It is a lexicographical product which shows inter-relationships among the data. A broad distinction is made between general and specialized dictionaries, Specialized dictionaries include words in specialist fields, rather than a complete range of words in the language. Lexical items that describe concepts in specific fields are called terms instead of words. In practice, the two approaches are used for both types, there are other types of dictionaries that do not fit neatly into the above distinction, for instance bilingual dictionaries, dictionaries of synonyms, and rhyming dictionaries. The word dictionary is usually understood to refer to a general purpose monolingual dictionary, there is a contrast between prescriptive or descriptive dictionaries, the former reflect what is seen as correct use of the language while the latter reflect recorded actual use. Stylistic indications in many modern dictionaries are considered by some to be less than objectively descriptive, the birth of the new discipline was not without controversy, the practical dictionary-makers being sometimes accused by others of astonishing lack of method and critical-self reflection.
The oldest known dictionaries were Akkadian Empire cuneiform tablets with bilingual Sumerian–Akkadian wordlists, discovered in Ebla, the early 2nd millennium BCE Urra=hubullu glossary is the canonical Babylonian version of such bilingual Sumerian wordlists. Philitas of Cos wrote a pioneering vocabulary Disorderly Words which explained the meanings of rare Homeric and other words, words from local dialects. Apollonius the Sophist wrote the oldest surviving Homeric lexicon, the first Sanskrit dictionary, the Amarakośa, was written by Amara Sinha c. 4th century CE. Written in verse, it listed around 10,000 words, according to the Nihon Shoki, the first Japanese dictionary was the long-lost 682 CE Niina glossary of Chinese characters. The oldest existing Japanese dictionary, the c.835 CE Tenrei Banshō Meigi, was a glossary of written Chinese, a 9th-century CE Irish dictionary, Sanas Cormaic, contained etymologies and explanations of over 1,400 Irish words. In India around 1320, Amir Khusro compiled the Khaliq-e-bari which mainly dealt with Hindavi, in medieval Europe, glossaries with equivalents for Latin words in vernacular or simpler Latin were in use.
The Catholicon by Johannes Balbus, a large grammatical work with a lexicon, was widely adopted. It served as the basis for several bilingual dictionaries and was one of the earliest books to be printed, in 1502 Ambrogio Calepinos Dictionarium was published, originally a monolingual Latin dictionary, which over the course of the 16th century was enlarged to become a multilingual glossary. The first monolingual dictionary written in Europe was the Spanish, written by Sebastián Covarrubias Tesoro de la lengua castellana o española, published in 1611 in Madrid, in 1612 the first edition of the Vocabolario dellAccademia della Crusca, for Italian, was published. It served as the model for works in French and English. In 1690 in Rotterdam was published, the Dictionnaire Universel by Antoine Furetière for French, in 1694 appeared the first edition of the Dictionnaire de lAcadémie française. Between 1712 and 1721 was published the Vocabulario portughez e latino written by Raphael Bluteau, the Totius Latinitatis lexicon by Egidio Forcellini was firstly published in 1777, it has formed the basis of all similar works that have since been published
Merriam-Webster, Incorporated, is an American company that publishes reference books, especially known for its dictionaries. In 1831, George and Charles Merriam founded the company as G & C Merriam Co. in Springfield, in 1843, after Noah Webster died, the company bought the rights to An American Dictionary of the English Language from Websters estate. All Merriam-Webster dictionaries trace their lineage to this source, in 1964, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. acquired Merriam-Webster, Inc. as a subsidiary. The company adopted its current name in 1982, in 1806, Webster published his first dictionary, A Compendious Dictionary of the English Language. In 1807 Webster started two decades of work to expand his publication into a fully comprehensive dictionary, An American Dictionary of the English Language. To help him trace the etymology of words, Webster learned 26 languages, Webster hoped to standardize American speech, since Americans in different parts of the country used somewhat different vocabularies and spelled and used words differently.
Webster completed his dictionary during his year abroad in 1825 in Paris and his 1820s book contained 70,000 words, of which about 12,000 had never appeared in a dictionary before. He added American words, including skunk and squash, that did not appear in British dictionaries, at the age of 70 in 1828, Webster published his dictionary, it sold poorly, with only 2,500 copies putting him in debt. However, in 1840, he published the edition in two volumes with much greater success. He shows ways that American poetry inherited Websters ideas and draws on his lexicography to develop the language, in 1843, after Websters death, George Merriam and Charles Merriam secured publishing and revision rights to the 1840 edition of the dictionary. They published a revision in 1847, which did not change any of the text but merely added new sections. This began a series of revisions that were described as being unabridged in content, in 1884 it contained 118,000 words,3000 more than any other English dictionary.
