Mauritius the Republic of Mauritius, is an island nation in the Indian Ocean. The main Island of Mauritius is located about 2,000 kilometres off the southeast coast of the African continent; the Republic of Mauritius includes the islands of Rodrigues, Agalega and St. Brandon; the capital and largest city Port Louis is located on the main island of Mauritius. In 1598, the Dutch took possession of Mauritius, they abandoned Mauritius in 1710 and the French took control of the island in 1715, renaming it Isle de France. France ceded Mauritius including all its dependencies to the United Kingdom through the Treaty of Paris, signed on 30 May 1814 and in which Réunion was returned to France; the British colony of Mauritius consisted of the main island of Mauritius along with Rodrigues, Agalega, St Brandon and the Chagos Archipelago, while the Seychelles became a separate colony in 1906. The sovereignty of Tromelin is disputed between Mauritius and France as some of the islands such as St. Brandon, Chagos and Tromelin were not mentioned in the Treaty of Paris.
In 1965, three years prior to the independence of Mauritius, the UK split the Chagos Archipelago from Mauritian territory, the islands of Aldabra and Desroches from the Seychelles, to form the British Indian Ocean Territory. The UK forcibly expelled the archipelago's local population and leased its largest island, Diego Garcia, to the United States; the UK has restricted access to the Chagos Archipelago. The sovereignty of the Chagos is disputed between Mauritius and the UK. In February 2019, in an advisory opinion given by the International Court of Justice on this dispute, the ICJ ordered the UK to hand back the Chagos Islands to Mauritius as as possible; the people of Mauritius are multiethnic and multilingual. The island's government is modelled on the Westminster parliamentary system, Mauritius is ranked for democracy and for economic and political freedom; the Human Development Index of Mauritius is one of the highest in Africa. Mauritius is ranked as the most competitive and one of the most developed economies in the African region.
The main pillars of the Mauritian economy are manufacturing, financial services and information and communications technology. Mauritius is a welfare state. Along with the other Mascarene Islands, Mauritius is known for its varied flora and fauna, with many species endemic to the island; the island was the only known home of the dodo, along with several other avian species, was made extinct by human activities shortly after the island's settlement. The first historical evidence of the existence of an island now known as Mauritius is on a map produced by the Italian cartographer Alberto Cantino in 1502. From this, it appears that Mauritius was first named Dina Arobi around 975 by Arab sailors, the first people to visit the island. In 1507, Portuguese sailors visited the uninhabited island; the island appears with a Portuguese name Cirne on early Portuguese maps from the name of a ship in the 1507 expedition. Another Portuguese sailor, Dom Pedro Mascarenhas, gave the name Mascarenes to the Archipelago.
In 1598, a Dutch squadron under Admiral Wybrand van Warwyck landed at Grand Port and named the island Mauritius, in honour of Prince Maurice van Nassau, stadholder of the Dutch Republic. The island became a French colony and was renamed Isle de France. On 3 December 1810, the French surrendered the island to Great Britain during the Napoleonic Wars. Under British rule, the island's name reverted to Mauritius. Mauritius is commonly known as Maurice and Île Maurice in French, Moris in Mauritian Creole; the island of Mauritius was uninhabited before its first recorded visit during the Middle Ages by Arab sailors, who named it Dina Arobi. In 1507, Portuguese sailors came to the uninhabited island and established a visiting base. Diogo Fernandes Pereira, a Portuguese navigator, was the first European known to land in Mauritius, he named the island "Ilha do Cirne". The Portuguese did not stay. In 1598 a Dutch squadron under Admiral Wybrand van Warwyck landed at Grand Port and named the island "Mauritius" after Prince Maurice of Nassau of the Dutch Republic.
The Dutch inhabited the island in 1638, from which they exploited ebony trees and introduced sugar cane, domestic animals and deer. It was from here; the first Dutch settlement lasted twenty years. Several attempts were subsequently made, but the settlements never developed enough to produce dividends, causing the Dutch to abandon Mauritius in 1710. France, which controlled neighbouring Île Bourbon, took control of Mauritius in 1715 and renamed it Isle de France. In 1723, the Code Noir was established to categorise one group of human beings as "goods", in order for the owner of these goods to be able to obtain insurance money and compensation in case of loss of his "goods"; the 1735 arrival of French governor Bertrand-François Mahé de La Bourdonnais coincided with development of a prosperous economy based on sugar production. Mahé de La Bourdonnais established Port Louis as a shipbuilding centre. Under his governorship, numerous buildings were erected, a number of which are sti
Sir George Seymour (1844 ship)
Sir George Seymour was built in Sunderland and Wear in 1844 by Somes Brothers. She made one voyage transporting convicts to Australia and at least one carrying emigrants to Australia and one to New Zealand. A fire at sea in her cargo in December 1867 forced her crew to abandon her. On 4 November 1844 Sir George Seymour, John Young Clarke, set sail from England, bound for Van Diemen's Land, Australia, she had embarked 345 male convicts and she landed 175 at Port Phillip and 169 at Hobart. She sailed for Calcutta on 27 June with 132 horses, other cargo and passengers. Sir George Seymour sailed from Plymouth on 9 January 1849, bound for Victoria, she was carrying assorted cargo. She anchored off Port Henry on 14 May. On 3 July she sailed from Sydney, bound for Calcutta. In 1850 Sir George Seymour was one of the First Four Ships to carry emigrants from England to the new colony of Canterbury in New Zealand on behalf of the Canterbury Association; the other three ships were Cressy, Charlotte Jane, Randolph.
