Left anterior descending artery
The left anterior descending artery is a branch of the left coronary artery. Occlusion of this artery is called the widow-maker infarction due to a high death risk, it passes at first behind the pulmonary artery and comes forward between that vessel and the left atrium to reach the anterior interventricular sulcus, along which it descends to the notch of cardiac apex. Although rare, multiple anomalous courses of the LAD have been described; these include the origin of the artery from the right aortic sinus. In 78% of cases, it reaches the apex of the heart; the LAD gives off two types of branches: diagonals. Septals originate from the LAD at 90 degrees to the surface of the heart and supplying the anterior 2/3rds of the interventricular septum. Diagonals run along the surface of the heart and supply the lateral wall of the left ventricle and the anterolateral papillary muscle; the artery supplies the anterolateral myocardium and interventricular septum. The LAD supplies 45-55% of the left ventricle and is therefore considered the most critical vessel in terms of myocardial blood supply.
The widow maker is an alternative name for the anterior interventricular branch of the left coronary artery. The name widow maker may apply to the left coronary artery or severe occlusions to that artery; this term is used because the left main coronary and/or the left anterior descending supply blood to large areas of the heart. This means that if these arteries are abruptly and occluded it will cause a massive heart attack that will lead to sudden death; the blockage that kills is made up of platelets streaming to the site of a ruptured cholesterol plaque. A small amount of plaque in this area can rupture and cause death. An example of the devastating results of a complete occlusion of the LAD artery was the sudden death of former NBC News Washington Bureau Chief Tim Russert, as well as the near-death of film director Kevin Smith. From the minute a widow maker heart attack hits, survival time ranges from minutes to several hours. Progressing symptoms should signal the need for immediate attention.
Symptoms of initial onset may include nausea, shortness of breath, pain in the head, arms or chest, numbness in fingers of a novel but imprecise sensation which builds with irregular heart beat. Early symptoms may be mistaken for flu or general malaise until they intensify. A widow maker cannot kill but induces cardiac arrest which may do so within 10 to 20 minutes of no circulation. A victim with no pulse or breath is still alive, living off oxygen stored in the blood and may be able to be rescued if treatment is begun promptly within this window; this article incorporates text in the public domain from page 547 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Anatomy photo:20:09-0102 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Heart: The Left Coronary Artery and its Branches" Anatomy figure: 20:03-08 at Human Anatomy Online, SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Anterior view of the heart."
Tera Patrick is an American pornographic actress and model, the Penthouse Pet of the Month for February 2000 and is an inductee for the NightMoves, AVN and XRCO Halls of Fame. Tera Patrick was raised near San Francisco, her mother is Thai and her father is of English and Dutch descent. When she was just ten, her mother left her and she grew up with her father David Hopkins, a carefree hippie. After taking weekend classes at the Barbizon School of Modeling for two years, she was hired by a Japanese modeling agency and moved to Tokyo at the age of fourteen. At one of her first photo shoots, she was sexually assaulted by the photographer, who "was feeding champagne and Valium" until she "was getting wasted", she spent two years in Tokyo, where "she became addicted to Valium and alcohol and spent her paychecks on shopping sprees". When her father learned she had become sexually active, he complained to her agency, pointing out she was underage, it sent her back to the United States, "sixteen years old and a washed-up model".
At eighteen, she obtained a GED studied nursing at Boise State University received EMT certification from a local vocational school. Patrick retired from shooting scenes in the adult industry in 2008 but continues to operate her website, production company, pursue other business ventures, she licenses her movie catalog worldwide. Patrick has appeared in Playboy and Penthouse, where she was the "Pet of the Month" for February 2000 and was selected as "Pet of the Year" runner-up. In 2003, Patrick became the masthead publisher of Genesis. In 2006, Patrick and her then-husband, Evan Seinfeld, launched a talent agency representing models and actors. According to a quote on the agency's website, Patrick's goal "is to help girls in the business to be treated with respect, realize their true potential...." Additionally, she owns a production company called "Teravision," which along with Vivid Video released its first feature, starring Patrick and Seinfeld. In April 2006, it was announced. In November 2006, Patrick starred in a Vivid/Teravision production titled "Tera Patrick's Fashion Underground" where she performed with Jean Val Jean and Tommy Gunn.
