Meadowlarks are New World grassland birds belonging to genera Sturnella and Leistes. This group includes seven species of insectivorous grassland birds. In all species the male at least has a brown back and extensively red or yellow underparts. There is disagreement among authorities as to whether Lilian's meadowlark should be ranked as a full species or a subspecies. Red-breasted species, predominantly South American Red-breasted meadowlark, Leistes militaris White-browed meadowlark, Leistes superciliaris Peruvian meadowlark, Leistes bellicosa Pampas meadowlark, Leistes defillippi Long-tailed meadowlark, Leistes loycaYellow-breasted species, predominantly North American Eastern meadowlark, Sturnella magna Lilian's meadowlark, S. m. lilianae Western meadowlark, Sturnella neglecta As a group, the meadowlarks have had a volatile taxonomic history. When Carl Linnaeus described the eastern meadowlark in his epic 10th edition of Systema Naturae in 1758, he thought it was related to the Old World larks, so put it in the genus Alauda with them.
In the same work, he put the red-breasted meadowlark in the bunting genus Emberiza. Less than a decade he described the eastern meadowlark again, this time putting it into the starling genus Sturnus, which Juan Ignacio Molina used when he first described the long-tailed meadowlark in 1782. In 1816, Louis Jean Pierre Vieillot created the genus Sturnella, moving the meadowlarks into his new taxon. Most taxonomists accepted the new genus, the western meadowlark, Peruvian meadowlark and Lilian's meadowlark were all placed in this taxon when they were described; when Charles Lucien Bonaparte described the white-browed meadowlark and pampas meadowlark, however, he assigned them to another newly created genus — Trupialis, for what he called "ground-starlings". By the early 20th century, the meadowlarks were split again. Only the "yellow-breasted" meadowlarks remained in the genus Sturnella; the red-breasted and white-browed meadowlarks were moved to the genus Leistes, while the pampas meadowlark, Peruvian meadowlark and long-tailed meadowlark made up the genus Pezites, established by Cabanis in 1851.
By the late 20th century, all meadowlarks were lumped again in the genus Sturnella. In 2017, all the red-breasted species were moved to the genus Leistes. Del Hoyo, Josep. Handbook of Birds of the World, volume 16: Tanagers to New World Blackbirds. Barcelona, Spain: Lynx Edicions. ISBN 978-84-96553-78-1. New World Blackbirds by Jaramillo and Burke, ISBN 0-7136-4333-1 Powell, A. F. L. A.. K.. M.. J.. J.. "A comprehensive species-level molecular phylogeny of the New World blackbirds". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 71: 94–112. Doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2013.11.009. Sturnella videos and sounds on the Internet Bird Collection
United States Mint
The United States Mint is a unit of the Department of Treasury responsible for producing coinage for the United States to conduct its trade and commerce, as well as controlling the movement of bullion. It does not produce paper money; the Mint was created in Philadelphia in 1792, soon joined by other centers, whose coins were identified by their own mint marks. There are four active coin-producing mints: Philadelphia, San Francisco, West Point; the Mint was created by Congress with the Coinage Act of 1792, placed within the Department of State. Per the terms of the Coinage Act, the first Mint building was in Philadelphia, the capital of the United States. Today, the Mint's headquarters are in Washington D. C.. It operates mint facilities in Philadelphia, San Francisco, West Point, New York and a bullion depository at Fort Knox, Kentucky. Official Mints were once located in Carson City, Nevada. Part of the State Department, the Mint was made an independent agency in 1799, it converted precious metals into standard coin for anyone's account with no seigniorage charge beyond the refining costs.