With the edition of 1890, the dictionary was retitled Websters International, the Collegiate Dictionary was introduced in 1898 and the series is now in its eleventh edition. Following the publication of Websters International in 1890, two Collegiate editions were issued as abridgments of each of their Unabridged editions, with the ninth edition, the Collegiate adopted changes which distinguish it as a separate entity rather than merely an abridgment of the Third New International. Some proper names were returned to the word list, including names of Knights of the Round Table, the most notable change was the inclusion of the date of the first known citation of each word, to document its entry into the English language. The eleventh edition includes more than 225,000 definitions, a CD-ROM of the text is sometimes included. This dictionary is preferred as a source for general matters of spelling by the influential The Chicago Manual of Style, the Chicago Manual states that it normally opts for the first spelling listed.
Merriam overhauled the dictionary again with the 1961 Websters Third New International under the direction of Philip B, making changes that sparked public controversy
Between Scylla and Charybdis
Being between Scylla and Charybdis is an idiom deriving from Greek mythology, meaning having to choose between two evils. Several other idioms, such as on the horns of a dilemma and Charybdis were mythical sea monsters noted by Homer, Greek mythology sited them on opposite sides of the Strait of Messina between Sicily and the Italian mainland. Scylla was rationalized as a shoal on the Italian side of the strait. They were regarded as a sea hazard located close enough to each other that they posed a threat to passing sailors, avoiding Charybdis meant passing too close to Scylla. Because of such stories, having to navigate between the two hazards eventually entered idiomatic use, another equivalent English seafaring phrase is, Between a rock and a hard place. The Latin line incidit in scyllam cupiens vitare charybdim had earlier become proverbial, erasmus recorded it as an ancient proverb in his Adagia, although the earliest known instance is in the Alexandreis, a 12th-century Latin epic poem by Walter of Châtillon.
At a time when a Classical education was common, the myth of Scylla and this was in the context of the effect of the French Revolution on politics in Britain. A shield emblazoned Neutrality hangs on the thwarts, referring to how Palmerston tried to maintain a strict impartiality towards both combatants in the American Civil War. The first chapter of the volume is entitled The Charybdis of the Faubourg Saint Antoine. Nevertheless, the idiom has since taken on new life in pop lyrics, catch-22 Dilemma Hobsons choice Mortons fork Odyssey in Ancient Greek and translation from Perseus Project, with hyperlinks to grammatical and mythological commentary
American College Dictionary
The American College Dictionary was the first Random House dictionary and was expanded to create the Random House Dictionary of the English Language. First published in 1947, The American College Dictionary was edited by Clarence Barnhart based on the 1927 New Century Dictionary, the Random House publishing company entered the reference book market after World War II. They acquired the rights to the Century Dictionary and the Dictionary of American English, many scholars participated in the development of the dictionary with over 300 specialists assisting. For medical and psychological in the dictionary, many physicians in the New York City area where Random House was headquartered gave their assistance. In 1947, the dictionary was published, being edited by Clarence Barnhart and was based primarily on The New Century Dictionary and it was originally sold for $5.00 and included 1432 pages. In the late 1950s, it was decided to publish an expansion of the American College Dictionary and it was the first dictionary to use computers in its compilation and typesetting.
American writer and logophile Charles Harrington Elster described the 1947 edition of the American College Dictionary as a landmark among dictionaries
This stage of the development of the English language roughly followed the High to the Late Middle Ages. Middle English developed out of Late Old English, seeing many dramatic changes in its grammar and this largely forms the basis for Modern English spelling, although pronunciation has changed considerably since that time. Middle English was succeeded in England by the era of Early Modern English, by that time, a variant of the Northumbrian dialect was developing into the Scots language. During the Middle English period many Old English grammatical features were simplified or disappeared, noun and verb inflections were simplified, a process that included the reduction of most grammatical case distinctions. Middle English saw an adoption of Norman French vocabulary, especially in areas such as politics, law. Everyday English vocabulary remained mostly Germanic, with Old Norse influence becoming apparent, significant changes in pronunciation took place, especially for long vowels and diphthongs, which in the Middle English period began to undergo the Great Vowel Shift.
