Alinghi 5 is a 90 ft, 90 ft beam sloop-rigged catamaran built by Alinghi for the 33rd America's Cup. She was launched on 8 July 2009 when she was lifted from the construction shed in Villeneuve, Vaud by a Mil Mi-26 helicopter and carried to Lake Geneva, she was subsequently carried to Italy. At the end of September 2009, the boat was shipped to Ras al Khaimah, the venue selected by the defender for the 33rd America's Cup. At the end of October 2009, the New York Supreme Court ruled that the venue of Ras al Khaimah was not compliant with the Deed of Gift. After various discussions, Société Nautique de Genève agreed that the venue would be Valencia, Spain. An appeal by SNG regarding the venue was rejected and Alinghi 5 was shipped at the end of December 2009 from Ras al Khaimah to Valencia, where she arrived on 5 January 2010. Designed by Rolf Vrolijk and an Alinghi design team headed by Grant Simmer, Alinghi 5 was built in Villeneuve, Switzerland, by Alinghi-Décision and required more than 100,000 hours of work.
The mast is 62 metres tall. An engine installed at the back of the boat provides power for the winches; when sailing upwind, the boat can sail at less than 20 degrees off the apparent wind. During a training run, Alinghi 5 covered 20 nautical miles to windward and back in 2.5 hours in 8–9-knot winds, so her average velocity made good was 16 knots, about 1.9 times the wind speed. Alinghi 5 sails so fast downwind that the apparent wind she generates is only 5–6 degrees different from when she is racing upwind. An explanation of this phenomenon can be found in the article on sailing faster than the wind; the design of the yacht was influenced by that of racing catamarans developed for regattas on Lake Geneva. The first race of the 2010 America's Cup took place on 12 February 2010. Alinghi 5 lost the race to the challenger, USA 17. Alinghi 5 was ahead by 1:27 at the start, but was behind by 3:21 at the windward mark and by about 10 minutes at the finish, her official finish time was 15:28 behind the winner because Alinghi 5 had to perform a penalty turn, having failed to stay clear at the start.
Winds were 5–10 knots. Alinghi 5 reached the windward mark in 1h32, so her velocity made good was about 13 knots, or about 1.7 times wind speed. Alinghi 5 took 691⁄2 minutes to reach the downwind mark, so her velocity made good downwind was about 17 knots, or about 2.3 times wind speed. On 14 February 2010, Alinghi 5 lost the second race, thus the America's Cup, again by a considerable margin though she appeared to sail better upwind than on the first day, thanks to a fuller mainsail combined with a smaller jib. Alinghi 5 was behind by 0:24 at the start, by 0:28 at the windward mark, by 2:44 at the gybe mark, by over 2 minutes at the finish, her official finish time was 5:26 behind the winner because Alinghi 5 had to perform a penalty turn, having entered the pre-start area too soon. Winds were 7 to 8 knots. Alinghi 5 reached the windward mark in 59 minutes, so her velocity made good was about 13.2 knots, or about 1.8 times wind speed. The course was a triangle, so the velocity made good downwind was only 11.1 knots, or about 1.5 times wind speed.
Alinghi 5 averaged 25.2 knots, or about 3.4 times the wind speed, on the faster first triangular leg. Most observers stated, she could be seen on Google Maps while trialing on Lake Geneva, but disappeared with the imagery update of 2011. Using the Measurement tool in Google Maps renders her 110 feet LOA and 75 feet beam. Www.americascup.com
New York Yacht Club
The New York Yacht Club is a private social club and yacht club based in New York City and Newport, Rhode Island. It was founded in 1844 by nine prominent sportsmen; the members have contributed to the sport of yacht design. As of 2001, the organization was reported to have about 3,000 members. Membership in the club is by invitation only, its officers include a Commodore, vice-commodore, rear-commodore and treasurer. The America's Cup trophy was won by members in 1851 and held by the NYYC until 1983; the NYYC defended the trophy twenty-four times in a row before being defeated by the Royal Perth Yacht Club, represented by the yacht Australia II. The NYYC's reign was the longest winning streak in the history of all sports; the NYYC has entered 2021 America's Cup under the syndicate name American Magic, In 1845, the club's first clubhouse was established — a modest, Gothic-revival building in Hoboken, New Jersey, on land donated by Commodore John Cox Stevens. After outgrowing its cramped quarters, the club moved to several other locations, including Staten Island, Glen Cove, New York and Mystic, Connecticut.