Under the Coinage Act of 1873, the Mint became part of the Department of the Treasury. It was placed under the auspices of the Treasurer of the United States in 1981. Legal tender coins of today are minted for the Treasury's account; the first Director of the United States Mint was renowned scientist David Rittenhouse from 1792 to 1795. The position was held most by Edmund C. Moy until his resignation effective January 9, 2011; the position was left vacant until April 2018. Henry Voigt was the first Superintendent and Chief Coiner, is credited with some of the first U. S. coin designs. Another important position at the Mint is that of Chief Engraver, held by such men as Frank Gasparro, William Barber, Charles E. Barber, James B. Longacre, Christian Gobrecht; the Mint has operated several branch facilities throughout the United States since the Philadelphia Mint opened in 1792, in a building known as "Ye Olde Mint". With the opening of branch mints came the need for mint marks, an identifying feature on the coin to show its facility of origin.
The first of these branch mints were the Charlotte, North Carolina, Dahlonega and New Orleans, Louisiana branches. Both the Charlotte and Dahlonega Mints were opened to facilitate the conversion of local gold deposits into coinage, minted only gold coins; the Civil War closed both these facilities permanently. The New Orleans Mint closed at the beginning of the Civil War and did not re-open until the end of Reconstruction in 1879. During its two stints as a minting facility, it produced both gold and silver coinage in eleven different denominations, though only ten denominations were minted there at one time. A new branch facility was opened in Carson City, Nevada, in 1870. Like the Charlotte and Dahlonega branches, the Carson City Mint was opened to take advantage of local precious metal deposits, in this case, a large vein of silver. Though gold coins were produced there, no base metal coins were. In 1911 the Mint had a female acting director, Margaret Kelly, at that point the highest paid woman on the government's payroll.
She stated that women were paid within the bureau. A branch of the U. S. mint was established in 1920 in Manila in the Philippines, a U. S. territory. To date, the Manila Mint is the only U. S. mint established outside the continental U. S. and was responsible for producing coins. This branch was in production from 1920 to 1922, again from 1925 through 1941. Coins struck by this mint bear either the M mintmark or none at all, similar to the Philadelphia mint at the time. A branch mint in The Dalles, was commissioned in 1864. Construction was halted in 1870, the facility never produced any coins, although the building still stands. There are four active coin-producing mints: Philadelphia, San Francisco, West Point; the Mint's largest facility is the Philadelphia Mint. The current facility, which opened in 1969, is the fourth Philadelphia Mint; the first was built in 1792, when Philadelphia was still the U. S. capital, began operation in 1793. Until 1980, coins minted at Philadelphia bore no mint mark, with the exceptions of the Susan B.
Anthony dollar and the wartime Jefferson nickel. In 1980, the P mint mark was added to all U. S. coinage except the cent. Until 1968, the Philadelphia Mint was responsible for nearly all official proof coinage. Philadelphia is the site of master die production for U. S. coinage, the engraving and design departments of the Mint are located there. The Denver branch began life in 1863 as the local assay office, just five years after gold was discovered in the area. By the turn of the century, the office was bringing in over $5 million in annual gold and silver deposits, in 1906, the Mint opened its new Denver branch. Denver uses a D mint mark and strikes coinage only for circulation, although it did strike, along with three other mints, the $10 gold 1984 Los Angeles Olympic Com
Santa Fe, New Mexico
Santa Fe is the capital of the U. S. state of New Mexico. It is the seat of Santa Fe County; this area was occupied for at least several thousand years by indigenous peoples who built villages several hundred years ago, on the current site of the city. It was known by the Tewa inhabitants as Ogha Po'oge; the city of Santa Fe, founded by Spanish colonists in 1610, is the oldest state capital in the United States. Santa Fe had a population of 69,204 in 2012, it is the principal city of a Metropolitan Statistical Area which encompasses all of Santa Fe County and is part of the larger Albuquerque–Santa Fe–Las Vegas combined statistical area. The city's full name as founded remains La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asís. Before European colonization of the Americas, the area Santa Fe occupied between 900 CE and the 1500s was known to the Tewa peoples as Oghá P'o'oge and by the Navajo people as Yootó. In 1610, Juan de Oñate established the area as Santa Fe de Nuevo México–a province of New Spain.