Little survives of early Middle English literature, most likely due to the Norman domination, poets wrote both in the vernacular and courtly English. It is popularly believed that William Shakespeare wrote in Middle English, the latter part of the 11th century was a period of transition from Late Old English to Early Middle English. The influence of Old Norse certainly helped move English from a synthetic language towards a more analytic or isolating word order and it was, after all, a salutary influence. The gain was greater than the loss, there was a gain in directness, in clarity, and in strength. The change to Old English from Old Norse was substantive, pervasive and it is most important to recognise that in many words the English and Scandinavian language differed chiefly in their inflectional elements. The body of the word was so nearly the same in the two languages only the endings would put obstacles in the way of mutual understanding. In the mixed population which existed in the Danelaw these endings must have led to confusion, tending gradually to become obscured.
This blending of peoples and languages resulted in simplifying English grammar. There are many Norman-derived terms relating to the cultures that arose in the 12th century. Sometimes, and particularly later, words were taken from Latin, giving such sets as kingly, French borrowings came from standard rather than Norman French, this leads to such cognate pairs as warden, guardian. The end of Anglo-Saxon rule did not, of course, change the language immediately, the general population would have spoken the same dialects as before the Conquest, these changed slowly until written records of them became available for study, which varies in different regions. Once the writing of Old English came to an end, Middle English had no standard language, Early Middle English has a largely Anglo-Saxon vocabulary, but a greatly simplified inflectional system
Canadian English is the set of varieties of the English language native to Canada. A larger number,28 million people, reported using English as their dominant language, 82% of Canadians outside the province of Quebec reported speaking English natively, but within Quebec the figure was just 7. 7% as most of its residents are native speakers of Quebec French. Canadian English contains elements of British English and American English, as well as many Canadianisms, the construction of identities and English-language varieties across political borders is a complex social phenomenon. The term Canadian English is first attested in a speech by the Reverend A. Constable Geikie in an address to the Canadian Institute in 1857, Canadian English is the product of five waves of immigration and settlement over a period of more than two centuries. Studies on earlier forms of English in Canada are rare, yet connections with other work to historical linguistics can be forged, an overview of diachronic work on Canadian English, or diachronically-relevant work, is Dollinger.
Until the 2000s, basically all commentators on the history of CanE have argued from the language-external history, an exception has been in the area of lexis, where Avis et als Dictionary of Canadianisms on Historical Principles, offered real-time historical data though its quotations. Recently, historical linguists have started to study earlier Canadian English on historical linguistic data, dCHP-1 is now available in open access. )Most notably, Dollinger pioneered the historical corpus linguistic approach for English in Canada with CONTE and offers a developmental scenario for 18th and 19th century Ontario. Recently, with a 19th-century newspaper corpus from Ontario, has confirmed the scenario laid out in Dollinger, Canadian spelling of the English language combines British and American conventions. Words such as realize and paralyze are usually spelled with -ize or -yze rather than -ise or -yse, french-derived words that in American English end with -or and -er, such as color or center, often retain British spellings.
While the United States uses the Anglo-French spelling defense and offense, some nouns, as in British English, take -ice while matching verbs take -ise – for example and licence are nouns while practise and license are the respective corresponding verbs. Canadian spelling sometimes retains the British practice of doubling consonants when adding suffixes to words even when the syllable is not stressed. Compare Canadian travelled and marvellous to American traveled, counseling, in American English, such consonants are only doubled when stressed, for instance and enthralling are universal. In other cases and Americans differ from British spelling, such as in the case of nouns like curb and tire, Canadian spelling conventions can be partly explained by Canadas trade history. For instance, the British spelling of the word cheque probably relates to Canadas once-important ties to British financial institutions, Canadas political history has had an influence on Canadian spelling. Canadas first prime minister, John A.