Sir George Seymour left Plymouth Sound, England around 11am on Sunday, 8 September 1850, with about 227 passengers. She arrived in Lyttelton at 10am on Tuesday, 17 December 1850; the passengers aboard the first four ships were referred to as "The Pilgrims". Their names are inscribed on marble plaques in Cathedral Square in the centre of Christchurch; the ship is remembered in the name of George Seymour Quay, in the port town of Lyttelton. John Anderson, second mayor of ChristchurchJohn Anderson, his sonGuise Brittan, first Commissioner of Crown Lands for CanterburyEmily Foster and school principal. At the time her master was M'Ewen, her owner Higgins & Co. her homeport London, her trade "Brs". A fire destroyed Sir George Seymour in 1867, she was carrying a cargo of coal from Liverpool to Bombay when the cargo suffered spontaneous combustion on 18 December 1867 at 25°S 25°W. Her crew abandoned her. Leda, on her way to Calcutta, rescued 15 crew members, her entry in Lloyd's Register for 1867 carried the annotation "URNT".
The listing gave her master as M'Ewen, but her homeport now was Glasgow, her owner D. Law. Bateson, Charles; the Convict Ships, 1787–1868. Brown, Son & Ferguson. OCLC 3778075
Cathedral Square, Christchurch
Cathedral Square, locally known as the Square, is the geographical centre and heart of Christchurch, New Zealand, where the city's Anglican cathedral, ChristChurch Cathedral is located. The square stands at the theoretical crossing of the city's two main orthogonal streets, Colombo Street and Worcester Street, though in practice both have been either blocked off or detoured around the square itself; the Cathedral has been badly damaged in the February 2011 Christchurch earthquake. The square was intended to be called Ridley Square, after the Protestant martyr Nicholas Ridley, but in Edward Jollie's 1850 plan of central Christchurch it is marked Cathedral Square. Ridley's co-martyrs and colleague bishops and Latimer have Squares named after them, not far distant from Cathedral Square; the original choice of Ridley is another of Christchurch's many references to Oxford, since Ridley was martyred there. In the original survey of central Christchurch, undertaken in 1850, it was envisaged for Christ's College and ChristChurch Cathedral to be built adjacent to one another in Cathedral Square, modelled on Christ Church, Oxford.
The area set aside for the college in Cathedral Square was found to be insufficient, Henry Sewell suggested in June 1853 to move the college to land reserved for the Christchurch Botanic Gardens. This transaction was formalised through The Cathedral Square Ordinance 1858, a law passed by the Canterbury Provincial Council in October 1858; the ordinance allowed for Colombo Street to go straight through the middle of Cathedral Square at a legal width of 1.5 chains, the cathedral to be placed west of this thoroughfare. Christianity has adopted the practice of praying towards the East as the Orient was thought of as containing the mankind's original home. Hence, most Christian churches are oriented towards the east, to comply with this convention, Henry Harper, Christchurch's first Bishop, lobbied to have the eastern side of Cathedral Square to be used for the pro-cathedral; that way, the main entrance would face Colombo Street, resulting in praying towards the east in line with convention. The Cathedral Square Amendment Ordinance 1859, passed a year after the previous ordinance, formalised the change in placement of the cathedral.
Just before work on the cathedral's foundations began in 1864, the alignment of Colombo Street through Cathedral Square was changed again by introducing a curve towards the west. The purpose of this change was to allow the placement of the cathedral further west, making its tower visible along Colombo Street from a distance. Up to the point of work starting on the cathedral, here was little development. A statue to John Robert Godley, the city's founder, was unveiled on 6 August 1867 on a pedestal opposite the cathedral, it was the first public statue in New Zealand. The city's central post office was located alongside the square in 1879. Over the years Cathedral Square has been redesigned on several occasions. Two significant changes took place when the road in front of the cathedral was closed in 1965, the road in front of the Post Office closed in 1972. In the late 1990s / early 2000s, the Square underwent a significant reconstruction using new tiling; this was an criticised project, for example for the amount of glare that the tiles gave off in dry weather conditions, or the tiles being slippery when wet.