Its primary clubhouse is a six-storied Beaux-Arts landmark with a nautical-themed limestone facade, located at 37 West 44th Street in midtown Manhattan. Opened in 1901, the clubhouse was designed by Warren and Wetmore, architects of the exterior of Grand Central Terminal; the centerpiece of the clubhouse is the "Model Room", which contains a notable collection of full and half hull models including a scale model history of all New York Yacht Club America's Cup challenges. It was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1987. In addition to its Manhattan headquarters, located inland, the club maintains "Harbour Court", a clubhouse opened in 1988 on the water in Newport; the New York Yacht Club was founded on July 1844, by nine gentlemen. John Cox Stevens, the leader of this group, a prominent citizen of New York with a passion for sports, was elected commodore. John Clarkson Jay of Rye, one of the nine founders, was a grandson of Founding Father John Jay and served as the first Secretary of the board.
George L. Schuyler and Hamilton Wilkes were NYYC founders who, together with Stevens and two others, created the syndicate that built and raced the great schooner-yacht, America. Wilkes served as the club's first vice-commodore. Schuyler played a key role in the founding of the America's Cup regatta, served as its unofficial consultant until his death in 1890. In 1845, the club's burgee was designed; the waters off Newport have been a key sailing venue for the NYYC since the beginning of its history. Indeed, the day the club was founded in 1844, its members resolved to sail from the Battery to Newport. Two days they did, with several stops on the way, trials of speed. During the first decades of the club's history, racing for prize money was the objective among most members. In 1851, a syndicate of NYYC enthusiasts built and raced America, capturing the "One Hundred Sovereign Cup" at the annual regatta of the Royal Yacht Squadron. On July 8, 1857, the coveted trophy was donated to the NYYC, to serve as a challenge cup for sportsmanlike competition between nations.
The "America's Cup Race", named for its first winner, played a central role in the history of the club until this day. In 1865, the Club was incorporated, adopting the Latin motto: "Nos agimur tumidis velis" -- "We go with swelling sails". During this time, membership transitioned from the "old guard" to a new generation of yachtsmen, who built large schooner yachts captained by professionals. Marking this evolution was the 1866 resignation of Commodore Edwin Augustus Stevens, brother of founder John Cox Stevens and member of the America syndicate; the year 1866 is remembered in club annals for the legendary "Transatlantic Race". In December, the NYYC schooners Henrietta and Vesta raced from Sandy Hook to The Needles, Isle of Wight for a $90,000 winner-take-all prize; the Henrietta, owned by 21-year-old James Gordon Bennett, Jr. and skippered by Captain Samuel S. Samuels, a professional, won the race in 13 days, 21 hours and 55 minutes. Bennett would be elected commodore in 1871. In 1876, the Mohawk, a large centerboard schooner, capsized due to its sheets being "made fast" when a freak squall struck.
Vice-Commodore William T. Garner, his wife and crew died in the accident, it is believed. The Mohawk was sold to the U. S. Navy and recommissioned as the U. S. Eagre. By 1894, the New York Yacht Club had a number of Clubhouses: Station 1 in Bay Ridge. In 1868, the club bought a big mansion used as Station 2 at Staten Island; this building still is known as the Macfarlane Bredt House. In 1895, Richard H. Barker composed'The yacht club march: march and two-step: for piano' in honour of the New York Yacht Club. In 1994, as part of the Club's 150th celebrations, Melissa H. Harrington wrote'The New York Yacht Club, 1844-1994,' Following the disastrous Bay of Quinte America's Cup challenge in 1881, the Club's committee voted a new rule to govern its races: Rating = 2 ⋅ Load Waterline Length + Sail Area 3 The America's Cup challenges of 1885, 1886 and 1887 used this rule
A J-Class yacht is a single-masted racing sailboat built to the specifications of Nathanael Herreshoff's Universal Rule. The J-Class are considered the peak racers of the era when the Universal Rule determined eligibility in the America's Cup; the J-Class is one of several classes deriving from the Universal Rule for racing boats. The rule was established in single-masted racers. From 1914 to 1937, the rule was used to determine eligibility for the Americas Cup. In the late 1920s, the trend was towards smaller boats and so agreement among American yacht clubs led to rule changes such that after 1937 the International Rule would be used for 12-metre class boats; the Universal Rule formula is: R = 0.18 ⋅ L ⋅ S D 3 Where: L is boat length S is sail area D is displacement R is rating Herreshoff proposed an index of.2 but ratifying committees of the various yacht clubs changed this to, at various times.18 or.185. This is a'fudge factor' to allow some boats designed and built prior to the adoption of the Universal Rule, to compete.
