1982 in baseball
The following are the baseball events of the year 1982 throughout the world. World Series: St. Louis Cardinals over Milwaukee Brewers World Series MVP: Darrell Porter American League Championship Series MVP: Fred Lynn National League Championship Series MVP: Darrell Porter All-Star Game, July 13 at Olympic Stadium: National League, 4-1. Aaron fell nine votes shy of becoming the first unanimous selection, his 97.8 election percentage is second only to Ty Cobb's 98.2 percent in the inaugural 1936 election. January 22 – Reggie Jackson signs with the California Angels, thus ending his five-year stay with the New York Yankees January 27 – The Chicago Cubs complete a trade with the Philadelphia Phillies that sees Iván DeJesús go to the Phillies for Larry Bowa, Minor League prospect Ryne Sandberg goes to the Cubs. February 8 – The Los Angeles Dodgers trade away Davey Lopes to the Oakland Athletics; this trade breaks up the starting infield of Lopes, Ron Cey, Bill Russell, Steve Garvey, together since 1974.
February 11 – In a trade of shortstops, the St. Louis Cardinals acquire Ozzie Smith from the San Diego Padres for Garry Templeton. March 10 – Former New York Giants shortstop Travis Jackson and former baseball commissioner Happy Chandler are elected to the Hall of Fame by the Special Veterans Committee. Jackson hit.291 in 15 seasons between the 1920s and 1930s, while Chandler was the second commissioner and oversaw – and encouraged – the dismantling of the color barrier in 1947. April 1 – The New York Mets trade Lee Mazzilli to the Texas Rangers for Ron Darling and Walt Terrell. April 6 – In Minneapolis, the Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome debuts for major league baseball, as the Seattle Mariners outslug the Minnesota Twins 11-7. Dave Engle of the Twins christens the Dome with its first home run. Muriel Humphrey, the widow of the 38th Vice President of the United States, threw out the first pitch. April 20 – Before a crowd of 37,268—the largest crowd to see a game at Fulton County Stadium this season—the Atlanta Braves beat the Cincinnati Reds 4-2 to go 12–0, the best start by any Major League team.
Steve Bedrosian was the winning pitcher. The streak would reach 13 the next day as the Braves beat the Reds 4-3. May 6 – Gaylord Perry of the Seattle Mariners becomes the 15th pitcher with 300 career wins. May 9 The New York Mets' Rusty Staub hits a game winning home run off Greg Minton of the San Francisco Giants; the home run ends Minton's streak of 2541⁄3 innings without allowing a long ball. This still stands as the longest streak in the live-ball era. Angry at the release of second baseman Rodney Scott, left-hander Bill "Spaceman" Lee spends the first six innings of the Montreal Expos' 5–4 loss to the Los Angeles Dodgers shooting pool and drinking beer at a local tavern, he returns to Olympic Stadium in the seventh and, after the game, leaves his uniform in manager Jim Fanning's office. Shortly thereafter, Lee is released. May 25 – In the third inning against the San Diego Padres, Ferguson Jenkins, playing for the Chicago Cubs, becomes the seventh pitcher to record 3,000 strikeouts, his victim is Garry Templeton of the Padres.