In the same film her husband, under the name Spyder Jonez, performed with Lanny Barby. In an interview, Tera Patrick says; the two made five movies for ten for Teravision. In an interview with the Adult Film Database in February 2007, Patrick stated she would only continue to work in front of the camera for two more years, but planned on releasing her starring adult titles over the next decade. In April 2007, Patrick and her production company, Teravision INC, filed a lawsuit against Jenna Jameson and Playboy Enterprises for failing to properly account for and pay royalties on money earned by Patrick's Web site clubtera.com. In 2008, Patrick began hosting the Playboy TV School of Sex, she was the host for 25th AVN Awards ceremony. In January 2013, Patrick hosted the annual XBIZ Awards. Patrick appeared and voiced herself in episode 63 of Aqua Teen Hunger Force animated series, which first aired November 19, 2006, her television appearances include Chelsea Lately, Last Call with Carson Daly, The Big Idea with Donny Deutsch, MSNBC, FOX News, Telemundo.
Patrick was on the cover of the July 2006 American edition of FHM. Patrick was made into a playable character in the video game Backyard Wrestling 2. Patrick was in the music video for "I Can't Move" by Everlast. Patrick had a cameo role in the 2007 Will Ferrell comedy Blades of Glory, she appeared with her husband, Evan Seinfeld, on the E! Channel's True Hollywood Story Rock Star Wives. Patrick hosted the 2007 Spike channel Guy's Choice awards. In 2008, Patrick appeared as herself in four episodes of the WE network's reality series Secret Lives of Women. Patrick was involved in promotion for the 2008 video game Saints Row 2, gave her own voice in its first episodic expansion pack Ultor Exposed. In 2011, Complex magazine ranked her at #2 in their list of "The Top 50 Hottest Asian Porn Stars of All Time." In 2012, Patrick appeared in the tenth episode of season one of the cable television series Girls of Sunset Place. In 2014, Patrick appeared in two mainstream movie productions. In the Dave Foley and Andy Dick comedy Live Nude Girls, she was cast along with fellow adult industry performers Bree Olsen and Asa Akira.
Patrick appears in the horror movie Angel of Darkness: The Legend of Lilith In August 2014, Patrick announced hosting an hour-long weekly radio show on Vivid radio on the Sirius/XM network. In May 2018, she appeared in Time magazine as a model in artist Nika Nesgoda's 2002 photographic series, portraying the Virgin Mary along with Stormy Daniels and other adult film actresses. Tera Patrick starred in an Indonesian mainstream horror film Rintihan Kuntilanak Perawan, presented countrywide from October 14, 2010, through November 16, 2010. Patrick's memoir, Sinner Takes All, co-written by journalist and author Carrie Borzillo, was published by Penguin imprint Gotham Books on January 5, 2010; the book chronicles Patrick's path to stardom, along with various other life experiences she had along the way. During the writing process, which she describes as "cathartic", Patrick discusses how she and her mother repaired their relationship, how she addressed problems within her relationship with her former husband, Evan Seinfeld.