Macdonald, once directed the Governor General of Canada to issue an order-in-council directing that government papers be written in the British style, a contemporary reference for formal Canadian spelling is the spelling used for Hansard transcripts of the Parliament of Canada. Many Canadian editors, use the Canadian Oxford Dictionary, often along with the chapter on spelling in Editing Canadian English, throughout part of the 20th century, some Canadian newspapers adopted American spellings, for example, color as opposed to the British-based colour. Some of the most substantial historical spelling data can be found in Dollinger, the use of such spellings was the long-standing practice of the Canadian Press perhaps since that news agencys inception, but visibly the norm prior to World War II. The practice of dropping the letter u in such words was considered a labour-saving technique during the days of printing in which movable type was set manually
Australian English is a major variety of the English language, used throughout Australia. Although English has no status in the Constitution, Australian English is the countrys de facto official language and is the first language of the majority of the population. Australian English began to diverge from British English after the founding of the Colony of New South Wales in 1788 and was recognised as being different from British English by 1820. It arose from the intermingling of early settlers from a variety of mutually intelligible dialectal regions of the British Isles. Australian English differs from other varieties of English in vocabulary, pronunciation, grammar, the earliest form of Australian English was first spoken by the children of the colonists born into the colony of New South Wales. This first generation of children created a new dialect that was to become the language of the nation, the Australian-born children in the new colony were exposed to a wide range of dialects from all over the British Isles, in particular from Ireland and South East England.
The native-born children of the created the new dialect from the speech they heard around them. Even when new settlers arrived, this new dialect was strong enough to blunt other patterns of speech, a quarter of the convicts were Irish. Many had been arrested in Ireland, and some in Great Britain, many, if not most, of the Irish spoke Irish and either no English at all, or spoke it poorly and rarely. There were other significant populations of convicts from non-English speaking part of Britain, such as the Scottish Highlands, anthony Burgess writes that Australian English may be thought of as a kind of fossilised Cockney of the Dickensian era. According to linguist Bruce Moore, the input of the various sounds that went into constructing the Australian accent was from south-east England. Some elements of Aboriginal languages have adopted by Australian English—mainly as names for places and fauna. Many such are localised, and do not form part of general Australian use, while others, such as kangaroo, budgerigar, other examples are cooee and hard yakka.
The former is used as a call, for attracting attention. Cooee is a distance, if hes within cooee. Hard yakka means hard work and is derived from yakka, from the Jagera/Yagara language once spoken in the Brisbane region, of Aboriginal origin is the word bung, from the Sydney pidgin English, meaning dead, with some extension to broken or useless. Many towns or suburbs of Australia have influenced or named after Aboriginal words. The best-known example is the capital, named after a local word meaning meeting place
In computing, a spell checker is an application program that flags words in a document that may not be spelled correctly. Spell checkers may be stand-alone, capable of operating on a block of text, or as part of an application, such as a word processor, email client, electronic dictionary. A basic spell checker carries out the processes, It scans the text. It compares each word with a known list of correctly spelled words and this might contain just a list of words, or it might contain additional information, such as hyphenation points or lexical and grammatical attributes. An additional step is a language-dependent algorithm for handling morphology, even for a lightly inflected language like English, the spell-checker will need to consider different forms of the same word, such as plurals, verbal forms and possessives. For many other languages, such as those featuring agglutination and more complex declension and conjugation, as an adjunct to these components, the programs user interface will allow users to approve or reject replacements and modify the programs operation.
An alternative type of spell checker uses solely statistical information, such as n-grams and this approach usually requires a lot of effort to obtain sufficient statistical information. Key advantages include needing less runtime storage and the ability to correct errors in words that are not included in a dictionary, clustering algorithms have been used for spell checking combined with phonetic information. Research extends back to 1957, including spelling checkers for bitmap images of cursive writing, in 1961, Les Earnest, who headed the research on this budding technology, saw it necessary to include the first spell checker that accessed a list of 10,000 acceptable words. Gorin made SPELL publicly accessible, as was done with most SAIL programs, its algorithms and data structures inspired the Unix ispell program. The first spell checkers were widely available on computers in the late 1970s. A group of six linguists from Georgetown University developed the first spell-check system for the IBM corporation, the first spell checkers for personal computers appeared for CP/M and TRS-80 computers in 1980, followed by packages for the IBM PC after it was introduced in 1981.
On the PCs, these spell checkers were standalone programs, many of which could be run in TSR mode from within word-processing packages on PCs with sufficient memory. However, this required increasing sophistication in the routines of the software, particularly with regard to heavily-agglutinative languages like Hungarian. Firefox 2.0, a web browser, has spell check support for content, such as when editing Wikitext, writing on many webmail sites, blogs. The web browsers Google Chrome and Opera, the email client Kmail, mac OS X now has spell check systemwide, extending the service to virtually all bundled and third party applications. The first spell checkers were verifiers instead of correctors and they offered no suggestions for incorrectly spelled words. This was helpful for typos but it was not so helpful for logical or phonetic errors, the challenge the developers faced was the difficulty in offering useful suggestions for misspelled words