May 30 – Cal Ripken, Jr. starts at third base for the Baltimore Orioles against the Toronto Blue Jays. It is the first game of his record-breaking 2,632 consecutive games played streak. Coincidentally, May 31, will be the fifty-seventh anniversary of the start of Lou Gehrig's streak, which Ripken will break. June 2 – The Milwaukee Brewers, 23–24 on the season and 7 games out of first place, fire Buck Rodgers as their manager. Harvey Kuenn replaces him and will guide the Brewers to victory in 20 of their next 27 games, the Brewers taking over first place on July 11; the team soon to be known as "Harvey's Wallbangers" will go on to win the American League East title and their only American League pennant. June 6 – While crossing a street in Arlington, umpire Lou DiMuro is struck by a car. Major League Baseball retires his uniform number 16. June 20 – Pete Rose becomes only the fifth player in history to play in 3,000 Major League baseball games. July 13 – At Montreal's Olympic Stadium, in the first All-Star Game held outside the United
Curse of the Colonel
Curse of the Colonel refers to an urban legend regarding a reputed curse placed on the Japanese Kansai-based Hanshin Tigers baseball team by deceased KFC founder and mascot Colonel Harland Sanders. The curse was said to be placed on the team because of the Colonel's anger over treatment of one of his store-front statues, thrown into the Dōtonbori River by celebrating Hanshin fans following their team's victory in the 1985 Japan Championship Series; as is common with sports-related curses, the Curse of the Colonel was used to explain the team's subsequent 18-year losing streak. Some fans believed the team would never win another Japan Series until the statue had been recovered, they have appeared in the Japan Series three times since losing in 2003, 2005 and 2014. Comparisons are made between the Hanshin Tigers and the Boston Red Sox, who were said to be under the Curse of the Bambino until they won the World Series in 2004; the "Curse of the Colonel" has been used as a bogeyman threat to those who would divulge the secret recipe of eleven herbs and spices that result in the unique taste of his chicken.
The Hanshin Tigers are located in the second largest metropolitan area in Japan. They are considered the eternal underdogs of Nippon Professional Baseball, in opposition to the Yomiuri Giants of Tokyo, who are considered the kings of Japanese baseball; the devoted fans flock to the stadium no matter. In 1985, much to the nation's surprise, the Hanshin Tigers faced the Seibu Lions and took their first and only victory in the Japan Series due to the efforts of star slugger Randy Bass, an American playing for the team; the fan base went wild, a riotous celebration gathered at Ebisu Bridge in Dōtonbori, Osaka. There, an assemblage of supporters yelled the players' names, with every name, a fan resembling a member of the victorious team leaped from the bridge into the waiting canal. However, lacking a Caucasian person to imitate MVP Randy Bass, the rabid crowd seized a plastic statue of Colonel Sanders from a nearby KFC and tossed it off the bridge as an effigy. According to the urban legend, this impulsive maneuver cost the team beginning the Curse of the Colonel, which states that the Tigers will not win the championship again until the statue is recovered.
Subsequently, numerous attempts have been made to recover the statue as part of a variety TV show. Most of the statue was recovered in March 2009. After their success in the 1985 series, the Hanshin Tigers began an 18-year losing streak placing last or next-to-last in the league. Brief rallies in 1992 and 1999 brought hope to fans. During this time attempts were made to recover the statue, including sending divers down and dredging the river, but they all failed. Fans apologized to the store manager, but the statue remained in the canal and the Tigers "cursed". Although the leap into Dōtonbori canal and the Curse of the Colonel is associated only with a Hanshin Tigers victory, in 2002, when Japan beat Tunisia in the World Cup, some 500 fans jumped into the canal as a celebration, in spite of heavy police security. In addition, a Colonel Sanders statue was taken from the storefront of a KFC in nearby Kōbe, its hands were cut off in imitation of Sharia law. In 2003, the Tigers had an unexpectedly strong season.
Their chief rivals, the Yomiuri Giants, lost their star player Hideki Matsui to the New York Yankees, while the Tigers saw the return of pitcher Hideki Irabu back to NPB after playing with the Texas Rangers. The Tigers won the Central League to qualify for the Japan Series, many newspapers speculated that the Curse of the Colonel had been broken; the Tigers lost the Japan Series, this time to the Fukuoka Daiei Hawks, so the curse is intact. Fans were enthusiastic about winning the Central League, repeated the celebratory leap into Dōtonbori Canal. However, instead of the individual leapers representing the players, over 5,300 fans plunged into the canal. Many KFC outlets in Kobe and Osaka moved their Colonel Sanders statues inside until the series was over to protect them from rabid Tigers fans; the newly replaced Colonel Sanders statue in the Dōtonbori KFC branch was bolted down to prevent a repeat of the incident. For 24-year-old Hanshin Tigers fan Masaya Shitababa, the 2003 celebration was a tragedy.