Patrick commented, "I wanted the book to end happily. I knew ther
Ashlyn Gere is the stage name of an American former pornographic actress who performed in both heterosexual and lesbian films and an actress in mainstream film and television. For her adult film work, Gere is an inductee into the XRCO Halls of Fame. For her mainstream work, she is best known for her appearances on the science fiction television series The X-Files and Space: Above and Beyond. Gere was born on September 14, 1959, in Cherry Point, North Carolina, at age three moved to Las Vegas, Nevada, she graduated from the University of Nevada, Las Vegas and double majored in Theatre Arts and Communications. In the 1980s Gere appeared in several B movies, such as 1987's Creepozoids, in which she plays the character "Kate", she acted under the name Kimberly Patton in the television series Space: Above and Beyond from 1995 to 1996. She has appeared under the Patton name in the films The One and Willard, she began acting in pornographic films in around 1990 and continued to appear in mainstream minor roles such as her appearance in The X-Files in 1994 in the episode "Blood" where she was credited as Kimberly Ashlyn Gere.
As an adult actress, she appeared in nearly 200 films and videos along with directing two videos from 1990 until 2003. Early in her career Gere was nominated for and won several major adult industry awards such as the FOXE, XRCO, AVN Awards. In the latter half of the 90s, she slowed down on her adult video work and toured as an exotic dancer. AVN 1993 Best Actress – Film for Chameleons 1993 Best Actress – Video for Two Women 1993 Best All-Girl Sex Scene – Film for Chameleons 1993 Best Group Scene – Video for Realities 2 1993 Female Performer of the Year 1995 Best Actress – Film for The Masseuse 2 1995 Best Actress – Video for Body & Soul 1995 Best Couples Sex Scene – Video for Body & Soul AVN Hall of FameFOXE 1992 Female Fan Favorite 1993 Female Fan Favorite 1994 Female Fan FavoriteH'Dor Award 1995 Best American Actress for The Masseuse 2XRCO 1991 Starlet Of The Year 1992 Best Actress for Chameleons: Not The Sequel 1992 Best Couples Sex Scene for Chameleons: Not The Sequel 1992 Best Girl-Girl Scene for Chameleons: Not The Sequel 1992 Female Performer of the Year XRCO Hall of FameAFWG 2003 Best Actress – Video for Crime & Passion Ashlyn Gere on IMDb Ashlyn Gere at the Internet Adult Film Database Ashlyn Gere at the Adult Film Database
Evil Angel (studio)
Evil Angel is an American production company and distributor of pornographic films and owned by John Stagliano. Stagliano and Evil Angel pioneered the Gonzo pornography genre in the late 1980s. Several of the most acclaimed pornographic film directors have worked for Evil Angel, its films have won numerous awards, it has been described as "the top porn-film producer" in the U. S, as one of the handful of companies which dominate the distribution of hardcore pornographic films in the U. S. and as one of the most profitable porn studios. The company's rise to prominence was fueled by the industry switch from film to videotape. In the late 1970s a feature-length porn film shot on celluloid—usually 35mm—might have cost as much as $350,000. In 1983 the VCR had been introduced, producers were beginning to make pornographic films on videotape. A film using video could be made for as little as $5,000, compared to a minimum of $40,000 for a movie shot on film. Into the 1990s, by shooting its productions with video cameras, Evil Angel could still make films for $8,000.
Stagliano had little knowledge of filmmaking, but he made his first movie for $8,000 in 1983: Bouncing Buns, starring Stacy Donovan. For the next six years he shot films for other companies to distribute. In 1989 he started Evil Angel; the origin of the company's name goes back to when Stagliano was working as a stripper: "There was another guy in one of my shows named John. So this MC started calling me Evil John to differentiate us; this was when I was doing chains. At the same time I had a girlfriend, she was a nasty girl and I suggested that she call herself Evil Angel. She didn't, but I loved the name and wound up using it for my company." The first Evil Angel film was Dance Fire, filmed in 1988 by Stagliano, starring himself, Trinity Loren, Brandy Alexandre and others. It would only be released on DVD 20 years later. Influenced by amateur pornography, In 1989 Stagliano hit on the idea of performing in a film while operating the camera, so that the viewer experiences the film through the eyes of his character.