Formal Spanish settlements were developed leading the colonial governor Pedro de Peralta to rename the area La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asís. The phrase "Santa Fe" is translated as "Holy Faith" in Spanish. Although more known as Santa Fe, the city's full, legal name remains to this day as La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asís; the standard Spanish variety pronounces it SAHN-tah-FAY as contextualized within the city's full, Spaniard name La Villa Real de la Santa Fé de San Francisco de Aśis. However, due to the large amounts of tourism and immigration into Santa Fe, an English pronunciation of SAN-tuh-FAY is commonly used; the area of Santa Fe was occupied by indigenous Tanoan peoples, who lived in numerous Pueblo villages along the Rio Grande. One of the earliest known settlements in what today is downtown Santa Fe came sometime after 900 CE. A group of native Tewa built a cluster of homes that centered around the site of today's Plaza and spread for half a mile to the south and west.
The river had a year-round flow until the 1700s. By the 20th century the Santa Fe River was a seasonal waterway; as of 2007, the river was recognized as the most endangered river in the United States, according to the conservation group American Rivers. Don Juan de Oñate led the first European effort to colonize the region in 1598, establishing Santa Fe de Nuevo México as a province of New Spain. Under Juan de Oñate and his son, the capital of the province was the settlement of San Juan de los Caballeros north of Santa Fe near modern Ohkay Owingeh Pueblo. New Mexico's second Spanish governor, Don Pedro de Peralta, founded a new city at the foot of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains in 1607, which he called La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asís, the Royal Town of the Holy Faith of Saint Francis of Assisi. In 1610, he designated it as the capital of the province, which it has constantly remained, making it the oldest state capital in the United States. Discontent with the colonization practices led to the Pueblo Revolt, when groups of different Native Pueblo peoples were successful in driving the Spaniards out of the area now known as New Mexico, maintaining their independence from 1680 to 1692, when the territory was reconquered by Don Diego de Vargas.
Santa Fe was Spain's provincial seat at outbreak of the Mexican War of Independence in 1810. It was considered important to fur traders based in present-day Saint Missouri; when the area was still under Spanish rule, the Chouteau brothers of Saint Louis gained a monopoly on the fur trade, before the United States acquired Missouri under the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. The fur trade contributed to the wealth of St. Louis; the city's status as the capital of the Mexican territory of Santa Fe de Nuevo México was formalized in the 1824 Constitution after Mexico achieved independence from Spain. When the Republic of Texas seceded from Mexico in 1836, it attempted to claim Santa Fe and other parts of Nuevo México as part of the western portion of Texas along the Río Grande. In 1841, a small military and trading expedition set out from Austin, intending to take control of the Santa Fe Trail. Known as the Texan Santa Fe Expedition, the force was poorly prepared and was captured by the Mexican army. In 1846, the United States declared war on Mexico.
Brigadier General Stephen W. Kearny led the main body of his Army of the West of some 1,700 soldiers into Santa Fe to claim it and the whole New Mexico Territory for the United States. By 1848 the U. S. gained New Mexico through the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Colonel Alexander William Doniphan, under the command of Kearny, recovered ammunition from Santa Fe labeled "Spain 1776" showing both the quality of communication and military support New Mexico received under Mexican rule; some American visitors at first saw little promise in the remote town. One traveller in 1849 wrote: I can hardly imagine how Santa Fe is supported; the country around it is barren. At the North stands a snow-capped mountain while the valley in which the town is situated is drab and sandy; the streets are narrow... A Mexican will walk about town all day to sell a bundle of grass worth about a dime, they are the poorest looking people I saw. They subsist principally on mutton and red pepper. In 1851, Jean Baptiste Lamy arrived, becoming bishop of New Mexico, Utah, C
The Bannock tribe were Northern Paiute but are more culturally affiliated with the Northern Shoshone. They are in the Great Basin classification of Indigenous People, their traditional lands include northern Nevada, southeastern Oregon, southern Idaho, western Wyoming. Today they are enrolled in the federally recognized Shoshone-Bannock Tribes of the Fort Hall Reservation of Idaho, located on the Fort Hall Indian Reservation. Traditionally, the Northern Paiute traded with surrounding tribes; the bands in eastern Oregon traded with the tribes to the north. In the mid-18th century, some bands developed a horse culture and split off to become the Bannock tribe; the horse gave the tribe a greater range, from Oregon to northern Nevada, southern Idaho, western Wyoming. They forayed from there on the Bannock Trail to Canada to hunt buffalo; the Bannock made pottery, utensils from mountain sheep horns, carrying bags from salmon skin. Their petroglyphs date back before European contact, after the introduction of glass beads, they transferred their geometric design to beadwork.