He drowned with all reports being that he had been shoved in by the revelers. To prevent future incidents, the Osaka city council ordered the construction of a new Ebisubashi bridge beginning in 2004, which will make it more difficult for fans to take the celebratory leap should the Curse of the Colonel be broken and the Tigers win again; the Colonel was discovered in the Dōtonbori River on March 10, 2009. Divers who recovered the statue at first thought it was only a large barrel, shortly after a human corpse, but Hanshin fans on the scene were quick to identify it as the upper body of the long-lost Colonel; the right hand and lower body were found next day, but the statue is still missing its glasses and left hand. It is said that the only way the curse can be lifted is by returning his long-lost glasses and left hand; the statue was recovered and returned to KFC Japan. As the KFC restaurant that the statue belonged to no longer exists, the statue was now placed in the branch near Koshien Stadium.
Baseball superstition Curse of the Bambino – A similar superstition surrounding the Boston Red Sox Curse of the Billy Goat – A similar superstition surrounding the Chicago Cubs (American baseball
Nippon Professional Baseball
Nippon Professional Baseball or NPB is the highest level of baseball in Japan. Locally, it is called Puro Yakyū, meaning Professional Baseball. Outside Japan, it is just referred to as "Japanese baseball"; the roots of the league can be traced back to the formation of the "Greater Japan Tokyo Baseball Club" in Tokyo, founded 1934 and the original circuit for the sport in the Empire two years - Japanese Baseball League, even continued to play through the dark years of total warfare with Japan's invasion of Manchuria in 1931, intervening in the Chinese Civil War in 1937 with the wider Sino-Japanese War, into the greater World War II. The new NPB for Japan was formed when that sports organization reorganized in 1950 with creating its two leagues with six teams each of the Central League and the Pacific League with an annual season ending Japan Series championship play-off series of games starting that year for the JPB on the lines of the American World Series tournament. Nippon Professional Baseball consists of two leagues, the Central League and the Pacific League with six teams / franchises each.
There are two secondary-level professional minor leagues, the Eastern League and the Western League, that play shorter schedules for developing players. The season starts in late March or early April, ends in October, with two or three all-star games in July. In recent decades prior to 2007, the two leagues each scheduled between 130 and 140 regular season games, with the 146 games played by the Central League in 2005 and 2006 being the only exception. Both leagues have since adopted 73 each at home & on road. In general, Japanese teams play six games a week, with every Monday off. Following the conclusion of each regular season the best teams from each league go on to play in the "Nippon Series" or Japan Series championship play-off tournament on the lines of the American World Series since 1903. In 2004, the Pacific League played five fewer games than the Central League teams during the regular season and used a new playoff format to determine its champion; the teams in third and second place played in a best-of-three series with the winner of that series going on to play the first place team in a best-of-five format at its home ground.
In 2006, the Central League adopted the Pacific League's tournament as well, the tournament became known as the Climax Series with the two winners, one from each league, competing in the Japan Series. The NPB rules are those of the American Major League Baseball, but technical elements are different: The Nippon league uses a smaller baseball, strike zone, playing field; the Japanese baseball is wound more than an American baseball. The strike zone is narrower "inside" than away from the batter. Five Nippon league teams have fields whose small dimensions would violate the American Official Baseball Rules; the note set out at the end of Rule 1.04 specifies minimum dimensions for American ballparks built or renovated after 1958: 325 feet down each foul line and 400 feet to center field. American Major League Baseball players and sabermetricians describe play in the NPB as "AAAA". Play in the Pacific League is similar to that in American League baseball, with the use of designated hitters, unlike the Central League, which has no DH rule and is closer to National League baseball.