The first-person perspective was influenced by the 1960s film Blowup. At the time this was in contrast to the majority of porn, which tended not to make viewers aware of the camera; this technique is today known as Point of view pornography. He formed his Buttman persona, shot Adventures of Buttman; the early Buttman films were written, directed, edited and manufactured by Stagliano. The first two Buttman films had lengthy scripts, but the series soon evolved into an improvised, spontaneous format. In contrast to his earlier work and the standard porn of the time, Stagliano did not link each scene together to form a conventional narrative. At times the camerawork was shaky. Due to his lack of funds, he didn't use elaborate sets or locations. At the time porn films had a traditional storyline, with sex scenes interspersed with dialogue by performers with little acting ability. Instead of that format, Stagliano chose to film "one sex scene which has a beginning, a middle and ends at a climax. Trying to make all that relate to a bigger story is difficult and creates all sorts of problems that get in the way of making the best scene possible."
The distinct style of the early Evil Angel films would be imitated, would come to be known as Gonzo pornography. In the 1990s Stagliano became one of the most successful figures in the American pornographic film industry. In 1990 Patrick Collins and Stagliano founded the Elegant Angel label as a subsidiary of Evil Angel. In 1991 Stagliano established a production subsidiary in Brazil. By 1993 the company was producing a new videotape every three weeks, was grossing more than $1 million a year. In the mid-'90s the company started using the phrase "The Evil Empire" on its box covers, in reference to its growing stable of directors. In 1996 Collins established Elegant Angel as a separate company, in 1998 it ended all cooperation with Evil Angel, his departure from Evil Angel has been called "less than amicable", he and Stagliano are "ex-friend". At the time Collins said that Stagliano "couldn't run a business, would fail without him". According to Stagliano, "Patrick's a bully... he wasn't doing his job properly...
I should have fired him years ago". A 1997 U. S. News and World Report investigation identified Evil Angel as the most profitable pornographic studio. In 2007 the studio received 127 AVN Award nominations in 60 categories, making it the fourth year in a row in which it received more than 100 nominations. In 2008 EA won 18 AVN awards. Stagliano won the "Best Director - Video" award for Fashionistas Safado: Berlin. In 2015, company vice president John Grayson reported that transsexual pornography was by far the company's most profitable category or genre, earning about 20% more on a per-movie basis than any other productions. In August 2007 Evil Angel and Jules Jordan prevailed in a DVD piracy case against Kaytel Video Distribution and several other defendants, winning a total of over $17.5 million, the largest sum awarded in an adult piracy case. Evil Angel was awarded Jordan $5.3 million. EA had filed the lawsuit in November 2005. On April 8, 2008, Evil Angel and Stagliano were indicted on federal obscenity charges by a federal grand jury in Washington, DC.
Films named in the obscenity charges included Storm Squirters 2 by Joey Silvera, Milk Nymphos by Jay Sin and a trailer for Belladonna: Fetish Fanatic 5. Stagliano and Evil Angel were represented by Al Gelbard, who defended JM Productions owner Jeff Steward in a 2007 obscenity case
A documentary film is a nonfictional motion picture intended to document some aspect of reality for the purposes of instruction, education, or maintaining a historical record. "Documentary" has been described as a "filmmaking practice, a cinematic tradition, mode of audience reception", continually evolving and is without clear boundaries. Documentary films were called'actuality' films and were only a minute or less in length. Over time documentaries have evolved to be longer in length and to include more categories, such as educational and even'docufiction'. Documentaries are educational and used in schools to teach various principles. Social media platforms such as YouTube, have allowed documentary films to improve the ways the films are distributed and able to educate and broaden the reach of people who receive the information. Polish writer and filmmaker Bolesław Matuszewski was among those who identified the mode of documentary film, he wrote two of the earliest texts on cinema Une nouvelle source de l'histoire and La photographie animée.