For water transport, they made tule reed rafts. Prior to the late 19th century, Bannock people fished for salmon on the Snake River in Idaho and in the fall, they hunted buffalo herds. Buffalo hides provided material for tipis; the Bannock are prominent in American history due to the Bannock War of 1878. After the war, the Bannock moved onto the Fort Hall Indian Reservation with the Northern Shoshone and their tribes merged. Today they are called the Shoshone-Bannock; the Bannock live on 544,000 acres in Southeastern Idaho. Lemhi and Northern Shoshone live with the Bannock Indians. In the 2010 Census, 89 people identified as Bannock ancestry, 38 full-blooded. However, 5,315 are enrolled in the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes of the Fort Hall Reservation, not stating their tribe. Mary Jo Estep, elementary music teacher and survivor of the Battle of Kelley Creek Sally Young Kanosh, adopted daughter of Brigham Young, wife of Kanosh Mark Trahant, journalist Randy'L He-dow Teton, model Pritzker, Barry M.. A Native American Encyclopedia: History and Peoples.
Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-513877-1. Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Official Website List of Native American peoples in the United States
The Shoshone or Shoshoni are a Native American tribe with four large cultural/linguistic divisions: Eastern Shoshone: Wyoming Northern Shoshone: southeastern Idaho Western Shoshone: Nevada, northern Utah Gosiute: western Utah, eastern NevadaThey traditionally speak the Shoshoni language, part of the Numic languages branch of the large Uto-Aztecan language family. The Shoshone were sometimes called the Snake Indians by neighboring tribes and early American explorers, their peoples have become members of federally recognized tribes throughout their traditional areas of settlement colocated with the Northern Paiute people of the Great Basin. The name "Shoshone" comes from a Shoshone word for high-growing grasses; some neighboring tribes call the Shoshone "Grass House People," based on their traditional homes made from sosoni. Shoshones call themselves Newe, meaning "People."Meriwether Lewis recorded the tribe as the "Sosonees or snake Indians" in 1805. The Shoshoni language is spoken by 1,000 people today.
It belongs to the Central Numic branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family. Speakers are scattered from central Nevada to central Wyoming; the largest numbers of Shoshoni speakers live on the federally recognized Duck Valley Indian Reservation, located on the border of Nevada and Idaho. Idaho State University offers Shoshoni-language classes; the Shoshone are a Native American tribe, who originated in the western Great Basin and spread north and east into present-day Idaho and Wyoming. By 1500, some Eastern Shoshone had crossed the Rocky Mountains into the Great Plains. After 1750, warfare and pressure from the Blackfoot, Lakota and Arapaho pushed Eastern Shoshone south and westward; some of them moved as far south as Texas, emerging as the Comanche by 1700. As more European-American settlers migrated west, tensions rose with the indigenous people over competition for territory and resources. Wars occurred throughout the second half of the 19th century; the Northern Shoshone, led by Chief Pocatello, fought during the 1860s with settlers in Idaho.
As more settlers encroached on Shoshone hunting territory, the natives raided farms and ranches for food, attacked immigrants. The warfare resulted in the Bear River Massacre, when US forces attacked and killed an estimated 410 Northwestern Shoshone, who were at their winter encampment. A large number of the dead were civilians, including women and children, deliberately killed by the soldiers; this was the highest number of deaths which the Shoshone suffered at the hands of United States forces. Allied with the Bannock, to whom they were related, the Shoshone fought against the United States in the Snake War from 1864 to 1868, they fought US forces together in 1878 in the Bannock War. In 1876, by contrast, the Shoshone fought alongside the U. S. Army in the Battle of the Rosebud against their traditional enemies, the Lakota and Cheyenne. In 1879 a band of 300 Eastern Shoshone became involved in the Sheepeater Indian War, it was the last Indian war fought in the Pacific Northwest region of the present-day United States.