Unlike North American baseball, Japanese baseball games may end in a tie. If the score is tied after nine innings of play, up to three additional innings will be played. If there is no winner after 12 innings, the game is declared a tie. Similar to the current structure of the World Series, a team must win four games to clinch the Japan Series title. If the series must be extended, all games beyond game 7 are played with no innings limit, with game 8 being played in the same venue as game 7, game 9 and beyond played in the opposing team's venue following a moving day. Following the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami and the ensuing Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, special rules were implemented for the 2011 NPB season: For power conservation reasons, besides the usual 12-inning limit, no extra innings were allowed to commence during the regular season once 3 hours, 30 minutes had elapsed from the game start time; this time included delays due to weather. Due to the delayed start of the season and because of post-season commitments to the champion, the Japan Series' extension rules were modified in 2011 if the series was tied after seven games, only one extra game would be played.
Most Japanese teams have a six-man starting rotation. Although each team roster has 28 players, similar to other professional sports, there is a 25 player limit for each game. Managers scratch three players before each game including the most recent starting pitchers, similar to professional basketball. Financial problems plague many teams in the league, it is believed that with the exception of the Yomiuri Giants and the Hanshin Tigers, all teams are operating with considerable subsid
Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball is a professional baseball organization, the oldest of the four major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada. A total of 30 teams play with 15 teams in each league; the NL and AL were formed as separate legal entities in 1901 respectively. After cooperating but remaining separate entities beginning in 1903, the leagues merged into a single organization led by the Commissioner of Baseball in 2000; the organization oversees Minor League Baseball, which comprises 256 teams affiliated with the Major League clubs. With the World Baseball Softball Confederation, MLB manages the international World Baseball Classic tournament. Baseball's first all-professional team was founded in Cincinnati in 1869; the first few decades of professional baseball were characterized by rivalries between leagues and by players who jumped from one team or league to another. The period before 1920 in baseball was known as the dead-ball era. Baseball survived a conspiracy to fix the 1919 World Series, which came to be known as the Black Sox Scandal.
The sport rose in popularity in the 1920s, survived potential downturns during the Great Depression and World War II. Shortly after the war, Jackie Robinson broke baseball's color barrier; the 1950s and 1960s were a time of expansion for the AL and NL new stadiums and artificial turf surfaces began to change the game in the 1970s and 1980s. Home runs dominated the game during the 1990s, media reports began to discuss the use of anabolic steroids among Major League players in the mid-2000s. In 2006, an investigation produced the Mitchell Report, which implicated many players in the use of performance-enhancing substances, including at least one player from each team. Today, MLB is composed of 1 in Canada. Teams play 162 games each season and five teams in each league advance to a four-round postseason tournament that culminates in the World Series, a best-of-seven championship series between the two league champions that dates to 1903. Baseball broadcasts are aired on television and the Internet throughout North America and in several other countries throughout the world.
MLB has the highest season attendance of any sports league in the world with more than 73 million spectators in 2015. MLB is governed by the Major League Baseball Constitution; this document has undergone several incarnations since its creation in 1876. Under the direction of the Commissioner of Baseball, MLB hires and maintains the sport's umpiring crews, negotiates marketing and television contracts. MLB maintains a unique, controlling relationship over the sport, including most aspects of Minor League Baseball; this is due in large part to the 1922 U. S. Supreme Court ruling in Federal Baseball Club v. National League, which held that baseball is not interstate commerce and therefore not subject to federal antitrust law; this ruling has been weakened only in subsequent years. The weakened ruling granted more stability to the owners of teams and has resulted in values increasing at double-digit rates. There were several challenges to MLB's primacy in the sport between the 1870s and the Federal League in 1916.
The chief executive of MLB is the commissioner Rob Manfred. The chief operating officer is Tony Petitti. There are five other executives: president, chief communications officer, chief legal officer, chief financial officer, chief baseball officer; the multimedia branch of MLB, based in Manhattan, is MLB Advanced Media. This branch oversees each of the 30 teams' websites, its charter states that MLB Advanced Media holds editorial independence from the league, but it is under the same ownership group and revenue-sharing plan. MLB Productions is a structured wing of the league, focusing on video and traditional broadcast media. MLB owns 67 percent of MLB Network, with the other 33 percent split between several cable operators and satellite provider DirecTV, it operates out of studios in Secaucus, New Jersey, has editorial independence from the league. In 1920, the weak National Commission, created to manage relationships between the two leagues, was replaced with the much more powerful Commissioner of Baseball, who had the power to make decisions for all of professional baseball unilaterally.