Both were published in 1898 in French and among the early written works to consider the historical and documentary value of the film. Matuszewski is among the first filmmakers to propose the creation of a Film Archive to collect and keep safe visual materials. In popular myth, the word documentary was coined by Scottish documentary filmmaker John Grierson in his review of Robert Flaherty's film Moana, published in the New York Sun on 8 February 1926, written by "The Moviegoer". Grierson's principles of documentary were that cinema's potential for observing life could be exploited in a new art form. In this regard, Grierson's definition of documentary as "creative treatment of actuality" has gained some acceptance, with this position at variance with Soviet film-maker Dziga Vertov's provocation to present "life as it is" and "life caught unawares"; the American film critic Pare Lorentz defines a documentary film as "a factual film, dramatic." Others further state that a documentary stands out from the other types of non-fiction films for providing an opinion, a specific message, along with the facts it presents.
Documentary practice is the complex process of creating documentary projects. It refers to what people do with media devices, content and production strategies in order to address the creative and conceptual problems and choices that arise as they make documentaries. Documentary filmmaking can be used as a form of advocacy, or personal expression. Early film was dominated by the novelty of showing an event, they were single-shot moments captured on film: a train entering a station, a boat docking, or factory workers leaving work. These short films were called "actuality" films. Many of the first films, such as those made by Auguste and Louis Lumière, were a minute or less in length, due to technological limitations. Films showing many people were made for commercial reasons: the people being filmed were eager to see, for payment, the film showing them. One notable film clocked in at over an hour and The Corbett-Fitzsimmons Fight. Using pioneering film-looping technology, Enoch J. Rector presented the entirety of a famous 1897 prize-fight on cinema screens across the United States.
In May 1896, Bolesław Matuszewski recorded on film few surigical operations in Warsaw and Saint Petersburg hospitals. In 1898, French surgeon Eugène-Louis Doyen invited Bolesław Matuszewski and Clément Maurice and proposed them to recorded his surigical operations, they started in Paris a series of surgical films sometime before July 1898. Until 1906, the year of his last film, Doyen recorded more than 60 operations. Doyen said that his first films taught him how to correct professional errors he had been unaware of. For scientific purposes, after 1906, Doyen combined 15 of his films into three compilations, two of which survive, the six-film series Extirpation des tumeurs encapsulées, the four-film Les Opérations sur la cavité crânienne; these and five other of Doyen's films survive. Between July 1898 and 1901, the Romanian professor Gheorghe Marinescu made several science films in his neurology clinic in Bucharest: Walking Troubles of Organic Hemiplegy, The Walking Troubles of Organic Paraplegies, A Case of Hysteric Hemiplegy Healed Through Hypnosis, The Walking Troubles of Progressive Locomotion Ataxy, Illnesses of the Muscles.
All these short films have been preserved. The professor called his works "studies with the help of the cinematograph," and published the results, along with several consecutive frames, in issues of "La Semaine Médicale" magazine from Paris, between 1899 and 1902. In 1924, Auguste Lumiere recognized the merits of Marinescu's science films: "I've seen your scientific reports about the usage of the cinematograph in studies of nervous illnesses, when I was still receiving "La Semaine Médicale," but back I had other concerns, which left me no spare time to begin biological studies. I must say I am thankful to you that you reminded them to me. Not many scientists have followed your way." Travelogue films were popular in the early part of the 20th century. They were referred to by distributors as "scenics." Scenics were among the most popu
Free Speech Coalition
The Free Speech Coalition is a non-profit trade association of the pornography and adult entertainment industry in the United States. Founded in 1991, it opposes the enforcement of obscenity laws and many censorship laws. Performer Availability Screening Services is a U. S. organization that maintains a database of STI testing results for pornographic actors. The database is intended to help prevent the spread of STDs in the porn industry; the organization known as Adult Production Health and Safety Services, is run by the Free Speech Coalition, a non-profit industry trade association. Free Speech Coalition is the trade association of the adult entertainment industry in the United States. Founded in 1991, it opposes the enforcement of some censorship laws and obscenity laws; the concept of an organization as a rallying point for those who believe in the free expression of adult-themed works began as early as 1970. The first national group to emerge was the Adult Film Association of America. At that time, adult entertainment was only available in adult theaters and bookstores so early members were theatrical exhibitors.