In 1911 a small group of Bannock under a leader named Mike Daggett known as "Shoshone Mike," killed four ranchers in Washoe County, Nevada. The settlers went out after the Native Americans, they killed eight. They lost one man of Ed Hogle; the posse captured a woman. A rancher donated the partial remains of three adult males, two adult females, two adolescent males, three children to the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, DC for study. In 1994, the institution repatriated the remains to the Fort Hall Idaho Shoshone-Bannock Tribe. In 2008 the Northwestern Shoshone acquired the site of the Bear River Massacre and some surrounding land, they wanted to protect the holy land and to build a memorial to the massacre, the largest their nation had suffered. "In partnership with the American West Heritage Center and state leaders in Idaho and Utah, the tribe has developed public/private partnerships to advance tribal cultural preservation and economic development goals." They have become a leader in developing tribal renewable energy.
In 1845 the estimated population of Northern and Western Shoshone was 4,500, much reduced after they had suffered infectious disease epidemics and warfare. The completion of the First Transcontinental Railroad in 1869 was followed by European-American immigrants arriving in unprecedented numbers in the territory. In 1937 the Bureau of Indian Affairs counted 1,201 Western Shoshone; as of the 2000 census, some 12,000 persons identified as Shoshone. Shoshone people are divided into traditional bands based both on their homelands and primary food sources; these include: Eastern Shoshone people:Guchundeka', Buffalo Eaters Tukkutikka, Mountain Sheep Eaters, joined the Northern Shoshone Boho'inee', Pohogwe, Sage Grass people, Sagebrush Butte PeopleNorthern Shoshone people:Agaideka, Salmon Eaters, Snake River and Lemhi River Valley Doyahinee', Mountain people Kammedeka, Jack Rabbit Eaters, Snake River, Great Salt Lake Hukundüka, Porcupine Grass Seed Eaters, Wild Wheat Eaters synonymous with Kammitikka Tukudeka, Dukundeka', Sheep Eaters, Sawtooth Range, Idaho Yahandeka, Groundhog Eaters, lower Boise and Wiser RiversWestern Shoshone people:Kusiutta, Great Salt Desert and Great Salt Lake, UtahCedar Valley Goshute Deep Creek Goshute Rush Valley G
Lewis and Clark Expedition
The Lewis and Clark Expedition from May 1804 to September 1806 known as the Corps of Discovery Expedition, was the first American expedition to cross the western portion of the United States. It began in Pittsburgh, Pa, made its way westward, passed through the Continental Divide of the Americas to reach the Pacific coast; the Corps of Discovery was a selected group of US Army volunteers under the command of Captain Meriwether Lewis and his close friend Second Lieutenant William Clark. President Thomas Jefferson commissioned the expedition shortly after the Louisiana Purchase in 1803 to explore and to map the newly acquired territory, to find a practical route across the western half of the continent, to establish an American presence in this territory before Britain and other European powers tried to claim it; the campaign's secondary objectives were scientific and economic: to study the area's plants, animal life, geography, to establish trade with local American Indian tribes. The expedition returned to St. Louis to report its findings to Jefferson, with maps and journals in hand.
One of Thomas Jefferson's goals was to find "the most direct and practicable water communication across this continent, for the purposes of commerce." He placed special importance on declaring US sovereignty over the land occupied by the many different Indian tribes along the Missouri River, getting an accurate sense of the resources in the completed Louisiana Purchase. The expedition made notable contributions to science, but scientific research was not the main goal of the mission. During the 19th century, references to Lewis and Clark "scarcely appeared" in history books during the United States Centennial in 1876, the expedition was forgotten. Lewis and Clark began to gain attention around the start of the 20th century. Both the 1904 Louisiana Purchase Exposition in St. Louis and the 1905 Lewis and Clark Centennial Exposition in Portland, Oregon showcased them as American pioneers. However, the story remained shallow until mid-century as a celebration of US conquest and personal adventures, but more the expedition has been more researched.