From 1901 to 1960, the American and National Leagues fielded eight teams apiece. In the 1960s, MLB expansion added eight teams, including the first non-U. S. Team. Two teams were added in the 1970s. From 1969 through 1993, each league consisted of an West Division. A third division, the Central Division, was formed in each league in 1994; until 1996, the two leagues met on the field only during the All-Star Game. Regular-season interleague play was introduced in 1997. In March 1995 two new franchises, the Arizona Diamondbacks and Tampa Bay Devil Rays, were awarded by MLB, to begin play in 1998; this addition brought the total number of franchises to 30. In early 1997, MLB decided to assign one new team to each league: Tampa Bay joined the AL and Arizona joined the NL; the original plan was to have an odd number of teams in each league, but in order for every team to be able to play daily, this would have required interleague play to be scheduled throughout the entire season. However, it
KFC known as Kentucky Fried Chicken, is an American fast food restaurant chain headquartered in Louisville, Kentucky that specializes in fried chicken. It is the world's second-largest restaurant chain after McDonald's, with 22,621 locations globally in 136 countries as of December 2018; the chain is a subsidiary of Yum! Brands, a restaurant company that owns the Pizza Hut, Taco Bell, WingStreet chains. KFC was founded by Colonel Harland Sanders, an entrepreneur who began selling fried chicken from his roadside restaurant in Corbin, during the Great Depression. Sanders identified the potential of the restaurant franchising concept, the first "Kentucky Fried Chicken" franchise opened in Utah in 1952. KFC popularized chicken in the fast food industry, diversifying the market by challenging the established dominance of the hamburger. By branding himself as "Colonel Sanders", Harland became a prominent figure of American cultural history, his image remains used in KFC advertising to this day. However, the company's rapid expansion overwhelmed the aging Sanders, he sold it to a group of investors led by John Y. Brown Jr. and Jack C.
Massey in 1964. KFC was one of the first American fast food chains to expand internationally, opening outlets in Canada, the United Kingdom and Jamaica by the mid-1960s. Throughout the 1970s and 1980s, it experienced mixed fortunes domestically, as it went through a series of changes in corporate ownership with little or no experience in the restaurant business. In the early 1970s, KFC was sold to the spirits distributor Heublein, taken over by the R. J. Reynolds food and tobacco conglomerate; the chain continued to expand overseas, in 1987, it became the first Western restaurant chain to open in China. It has since expanded in China, now the company's single largest market. PepsiCo spun off its restaurants division as Tricon Global Restaurants, which changed its name to Yum! Brands. KFC's original product is pressure-fried chicken pieces, seasoned with Sanders' recipe of 11 herbs and spices; the constituents of the recipe represent a notable trade secret. Larger portions of fried chicken are served in a cardboard "bucket", which has become a well-known feature of the chain since it was first introduced by franchisee Pete Harman in 1957.
Since the early 1990s, KFC has expanded its menu to offer other chicken products such as chicken fillet sandwiches and wraps, as well as salads and side dishes such as French fries and coleslaw and soft drinks. KFC is known for its slogans "It's Finger Lickin' Good!", "Nobody does chicken like KFC", "So good". Harland Sanders was raised on a farm outside Henryville, Indiana; when Sanders was five years old, his father died. This left Sanders, as the eldest son. After he reached seven years of age, his mother taught him. After leaving the family home at the age of 13, Sanders passed through several professions, with mixed success. In 1930, he took over a Shell filling station on US Route 25 just outside North Corbin, Kentucky, a small town on the edge of the Appalachian Mountains, it was here that he first served to travelers the recipes that he had learned as a child: fried chicken and other dishes such as steaks and country ham. After four years of serving from his own dining room table, Sanders purchased the larger filling station on the other side of the road and expanded to six tables.
