Tulsa is the second-largest city in the state of Oklahoma and 45th-most populous city in the United States. As of July 2016, the population was 413,505, an increase of 12,591 over that reported in the 2010 Census, it is the principal municipality of the Tulsa Metropolitan Area, a region with 991,005 residents in the MSA and 1,251,172 in the CSA. The city serves as the county seat of Tulsa County, the most densely populated county in Oklahoma, with urban development extending into Osage and Wagoner counties. Tulsa was settled between 1836 by the Lochapoka Band of Creek Native American tribe. For most of the 20th century, the city held the nickname "Oil Capital of the World" and played a major role as one of the most important hubs for the American oil industry. A robust energy sector fueled Tulsa's economy. Two institutions of higher education within the city have sports teams at the NCAA Division I level, Oral Roberts University and the University of Tulsa, it is situated on the Arkansas River between the Osage Hills and the foothills of the Ozark Mountains in northeast Oklahoma, a region of the state known as "Green Country".
Considered the cultural and arts center of Oklahoma, Tulsa houses two art museums, full-time professional opera and ballet companies, one of the nation's largest concentrations of art deco architecture. The city has been called one of America's most livable large cities by Partners for Livable Communities and Relocate America. FDi Magazine in 2009 ranked the city no. 8 in the U. S. for cities of the future. In 2012, Tulsa was ranked among the top 50 best cities in the United States by BusinessWeek. People from Tulsa are called "Tulsans"; the area where Tulsa now exists was considered Indian Territory when it was first formally settled by the Lochapoka and Creek tribes in 1836. They established a small settlement under the Creek Council Oak Tree at the present day intersection of Cheyenne Avenue and 18th Street; this area and this tree reminded Chief Tukabahchi and his small group of the Trail of Tears survivors of the bend in the river and their previous Creek Council Oak Tree back in the Talisi, Alabama area.
They named their new settlement Tallasi, meaning "old town" in the Creek language, which became "Tulsa". The area around Tulsa was settled by members of the other so-called "Five Civilized Tribes", relocated to Oklahoma from the Southern United States. Most of modern Tulsa is located in the Creek Nation, with parts located in the Cherokee and Osage Nations. Although Oklahoma was not yet a state during the Civil War, the Tulsa area saw its share of fighting; the Battle of Chusto-Talasah took place on the north side of Tulsa and a number of battles and skirmishes took place in nearby counties. After the War, the tribes signed Reconstruction treaties with the federal government that in some cases required substantial land concessions. In the years after the Civil War and around the turn of the century, the area along the Arkansas River, now Tulsa was periodically home to or visited by a series of colorful outlaws, including the legendary Wild Bunch, the Dalton Gang, Little Britches. On January 18, 1898, Tulsa was incorporated and elected its first mayor, Edward Calkins.
Tulsa was still a small town near the banks of the Arkansas River in 1901 when its first oil well, named Sue Bland No. 1, was established. Much of the oil was discovered on land whose mineral rights were owned by members of the Osage Nation under a system of headrights. By 1905, the discovery of the large Glenn Pool prompted a rush of entrepreneurs to the area's growing number of oil fields. Unlike the early settlers of Northeastern Oklahoma, who most migrated from the South and Texas, many of these new oil-driven settlers came to Tulsa from the commercial centers of the East Coast and lower Midwest; this migration distinguished the city's demographics from neighboring communities and is reflected in the designs of early Tulsa's upscale neighborhoods. Known as the "Oil Capital of the World" for most of the 20th century, the city's success in the energy industry prompted construction booms in the popular Art Deco style of the time. Profits from the oil industry continued through the Great Depression, helping the city's economy fare better than most in the United States during the 1930s.
In the early 20th century, Tulsa was home to the "Black Wall Street", one of the most prosperous black communities in the United States at the time. Located in the Greenwood neighborhood, it was the site of the Tulsa Race Riot, one of the nation's worst acts of racial violence and civil disorder, with whites attacking blacks. Sixteen hours of rioting on May 31 and June 1, 1921, was ended only when National Guardsmen were brought in by the Governor. An official report claimed that 23 black and 16 white citizens were killed, but other estimates suggest as many as 300 people died, most of them black. Over 800 people were admitted to local hospitals with injuries, an estimated 10,000 black people were left homeless as 35 city blocks, composed of 1,256 residences, were destroyed by fire. Property damage was estimated at $1.8 million. Efforts to obtain reparations for survivors of the violence have been unsuccessful, but the events were re-examined by the city and state in the early 21st century, acknowledging the terrible actions that had taken place.