In 2004, a complete and reliable set of the expedition's journals was compiled by Gary E. Moulton. In the 2000s, the bicentennial of the expedition further elevated popular interest in Lewis and Clark; as of 1984, no US exploration party was more famous, no American expedition leaders are more recognizable by name. Jefferson met John Ledyard in Paris in the 1780s, they discussed a possible trip to the Pacific Northwest. Jefferson had read Captain James Cook's A Voyage to the Pacific Ocean, an account of Cook's third voyage, Le Page du Pratz's The History of Louisiana, all of which influenced his decision to send an expedition. Like Captain Cook, he wished to discover a practical route through the Northwest to the Pacific coast. Alexander Mackenzie had charted a route in his quest for the Pacific, following the Mackenzie River to the Arctic Ocean in 1789. Mackenzie and his party were the first to cross America north of Mexico to the Pacific when he arrived near Bella Coola, British Columbia in 1793—a dozen years before Lewis and Clark.
Mackenzie's accounts in Voyages from Montreal informed Jefferson of Britain's intent to control the lucrative fur trade of the Columbia River and convinced him of the importance of securing the territory as soon as possible. Two years into his presidency, Jefferson asked Congress to fund an expedition through the Louisiana territory to the Pacific Ocean, he did not attempt to make a secret of the Lewis and Clark expedition from Spanish and British officials, but rather claimed different reasons for the venture. He used a secret message to ask for funding due to poor relations with the opposition Federalist Party in Congress. In 1803, Jefferson commissioned the Corps of Discovery and named Army Captain Meriwether Lewis its leader, who selected William Clark as second in command. Lewis demonstrated remarkable skills and potential as a frontiersman, Jefferson made efforts to prepare him for the long journey ahead as the expedition was gaining approval and funding. Jefferson explained his choice of Lewis: It was impossible to find a character who to a complete science in botany, natural history, mineralogy & astronomy, joined the firmness of constitution & character, habits adapted to the woods & a familiarity with the Indian manners and character, requisite for this undertaking.
All the latter qualifications Capt. Lewis has. In 1803, Jefferson sent Lewis to Philadelphia to study medicinal cures under Benjamin Rush, a physician and humanitarian, he arranged for Lewis to be further educated by Andrew Ellicott, an astronomer who instructed him in the use of the sextant and other navigational instruments. Lewis, was not ignorant of science and had demonstrated a marked capacity to learn with Jefferson as his teacher. At Monticello, Jefferson possessed the largest library in the world on the subject of the geography of the North American continent, Lewis had full access to it, he spent time conferring with Jefferson. Lewis and Clark met near Louisville, Kentucky in October 1803 at the Falls of the Ohio and the core "Nine Young Men" were enlisted into the Corps of Discovery, their goals were to explore the vast territory acquired by the Louisiana Purchase and to establish trade and US sovereignty over the Indians along the Missouri River. Jefferson wanted to establish a US claim of "discovery" to the Pacific Northwest and Oregon territory by documenting an American presence there before European nations could claim the land.
According to some historians, Jefferson understood that he would have
Fort Hall Indian Reservation
The Fort Hall Reservation is a Native American reservation of the federally recognized Shoshone-Bannock Tribes in the U. S. state of Idaho. This is one of five federally recognized tribes in the state; the reservation is located in southeastern Idaho on the Snake River Plain about 20 miles north and west of Pocatello. It comprises 814.874 sq mi of land area in four counties: Bingham, Power and Caribou. To the east is the 60-mile-long Portneuf Range. Founded under an 1868 treaty, the reservation is named for Fort Hall, a trading post in the Portneuf Valley, established by European Americans, it was an important stop along the California trails in the middle 19th century. A monument on the reservation marks the former site of the fort. Interstate 15 serves the community of the largest population center on the reservation; the total population of the reservation was 5,762 at the 2000 census. The Shoshone-Bannock Tribes has more than 5,300 enrolled members, more than half reside on the Fort Hall Reservation.