By 1936, this had proven successful enough for Sanders to be given the honorary title of Kentucky colonel by Governor Ruby Laffoon. In 1937 he expanded his restaurant to 142 seats, added a motel he purchased across the street, naming it Sanders Court & Café. Sanders was unhappy with the 35 minutes it took to prepare his chicken in an iron frying pan, but he refused to deep fry the chicken, which he believed lowered the quality of the product. If he pre-cooked the chicken in advance of orders, there was sometimes wastage at day's end. In 1939, the first commercial pressure cookers were released onto the market designed for steaming vegetables. Sanders bought one, modified it into a pressure fryer, which he used to fry chicken; the new method reduced production time to be comparable with deep frying, while, in the opinion of Sanders, retaining the quality of pan-fried chicken. In July 1940, Sanders finalised what came to be known as his "Original Recipe" of 11 herbs and spices. Although he never publicly revealed the recipe, he admitted to the use of salt and pepper, claimed that the ingredients "stand on everybody's shelf".
After being recommissioned as a Kentucky colonel in 1950 by Governor Lawrence Wetherby, Sanders began to dress the part, growing a goatee and wearing a black frock coat, a string tie, referring to himself as "Colonel". His associates went along with the title change, "jokingly at first and in earnest", according to biographer Josh Ozersky; the Sanders Court & Café served travelers, so when the route planned in 1955 for Interstate 75 bypassed Corbin, Sanders sold his properties and traveled the US to franchise his chicken recipe to restaurant owners. Independent restaurants would pay four cents on each chicken as a franchise fee, in exchange for Sanders' "secret blend of herbs and spices" and the right to feature his recipe on their menus and use his name and likeness for promotional purposes. In 1952 he had successfully franchised his recipe to his friend Pete Harman of South Salt Lake, the operator of one of the city's largest restaurants. Don Anderson, a sign painter hired by
Batting average (baseball)
In baseball, the batting average is defined by the number of hits divided by at bats. It is reported to three decimal places and read without the decimal: A player with a batting average of.300 is "batting three-hundred." If necessary to break ties, batting averages could be taken beyond the.001 measurement. In this context, a.001 is considered a "point," such that a.235 batter is 5 points higher than a.230 batter. Henry Chadwick, an English statistician raised on cricket, was an influential figure in the early history of baseball. In the late 19th century he adapted the concept behind the cricket batting average to devise a similar statistic for baseball. Rather than copy cricket's formulation of runs scored divided by outs, he realized that hits divided by at bats would provide a better measure of individual batting ability; this is because while in cricket, scoring runs is entirely dependent on one's own batting skill, in baseball it is dependent on having other good hitters on one's team.
Chadwick noted that hits are independent of teammates' skills, so used this as the basis for the baseball batting average. His reason for using at bats rather than outs is less obvious, but it leads to the intuitive idea of the batting average being a percentage reflecting how a batter gets on base, whereas hits divided by outs is not as simple to interpret in real terms. In modern times, a season batting average higher than.300 is considered to be excellent, an average higher than.400 a nearly unachievable goal. The last player to do so, with enough plate appearances to qualify for the batting championship, was Ted Williams of the Boston Red Sox, who hit.406 in 1941, though the best modern players either threaten to or do achieve it if only for brief periods of time. There have been numerous attempts to explain the disappearance of the.400 hitter, with one of the more rigorous discussions of this question appearing in Stephen Jay Gould's 1996 book Full House. Ty Cobb holds the record for highest career batting average with.366, 9 points higher than Rogers Hornsby who has the second highest average in history at.358.