With the advent of inexpensive home videos, the AFAA became the Adult Film and Video Association of America. The next significant event that galvanized the AFVAA was the arrest of Hal Freeman for pandering. Prosecutors wanted to establish once and for all that paying performers to have sex in a film was an act of prostitution. Freeman won that legal battle, which redefined the use of the pandering laws relative to providers of adult product; as video productions became the dominant factor in the marketplace, theatrical exhibition diminished. The Freeman decision legalized the production of adult films in the state of California. Video chains and many independent stores in suburbs and smaller cities started carrying adult fare. Law enforcement officials subjected more retailers to obscenity charges. In 1990, under the first Bush administration, the Federal government attacked most of the major manufacturers of adult video with a sting operation designed to destroy the industry. In response, the Free Speech Legal Defense Fund was formed by industry leaders to protect the rights of members in all areas of adult entertainment.
In 1991, as the government attack was blunted, the FSLDF decided to select a name more reflective of its broadened role in the adult community, the Free Speech Coalition was born. The association became aligned with other organizations representing the rights of free speech and civil liberties In 1995, a comprehensive Federal scheme regulating the creation and wholesale distribution of recorded images of sexual conduct went into effect. Aimed at detecting and deterring child pornography, the Federal Labeling Law eliminated all privacy in the creation of sexual images. Any producers of, performers in, such materials were ordered to comply with detailed disclosure requirements. In order for the industry to comply, the FSC was essential. FSC conducted training seminars, prepared compliance documents and uniform exemption labels and negotiated with the Justice Department for relief from some of the more burdensome and unreasonable components of the law, it was FSC's response to the Federal Labeling Law that established broadly throughout the industry the necessity of a functional trade organization to assist the industry.
In February 2015, the FSC announced an affiliation with the First Entertainment Credit Union. The arrangement with make member financial services available to approved production studios employees and their families in the adult film industry. Diane Duke, CEO of the FSC, stated "We are thrilled to be able to offer active FSC members and their families the opportunity to access First Entertainment for their banking needs and many other financial services; because of difficulties faced by industry members that have had their business turned away by other institutions." The FSC entered the field of lobbying in earnest in 1994, with the retention of a lobbyist in Sacramento, California's state capitol. After a year, the lobbying presence proved itself critical for the health of the national industry. A tax bill was introduced, with the purpose of assisting victims of domestic rape. An excise tax was proposed for all adult products and services, with the proceeds going to collection of the tax, law enforcement and, if anything remained, to rape counseling centers and battered victim shelters.
Constitutional law had long forbade the targeting of a content-defined tax and this bill was the model of such a tax scheme. Traditionally the industry had relied on the judiciary to protect itself against such intrusions, legislatures across the country have become accustomed to regulating the adult industry without consultation with the parties to be regulated. Both patterns came to a halt with this proposed tax; the FSC led a coalition of affected businesses and industry groups in fighting the tax. The FSC argued that the tax was a dangerous, unconstitutional precedent and that it would be bad for the state's economy. During the course of the ensuing debate, the economic influence of the adult entertainment industry was established in the minds of the zero votes in support; the bill was defeated at its first committee hearing. The industry and FSC were placed in a difficult position by the amendment of the Federal Child Pornography laws in 1997, which included "simulated" child pornography within the definition of child pornography.