Others have moved to urban areas for work. The tribes are governed by a seven-member elected council and maintain their own governmental services, including law enforcement, courts and health services, education; the four other federally recognized tribes in the state are the Coeur d'Alene, Nez Perce, Shoshone-Paiute at Duck Valley Indian Reservation. In July 2016, the Department of Interior made offers to 536 landowners with fractional interests at Fort Hall Reservation for buy-back of lands valued at $11 million in offers; this was under its Land Buy-Back Program as part of the government's settlement of the Cobell v. Salazar class action suit; the land purchased will be transferred into trust for the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, to restore its traditional land. About 1.5 million acres of land has been put into trust for tribes under this program. The Shoshone and Bannock had long occupied the territory of nearby areas, they were not disrupted by settlers until the late 1840s and 1850s, when emigrant wagon trains crossed their territory.
The emigrants took all water, leaving the Native Americans to struggle. In the 1850s the Shoshone, led by Chief Pocatello, attacked emigrant parties in an effort to drive them off, as the settlers encroached on their hunting grounds and game. After initial hostilities, the Mormons, led by Brigham Young, pursued a policy of reconciliation with the Shoshone, but other settlers complained, the federal government ordered the U. S. Army into the Utah Territory in 1858, resulting in full-scale conflict between the U. S. and the Shoshone. There had been escalating conflicts, with the Shoshone and Bannock tribes pitted against the increasing tide of European-American settlers; the latter encroached on the Native Americans' traditional territory, competing for resources and damaging the habitat of game they depended on. In January 1863 Colonel Patrick Edward Connor led his troops from Fort Douglas in order to "chastise" the Shoshone. In what is known as the Bear River Massacre, his US Army forces killed more than 400 Shoshone, including women and children, in present-day southeastern Idaho.
Warned of Connor's advance, Pocatello had led his people out of harm's way. Another chief and his band were attacked and destroyed. Seeing the power of US forces, Pocatello subsequently sued for peace and agreed to relocate his people in 1868 to a newly established reservation along the Snake River. Four bands of Shoshone and the Bannock band of the Northern Paiute relocated to the reservation consisting of 1.8 million acres of land. As part of the Fort Bridger Treaty of 1868, the U. S. government agreed to supply the Shoshone-Bannock tribes annually with goods and supplies annuities worth 5,000 dollars. The U. S. government failed to provide the annuity goods on time, food supplies sometimes arrived spoiled. In addition, the lands of the reservation, located on the Snake River Plain, were not appropriate for the subsistence-type agriculture that the government wanted the Shoshone-Bannock to adopt. In the years following their removal to the reservation, the Shoshone-Bannock peoples suffered from hunger and disease, with high mortality.
Hoping to relieve his people's suffering, Pocatello led a small group to a missionary farm in the Utah Territory to receive mass baptism and conversion to Mormonism. Although the Shoshone were baptized, the local settlers Mormon, agitated for removal of the Indians; the U. S. Army forced the Shoshone back onto the reservation. From 1868-1932, the federal government reduced the territory of the reservation by two thirds, taking some for such projects as railroads and roads, allowing non-Native settlers to encroach on the grounds. Most under the Dawes Act of 1887, the government attempted to impose the model of private property and subsistence farming, thinking to encourage assimilation of the tribes to the majority type farm, it registered all members of the tribes and allotted individual 160-acre plots of land to each household. Given the arid local conditions, these allotments were too small to support subsistence agriculture; the government declared the remainder of the communal land to be "surplus" and sold much of it to European-American settlers.
Some members of the tribes sold their plots because they were too small to be farmed, leading to the tribes' losing control of more lands. In 1934 during the Franklin D. Roosevelt administration, the US Congress passed the Indian Reorganization Act, created in part to end the allotment process and encourage tribes to re-establish self-government and to sta