Although always called a "square", its shape is that of a cruciform. Cathedral Square has a large number of buildings and statues that are registered as heritage items with Heritage New Zealand. Many of those were damaged in the February 2011 Christchurch earthquake and some of these will be lost as a consequence. Category I placesChristChurch, its register number is 46 and it was registered on 7 April 1983. The Press Building was registered on 2 April 1984, with its register number 302, it was damaged in the February 2011 earthquake and was demolished in July 2011. The former Chief Post Office was registered on 2 April 1984, with its register number 291; the Old Government Building was registered on 5 April 1984, with its register number 301. The Citizens' War Memorial was registered on 6 September 1984, with its register number 3693; the Godley Statue was registered on 2 April 1985, with its register number 3666. The statue fell off its plinth in the 2011 Christchurch earthquake and time capsules discovered inside the plinth.
The Regent Theatre was registered on 30 August 1990, with its register number 1918. The Lyttelton Times Building was registered on 16 December 1994, with its register number 7216, it was demolished in 2011. Category II placesThe Sevicke Jones Building was registered on 28 April 1995, with its register number 7226; the building collapsed in the February 2011 earthquake. Warner's Hotel was registered on 24 April 1997, with its register number 7384; the historic part of the hotel was demolished. When steam trams began operating in the city in 1880, they left from the Square; when buses replaced trams in 1954, the Square was used as the main point of departure. Trams returned with the introduction of a tourist tram ride around the central city. Most buses left the Square when the Bus Exchange in Lichfield Street opened in November 2000. Since the public transport use of the Square was by the airport bus and shuttles. Since the February 2011 Christchurch earthquake, the core of the central city has been closed to the public.
The first part of the central city, Cashel Street between Colombo Street and Oxford Terrace, is planned to be open again on 29 October 2011. Other areas, including Cathedral Square, will follow
Mary White (lifeboat)
The Mary White was a lifeboat based in Broadstairs, England, named in 1851 after the completion of an heroic rescue of a brig, the Mary White. Song of the Mary White Culmer White
A merchant ship, merchant vessel, trading vessel, or merchantman is a watercraft that transports cargo or carries passengers for hire. This is in contrast to pleasure craft, which are used for personal recreation, naval ships, which are used for military purposes, they come in myriad sizes and shapes, from twenty-foot inflatable dive boats in Hawaii, to 5,000 passenger casino vessels on the Mississippi River, to tugboats plying New York Harbor, to 1,000 foot oil tankers and container ships at major ports, to a passenger carrying submarine in the U. S. Virgin Islands. Most countries of the world operate fleets of merchant ships. However, due to the high costs of operations, today these fleets are in many cases sailing under the flags of nations that specialize in providing manpower and services at favourable terms; such flags are known as "flags of convenience". Liberia and Panama are favoured. Ownership of the vessels can be by any country, however; the Greek-owned fleet is the largest in the world.
Today, the Greek fleet accounts for some 16 per cent of the world's tonnage. During wars, merchant ships may be used as auxiliaries to the navies of their respective countries, are called upon to deliver military personnel and materiel; the term "commercial vessel" is defined by the United States Coast Guard as any vessel engaged in commercial trade or that carries passengers for hire. In English, "Merchant Navy" without further clarification is used to refer to the British Merchant Navy. Merchant ships names are prefixed by which kind of vessel they are: CS = Cable Ship or Cable layer MS = Motorship MV = Motor Vessel / Merchant Vessel MFV = Motor Fishing Vessel SS = Steam Ship MT = Motor Tanker or Motor Tug Boat MSV = Motor Stand-by Vessel MY = Motor Yacht RMS = Royal Mail Ship RRS = Royal Research Ship SV = Sailing Vessel LPG = Gas carrier transporting liquefied petroleum gas LNG = Gas carrier transporting liquefied natural gas RV = Research VesselFor more detailed information see ship prefix The UNCTAD review of maritime transport categorizes ships as: oil tankers, bulk carriers, general cargo ships, container ships, "other ships", which includes "liquefied petroleum gas carriers, liquefied natural gas carriers, parcel tankers, specialized tankers, offshore supply, dredgers, ferries, other non-cargo".