In 1925, Tulsa businessman Cyrus Avery, known as the "Father of Route 66," began his
Oklahoma State University–Stillwater
Oklahoma State University is a public land-grant and sun-grant research university in Stillwater, Oklahoma. OSU was founded in 1890 under the Morrill Act. Known as Oklahoma Agricultural and Mechanical College, it is the flagship institution of the Oklahoma State University System. Official enrollment for the fall 2010 semester system-wide was 35,073, with 23,459 students enrolled at OSU-Stillwater. Enrollment shows. OSU is classified by the Carnegie Foundation as a research university with highest research activity; the Oklahoma State Cowboys and Cowgirls' athletic heritage includes 52 national championships, a total greater than all but three NCAA Division I schools in the United States, first in the Big 12 Conference. Students spend part of the fall semester preparing for OSU's Homecoming celebration, begun in 1913, which draws more than 40,000 alumni and over 70,000 participants each year to campus and is billed by the university as "America's Greatest Homecoming Celebration." On December 25, 1890, the Oklahoma Territorial Legislature gained approval for Oklahoma Territorial Agricultural and Mechanical College, the land-grant university established under the Morrill Act of 1862.
It specified. Such an ambiguous description created rivalry between towns within the county, with Stillwater winning out. Upon statehood in 1907, "Territorial" was dropped from its title; the first students assembled for class on December 14, 1891. Classes were held for two and one-half years in local churches until the first academic building known as Old Central, was dedicated on June 15, 1894, on the southeast corner of campus, which at the time was flat plowed prairie. In 1896, Oklahoma A&M held its first commencement with six male graduates; the first Library was established in Old Central in one room shared with the English Department. The first campus building to have electricity, Williams Hall, was constructed in 1900. With its turreted architecture it was referred to as the "Castle of the Prairies". One of the earliest campus buildings was a barn, used as part of an agricultural experiment station, served by a large reservoir pond created in 1895; the barn burned in 1922, but the pond and remodeled in 1928 and 1943, is now known as Theta Pond, a popular campus scenic landmark.
In 1906, Morrill Hall became the principal building on campus. A fire gutted the building in 1914, but the outside structure survived intact, the interior was reconstructed; the first dormitory for women was completed in 1911. It contained a kitchen, dining hall, some classrooms, a women's gymnasium, it is now houses the Gardiner Art Gallery. By 1919 the campus included Morrill Hall, the Central Building, the Engineering Building, the Women's building, the Auditorium, the Armory-Gymnasium and the Power Plant. At the beginning of World War II, Oklahoma A&M was one of six schools selected by the United States Navy to give the Primary School in the Electronics Training Program known as Naval Training School Elementary Electricity and Radio Materiel. Starting in March 1942, each month a new group of 100 Navy students arrived for three months of 14-hour days in concentrated electrical engineering study. Cordell Hall, the newest dormitory, was used for housing and meals. Professor Emory B. Phillips was the Director of Instruction.
ETP admission required passing the Eddy Test, one of the most selective qualifying exams given during the war years. At a given time, some 500 Navy students were on the campus, a significant fraction of the war-years enrollment; the training activity continued until June 1945, served a total of about 7,000 students. Kamm, a future professor and president of Oklahoma State University. During some of the war years, the Navy had a Yeoman training activity for WAVES and SPARS on the campus. Much of the growth of Oklahoma A&M and the campus architectural integrity can be attributed to work of Henry G. Bennett, who served as the school's president from 1928 to 1950. Early in his tenure Dr. Bennett developed a strategic vision for the physical expansion of the university campus; the plan was adopted in 1937 and his vision was followed for more than fifty years, making the university what it is today, including the Georgian architecture that permeates the campus. The focal point of his vision was a centrally located library building, which became a reality when the Edmon Low Library opened in 1953.
Another major addition to the campus during the Bennett years was the construction of the Student Union, which opened in 1950. Subsequent additions and renovations have made the building one of the largest student union buildings in the world at 611,000 sq ft. A complete renovation and further expansion of the building began in 2010. On May 15, 1957, Oklahoma A&M changed its name Oklahoma State University of Agricultural and Applied Sciences to reflect the broadening scope of curriculum offered. Oklahoma Gov. Raymond Gary signed the bill authorizing the name change passed by the 26th Oklahoma Legislature on May 15, 1957. However, the bill only authorized the Board of Regents to change the name of the college, a measure they voted on at their meeting on June 6. However, the name was shortened to Oklahoma State University for most purposes, the "Agricultural & Applied Sciences" name was formally