraft Indians started by Ernest Thompson Seton in 1902 in Cos Cob and the Sons of Daniel Boone founded by Daniel Carter Beard in 1905 in Cincinnati, Ohio. In 1907, Robert Baden-Powell, founded the Scouting movement in England using elements of Seton's works among other influences. Several Scout programs for boys started independently in the US.. Many of these Scout programs in the US merged with the BSA.:52 In 1909, Chicago publisher W. D. Boyce was visiting London, where he encountered a boy who came to be known as the Unknown Scout. Boyce was lost on a foggy street when an unknown Scout came to his aid, guiding him to his destination.
The boy refused Boyce's tip, explaining that he was a Boy Scout and was doing his daily good turn. Interested in the Boy Scouts, Boyce met with staff at the Boy Scouts Headquarters and, by some accounts, Baden-Powell. Upon his return to the US, Boyce incorporated the Boy Scouts of America on February 8, 1910. Edgar M. Robinson and Lee F. Hanmer became interested in the nascent BSA and convinced Boyce to turn the program over to the YMCA for development in April 1910. Robinson enlisted Seton, Charles Eastman, other prominent leaders in the early youth movements. Former president Theodore Roosevelt, who had long complained of the decline in American manhood, became an ardent supporter. In January 1911, Robinson turned the movement over to James E. West who became the first Chief Scout Executive and Scouting began to expand in the US:148 The BSA's stated purpose at its incorporation in 1910 was "to teach patriotism, self-reliance, kindred values.":7 Later, in 1937, Deputy Chief Scout Executive George J. Fisher expressed the BSA's mission: "Each generation as it comes to maturity has no more important duty than that of teaching high ideals and proper behavior to the generation which follows."
The current mission statement of the BSA is "to prepare young people to make ethical and moral choices over their lifetimes by instilling in them the values of the Scout Oath and Law." Boy Scouts of America is distinct in its use of the term "Scout Oath" rather than "Scout Promise". The difference is that while the former phrase implies that a Scout is making his promise before God, the latter phrasing indicates that the Scout makes his commitment in the presence of fellow human beings; the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints was the first partner to sponsor Scouting in the United States, adopting the program in 1913 as part of its Mutual Improvement Association program for young men. In May 2018, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints announced that, effective year-end 2019, it would no longer sponsor scouting units with the Boy Scouts of America to focus on its own global youth leadership and development program, although Mormon youth are free to join scouting units sponsored by other organizations.
The BSA holds a congressional charter under Title 36 of the United States Code, which means that it is one of the comparatively rare "Title
DirecTV is an American direct broadcast satellite service provider based in El Segundo, California and is a subsidiary of AT&T. Its satellite service, launched on June 17, 1994, transmits digital satellite television and audio to households in the United States, Latin America and the Caribbean, its primary competitors are cable television providers. On July 24, 2015, after receiving approval from the United States Federal Communications Commission and United States Department of Justice, AT&T acquired DirecTV in a transaction valued at $67.1 billion. As of Q1 2017, DirecTV U. S. had 21 million revenues of $12 billion. On November 30, 2016, DirecTV Now, their internet streaming TV service, was launched. In 1953, Howard Hughes created the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, to which he transferred full ownership of Hughes Aircraft. Ostensibly created as a non-profit medical research foundation, HHMI was accused of being used by Hughes as a tax shelter. Following Hughes' death in 1976, HHMI was incorporated in 1977, litigation ensued to determine whether it would be allowed to maintain its interest in Hughes Aircraft.
In 1984, the court appointed a new board for HHMI, which proceeded to sell off Hughes Aircraft to General Motors on December 20, 1985, for an estimated $5.1 billion. General Motors merged Hughes Aircraft with its subsidiary Delco Electronics to create Hughes Electronics Corporation; the new subsidiary was composed of four units: Delco Electronics Company, Hughes Aircraft Company, Hughes Space and Communications Company, Hughes Network Systems. Stanley E. Hubbard founded United States Satellite Broadcasting in 1981 and was a leading proponent for the development of direct-broadcast satellite service in the United States. USSB was awarded five frequencies at the coveted 101-degree west satellite location. Hughes Communications, Inc. was awarded 27 frequencies at the same 101-degree location. After many years, the technology was developed to enable the building of high-power satellites, digital compression standards were developed that allowed multiple digital television channels to be sent through each satellite frequency.
Hughes attempted to create a joint venture with NBC, News Corp. and Cablevision in 1990, to launch the first high-power digital television service called Sky Cable. Failing to do so, the company instead created DirecTV as a separate division and secured an agreement with USSB to build and launch the first high-power direct-broadcast satellite system. DirecTV's name is a portmanteau of "direct" and "TV". Hughes/DirecTV turned to Thomson Consumer Electronics to develop the digital satellite system for the service that would be capable of receiving 175 channels on a small 18-inch dish; these dishes utilized a new generation of smaller, lighter receiver dishes based on military technology introduced by the Global Broadcast System, which predated DirecTV's viability by ten years. Hughes was awarded the contract to build and launch the new high-powered satellites, USSB and DirecTV agreed that the new satellites would carry the two separate programming services: USSB and DirecTV; the USSB and DirecTV programming services were launched on June 17, 1994.
Digital Equipment Corporation provided the hardware for DirecTV, Matrixx Marketing provided customer care via the Matrixx Plus department, DBS Systems created the billing software. In December 1998, DirecTV acquired USSB for $1.3 billion, combined the two satellite services. In 1999, DirecTV acquired PrimeStar, a competitor in the satellite television industry, for $1.83 billion increasing its share of the satellite television market in the US. In September 1996, Hughes purchased 70% of PanAmSat for $3 billion. In 1997, GM transferred it to Delphi Automotive Systems; that same year, Hughes Aircraft was sold to Raytheon for $9.5 billion. Raytheon filed a lawsuit in 1999 accusing Hughes of overstating the value of Hughes Aircraft by $1 billion. A $635.5-million settlement was reached in 2001. In 2000, Hughes Space and Communications was sold to Boeing for $3.75 billion, which it claimed had been overvalued by Hughes. Hughes settled with Boeing for $360 million; these sales left DirecTV, PanAmSat and Hughes Network Systems as the remaining components of Hughes Electronics.
Direct satellite broadcaster were mandated in 1992 to set aside 4% of its channel space for noncommercial educational and informational programming. DirecTV selected C-SPAN, EWTN and the Trinity Broadcasting Network from its current channel lineup plus request additional proposals from other programmers. DirecTV had given PBS Kids, PBS's original application, carriage that did not count against the set aside six weeks before the deadline. DirecTV selected an additional six channels. In 2000, DirecTV introduced the first live in-flight television service for airlines. In September 2000, GM executives, under pressure from GM's shareholders as a result of its poor performance and the greater market worth of Hughes, authorized Hughes executives to begin seeking buyers. In 2001, News Corporation began negotiations to acquire Hughes Electronics in a deal worth $8 billion, which would allow News Corp. to expand its Sky Global Networks satellite television operations into the United States. Negotiations with News Corp. failed, Hughes entered into an agreement on October 28, 2001 to be purchased for $26 billion