General cargo ships include "multi-purpose and project vessels and roll-on/roll-off cargo". A cargo ship or freighter is any sort of ship or vessel that carries cargo and materials from one port to another. Thousands of cargo carriers ply the world's oceans each year. Cargo ships are specially designed for the task being equipped with cranes and other mechanisms to load and unload, come in all sizes. Dry cargo ships today are bulk carriers and container ships. Bulk carriers or bulkers are used for the transportation of homogeneous cargo such as coal, copra and wheat. Container ships are used for the carriage of miscellaneous goods. A bulk carrier is a ship used to transport bulk cargo items such as iron ore, coal, cement and similar cargo. Bulk carriers can be recognized by large box-like hatches on deck, designed to slide outboard or fold fore-and-aft to enable access for loading or discharging cargo; the dimensions of bulk carriers are determined by the ports and sea routes that they need to serve, by the maximum width of the Panama Canal.
Most lakes are too small to accommodate bulk carriers, but a large fleet of lake freighters has been plying the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Seaway of North America for over a century. Container ships are cargo ships that carry all of their load in truck-size containers, in a technique called containerization, they form a common means of commercial intermodal freight transport. A tanker is a ship designed to transport liquids in bulk. Oil tankers for the transport of fluids, such as crude oil, petroleum products, liquefied petroleum gas, liquefied natural gas and chemicals vegetable oils and other food - the tanker sector comprises one third of the world tonnage. Tankers can range in size from several hundred tons, designed to serve small harbours and coastal settlements, to several hundred thousand tons, with these being designed for long-range haulage. A wide range of products are carried by tankers, including: hydrocarbon products such as oil, LPG, LNG Chemicals, such as ammonia and styrene monomer fresh water wineDifferent products require different handling and transport, thus special types of tankers have been built, such as "chemical tankers" and "oil tankers".
Gas Carriers such as "LNG carriers" as they are known, are a rare tanker designed to carry liquefied natural gas. Among oil tankers, supertankers were designed for carrying oil around the Horn of Africa from the Middle East, it has a deadweight of length of about 458 meters. The use of such large ships is in fact unprofitable, due to the inability to operate them at full cargo capacity. Today's largest oil tankers in comparison by gross tonnage are TI Europe, TI Asia, TI Oceania, which are the largest sailing vessels today, but with their deadweight of 441,585 metric tons, sailing as VLCC most of the time, they do not use more than 70%
HMS Reynard (1848)
HMS Reynard was an 8-gun screw sloop of the Royal Navy. She was launched in 1848, conducted anti-piracy work in Chinese waters and was wrecked on the Pratas Islands in the South China Sea on 31 May 1851; the Admiralty ordered the ship on 25 April 1847 from Woolwich Dockyard as the steam schooner Plumper. She was re-ordered from Deptford Dockyard as the screw sloop Reynard on 12 August 1847 to a design by John Edye, laid down in August that year, she was launched on 21 March 1848 at Deptford and commissioned at Woolwich on 1 August 1848. Reynard was the only ship built to the design, she was constructed of wood, was 147 feet 0 inches long and 27 feet 10 inches in the beam, had a mean draught of 11 feet 6 inches. She had a displacement of 656 tons, she was powered by a J. and G. Rennie two-cylinder horizontal single-expansion steam engine driving a single screw. Rated at 60 nominal horsepower, developing 165 indicated horsepower, this unit was capable of driving her at 8.2 knots. Her armament of 8 guns consisted of two 32-pounder muzzle-loading smooth-bore guns and six 32-pounder muzzle-loading smooth-bore guns mounted to fire in a traditional broadside arrangement.
After commissioning, Reynard served in the Channel Fleet under Sir Charles Napier. On 15 September 1848, she ran aground at County Cork, she was refloated. Reynard took part in an abortive amphibious landing against Riff pirates in February 1849. On leaving the Channel Fleet, she sailed for the East Indies, leaving Singapore in company with HMS Cleopatra for Labuan and China on 10 October 1849, arriving in Hong Kong on 14 November. She served on the China Station in an anti-piracy role, recapturing two junks and apprehending 15 Chinese pirates on 23 March 1850, she left Hong Kong to return to Woolwich to pay off, but on her way was required to accompany the brig HMS Pilot to rescue the crew of the brig Velocipede, which had run aground on Pratas shoal, 170 miles southeast of Hong Kong. In rescuing the crew of Velocipede, Reynard herself was wrecked on the Pratas Islands in the South China Sea on 31 May 1851; the whole crew survived the sinking and were rescued by HMS Pilot, which rescued the crew of Velocipede.