The redefinition of child pornography to include adults appearing to be minors, engaging
An art model poses for any visual artist as part of the creative process, providing a visual reference for the human figure in a work of art. However, more than being the subject of art, models are thought of as muses, a source of inspiration without whom the art would not exist; the most common types of art works that use models are figure drawing, figure painting and photography, but any medium may be used. Art models are paid professionals with skill and experience but are employed full-time, artists may rely on friends and family to pose. Paid art models are anonymous and unacknowledged subjects of the work. Models are most employed for art classes or by informal groups of artists that gather to share the expense of a model. Models are employed by professional artists. Although commercial motives dominate over aesthetics in illustration, its artwork employs models. For example, Norman Rockwell used his friends and neighbors as models for both his commercial and fine art work. An individual, having their own portrait painted or sculpted is called a "sitter" rather than a model, since they are paying to have the work done rather than being paid to pose.
Throughout the history of Western art, drawing the human figure from living models was considered the most effective way to develop the skill of draftsmanship. First, it is best to draw from life, rather than copying two dimensional images such as photographs. Second, an artist has a connection to drawing another human being that cannot exist with any other subject. Models for life drawing classes are nude. In the classroom setting, where the purpose is to learn how to draw the human form in all the different shapes and ethnicity, there are no real limitations on who the model can be. In some cases, the model may pose with various props, one or more other models, against real or artificial background, in natural or artificial light; the role of art models has changed through different eras as the meaning and importance of the human figure in art and society has changed. Nude modeling, nude art and nudity in general are at times subject to social disapproval, at least by some elements in society.
Poses can range in length from seconds to many hours. There is a drawing exercise where the model but continuously moves, but the shortest is one minute. Short dynamic poses are used for gesture drawing exercises or warm-ups, with the model taking strenuous or precarious positions that could not be sustained for a longer pose—just long enough for the artist to capture the essence of it. Drawing sessions proceed though groups of 5, 10, 15, or 20 minute poses for a total of three hours. Active, gestural, or challenging standing poses are scheduled at the beginning of a session when the models' energy level is highest. Specific exercises or lesson plans may require a particular type of pose, but more the model is expected to do a series of poses with little direction; the more a model knows about the types of exercises used to teach art, the better they become at posing. Posing for a typical figure artists' group Poses fall into three basic categories: standing and reclining. Within each of these there are varying levels of difficulty, so one kind is not always easier than another.
Artists and life drawing instructors will prefer poses in which the body is being exerted, for a more dynamic and aesthetically interesting subject. Common poses such as standing twists, slouched seated poses and the classical contrapposto are difficult to sustain for any amount of time, although it is surprising what a skilled model can do; the model's level of experience and skill may be taken into account in determining the length of the posing session and the difficulty of the poses. While posing, a model is expected to remain motionless, remains silent. Exact requirements may vary depending upon the artist or instructor, but an experienced model will not speak, scratch, or readjust during the pose. To accommodate the physical limitations, a schedule such as 20 to 25 minutes of posing, with five- or ten-minute breaks is observed; these breaks—during which the model wears a robe or puts on clothing—allow the model to stretch and attend to other needs. In art schools classrooms or studios, the model poses on a raised platform called the model stand or dais.
In sculpture studios this platform may be built to rotate to allow for a 360° view for every artist. Long poses are required for painting and sculpture. To aid in resuming a long pose after a break, chalk marks and/or masking tape are placed on the model stand. Models for life drawing classes pose nude, though visually non-obstructive personal items such as small jewelry and eyeglasses may be worn. In a job advertisement seeking nude models, this may be referred to as being "undraped" or "disrobed." Art models who pose in the nude for life drawing are called life models or figure models. During art school classes or in other academic settings, strict rules are observed to maintain decorum. Photography is forbidden, in some schools, the students are not allowed to be models, as it creates the possibility of conflict for the institution. Admission to and visibility of the area where a nude model is posing is controlled. Disrobing is done discreetly, the model wears a robe when not posing, it is prohibited for anyone to touch a model.
Close examinations are only made with the permission of the model. Some institutions allow only the instructor to speak directly with a model. Experienced models avoid any sexually suggestive poses