The record for lowest career batting average for a player with more than 2,500 at-bats belongs to Bill Bergen, a catcher who played from 1901 to 1911 and recorded a.170 average in 3,028 career at-bats. The modern-era record for highest batting average for a season is held by Nap Lajoie, who hit.426 in 1901, the first year of play for the American League. The modern-era record for lowest batting average for a player that qualified for the batting title is held by Chris Davis, who hit.168 in 2018. While finishing six plate appearances short of qualifying for the batting title, Adam Dunn of the Chicago White Sox hit.159 for the 2011 season, nine points lower than the record. The highest batting average for a rookie was.408 in 1911 by Shoeless Joe Jackson. For non-pitchers, a batting average below.230 is considered poor, one below.200 is unacceptable. This latter level is sometimes referred to as "The Mendoza Line", named for Mario Mendoza, a stellar defensive shortstop whose defensive capabilities just made up for his offensive shortcomings.
The league batting average in Major League Baseball for 2016 was.255, the all-time league average is between.260 and.275. In rare instances, MLB players have concluded their careers with a perfect batting average of 1.000. John Paciorek had three hits in all three of his turns at bat. Esteban Yan went two-for-two, including a home run. Hal Deviney's two hits in his only plate appearances included a triple, while Steve Biras, Mike Hopkins, Chet Kehn, Jason Roach and Fred Schemanske went two-for-two. A few dozen others have hit safely in their one and only career at-bat. Sabermetrics, the study of baseball statistics, considers batting average a weak measure of performance because it does not correlate as well as other measures to runs scored, thereby causing it to have little predictive value. Batting average does not take into account walks or power, whereas other statistics such as on-base percentage and slugging percentage have been designed to measure such concepts. Adding these statistics together form a player's On-base plus slugging or "OPS".
This is seen as a much better, though not perfect, indicator of a player's overall batting ability as it is a measure of hitting for average, hitting for power and drawing bases on balls. In 1887, Major League Baseball counted bases on balls as hits; this skyrocketed batting averages, including some near.500, the experiment was abandoned the following season. The Major League Baseball batting averages championships is awarded annually to the player in each league who has the highest batting average. Ty Cobb holds the MLB record for most batting titles winning 11 in his pro career; the National League record of 8 batting titles is shared by Tony Gwynn. Most of Cobb's career and all of Wagner's career took place in what is known as the Dead-Ball Era, characterized by higher batting averages and much less power, whereas Gwynn's career took place in the Live-Ball Era. To determine which players are eligible to win the batting title, the following conditions have been used over the sport's history: Pre-1920 – A player is required to appear in at least 100 or more games when the schedule was 154 games, 90 games when the schedule was 140 games.
An exception to the rule was made for Ty Cobb in 1914, who appeared in 98 games but had a big lead and was a favorite of League President Ban Johnson. 1920–1949 – A player had to appear in 100 games to qualify in the National League.
Makoto Kozuru was a Japanese professional baseball player who played in both the Japanese Baseball League and Nippon Professional Baseball. He was the MVP of the Central League in 1950, was inducted into the Japanese Baseball Hall of Fame in 1980, his nickname was "The Japanese DiMaggio."Kozuru played as an outfielder and infielder. He holds the Japanese baseball record for most RBIs in a single season with 161 in 1950; that same year he hit 51 home runs, becoming the first Japanese player to break the 50-homer mark in a single season. Kozuru made his professional debut at age 19 with Nagoya-gun. After two years with the club, he spent 1945 in the Japanese navy. Kozuru returned to his original team for the 1946 and 1947 seasons, spent one season each with the Kyuei Flyers and Daiei Stars in 1948 and 1949, he hit.361 in 1949, leading the league in earning Best Nine Award honors. Joining the Shochiku Robins in 1950, Kozuru had a season for the ages, hitting.355, leading the Central League in home runs with 51, RBI with a still-league record 163, runs scored with 143.
He led the Robins to the inaugural Japan Series, which they lost to the Mainichi Orions, 4 games to 2. (Kozuru was 4 for 23 in the Series, with no home runs. The Robins merged with the Taiyo Whales following the 1952 season and Kozuru joined the Hiroshima Carp for the balance of his career. A herniated disk in his back curtailed his production and he ended up retiring in 1958 at the age of 35