The ship could not be saved, she was paid off as a total loss on 27 February 1852
Canterbury, New Zealand
Canterbury is a region of New Zealand, located in the central-eastern South Island. The region covers an area of 44,508 square kilometres, is home to a population of 624,000; the region in its current form was established in 1989 during nationwide local government reforms. The Kaikoura District joined the region in 1992 following the abolition of the Nelson-Marlborough Regional Council. Christchurch, the South Island's largest city and the country's third-largest urban area, is the seat of the region and home to 65 percent of the region's population. Other major towns and cities include Timaru, Ashburton and Rolleston. In 1848, Edward Gibbon Wakefield, a Briton, John Robert Godley, an Anglo-Irish aristocrat, founded the Canterbury Association to establish an Anglican colony in the South Island; the colony was based upon theories developed by Wakefield while in prison for eloping with a woman not-of-age. Due to ties to the University of Oxford, the Canterbury Association succeeded in raising sufficient funds and recruiting middle-class and upper-class settlers.
In April 1850, a preliminary group led by Godley landed at Port Cooper—modern-day Lyttelton Harbour—and established a port and shops in preparation for the main body of settlers. In December 1850, the first wave of 750 settlers arrived at Lyttelton in a fleet of four ships. Following 1850, the province's economy developed with the introduction of sheep farming; the Canterbury region's tussock plains in particular were suitable for extensive sheep farming. Since they were valued by settlers for their meat and wool, there were over half a million sheep in the region by the early 1850s. By the 1860s, this figure had risen to three million. During this period, the architect Benjamin Mountfort designed many civic and ecclesiastical buildings in the Gothic Revival style; the Canterbury Province was formed in 1853 following the passing of the New Zealand Constitution Act 1852. It was formed from part of New Munster Province and covered the middle part of the South Island, stretching from the east coast to the west coast.
The province was abolished, along with other provinces of New Zealand, when the Abolition of the Provinces Act came into force on 1 Nov 1876. The modern Canterbury Region has different boundaries in the north, where it includes some districts from the old Nelson Province; the area administered by the Canterbury Regional Council consists of all the river catchments on the east coast of the South Island from that of the Clarence River, north of Kaikoura, to that of the Waitaki River, in South Canterbury. It is New Zealand's largest region by area, with an area of 45,346 km2. Canterbury was traditionally bounded in the north by the Conway River, to the west by the Southern Alps, to the south by the Waitaki River; the area is divided into North Canterbury, Mid Canterbury, South Canterbury and Christchurch City. Canterbury is home to 624,000 people according to Statistics New Zealand's June 2018, 13 percent of New Zealand's population, it the second most populous region in New Zealand. The median age of Canterbury's population is two years above the New Zealand median.
Around 15.5 percent of the population is aged 65 or over while 18.7 percent is aged under 15. There are 97.5 males for every hundred females in Canterbury. At the 2013 Census of Population and Dwellings, 86.9 percent of Cantabrians identified as of European ethnicity, 8.1 percent as Māori, 6.9 percent as Asian, 2.5 percent as Pacific Peoples, 0.8 percent as Middle Eastern/Latin American/African, 2.0 percent as another ethnicity. Just under 20 percent of Canterbury's population was born overseas, compared to 25 percent for New Zealand as a whole; the British Isles remains the largest region of origin, accounting for 36.5 percent of the overseas-born population in Canterbury. Around a quarter of Canterbury's overseas-born population at the 2013 Census had been living in New Zealand for less than five years, 11 percent had been living in New Zealand for less than two years. Around 49.7 percent of Cantabrians affiliate with Christianity and 3.3 percent affiliate with non-Christian religions, while 44.5 percent are irreligious.
Anglicanism is the largest Christian denomination in Canterbury with 14.8 percent affiliating, while Catholicism is the second-largest with 12.7 percent affiliating. The Canterbury region's economy is diversified into agriculture, fishing, forestry and energy resources such as coal and hydroelectricity, its agriculture sector is diversified into dairy farming, sheep farming and horticulture viticulture. The strength of the region's agricultural economy is displayed every November at the Canterbury A&P Show; the show coincides with Cup Week. During the interwar period, agricultural productivity was boosted by the introduction of mechanization and the improvement of seed stocks. Canterbury is New Zealand's main producer of cereal crops such as wheat and oats; as of 2002, the region produced 60.7% of the nation's supply of wheat, 51.1% of its barley stocks and 43.7% of its supply of oats. The region's viticulture industry was established by French settlers in Akaroa. Since wine-growing is concentrated into two regions: Waipara and Burnham.
There have been vintages from plantings from Kurow further to the south. White wine has predominated in Canterbury from Riesling, Sauvignon blanc, Gewürztraminer