The numerator contains a yacht's speed-giving elements and sail area, while the retarding quantity of displacement is in the denominator. The result will be dimensionally correct. J-Class boats will have a rating of between 76 feet; this is not a limiting factor for the variables in the equation. Designers are free to change any of the variables such as length or displacement but must reduce the other variables if the changes derive a different rating. A table of well-known J-Class yachts follows. Note the difference in the variables like displacement, sail area, etc. - applying the Universal Rule to these variables will result in a rating R between 65 and 76 feet.. Prior to the adoption of the Universal Rule, the Seawanhaka Rule was used to govern the design of boats for inter club racing; as the Seawanhaka Rule used only two variables: Load Waterline Length and Sail Area, racing boats at the time were becoming more and more extreme. Larger and larger sails atop shorter and wider boats leading either to unwieldy, unsafe, boats or craft, not competitive.
In order to account, in some ways, for the beam and the relationship of the length over all to the load waterline length the universal rule was proposed, taking into account displacement and length, which itself was a result of a formula taking into account such things as "quarter beam length". As different boats were designed and built, the notion of classes was derived to maintain groupings of competitive class. Following Sir Thomas Lipton's near success in the 1920 America's Cup, he challenged again for the last time at age 79, in 1929; the challenge drew all the novelties developed in the previous decade on small boats to be ported onto large boats, pitted British and American yacht design in a technological race. Between 1930 and 1937, the improvements brought to the design of sailboats were numerous and significant: The high-aspect bermuda rig replaces the gaff rig on large sailboats Solid-rod lenticular rigging for shrouds and stays Luff and foot grooved spars with rail and slides replacing wooden hoops Multiplication of spreader sets: one set two sets, three sets, four sets Multiplication of the number of winches: 23 winches, Enterprise Electrical navigational instruments borrowed from aeronautics with repeaters for windvane and anemometer, Whirlwind "Park Avenue" boom and "North Circular" boom developed to trim mainsail foot Riveted aluminium mast, Enterprise Genoa Jib and quadrangular jib Development of nylon parachute spinnakers, including the World's largest at 18,000 sq ft on Endeavour II Duralumin wing-mast, Ranger All these improvements may not have been possible without the context of the America's Cup and the stability offered by the Universal Rule.
The competition was a bit unfair because the British challengers had to be constructed in the country of the Challenging Yacht Club, had to sail on their own hull to the venue of the America's Cup: The design for such an undertaking required the challenging boat to be more seaworthy than the American boats, whose design was purely for speed in closed waters regattas. The yachts that remain in existence are all British, log more nautical miles today than they did; this would not have been possible if Charles Ernest Nicholson did not obtain unlimited budgets to achieve the quality of build for these yachts. Yacht designer Clinton Hoadley Crane noted in his memoirs that "America's Cup racing has never led to good sportsmanship; the attitude of the New York Yacht Club has been more that of a man in the forward position at war, order
Columbia (1958 yacht)
Columbia was the successful defender of the 1958 America's Cup for the New York Yacht Club, besting the British challenger Sceptre. Designed by Olin Stephens and built by Nevins, Columbia was built for the'58 trials, she was owned by a syndicate headed by Henry Sears, Gerard B. Lambert, Briggs Cunningham, Vincent Astor, James A. Farrell, A. Howard Fuller, William T. Moore. Columbia was helmed by Cunningham, the inventor of the cunningham downhaul, with syndicate head Sears as navigator. After defeating Sceptre in the Cup challenge, she went on to a long career competing in the Defender trials for the 1962, 1964, 1967 America's Cup competitions
Resolute was a yacht designed and built by Nathanael Greene Herreshoff for a syndicate of New York Yacht Club members headed by Henry Walters to contend the 1914 America's Cup. The mast of the Resolute resides at Camp Resolute, a Boy Scout camp located in Bolton,MA. Resolute was the last Cup defender to be designed by Herreshoff. Overhang forward - 16 feet Overhang aft - 15 feet Fore triangle base - 48 feet 4 inches Boom - 78 feet Deck to topmast - 130 feet Lead - 65tons Resolute was christened by Grace Vanderbilt and launched on April 25, 1914. In the 1914 America's Cup defender selection trials, skippered by Charles Francis Adams III, she beat Vanitie and Defiance. In so doing, she beat the America's Cup course record off Sandy Hook by sailing 30 miles in 3:16:41. However, the outbreak of World War I caused the America's Cup races for 1914 to be postponed; the race was held during the 1920 America's Cup. In 1920 the America's Cup was reconvened and Resolute again prevailed in selection races before defending the Cup in July, once more with Adams at the helm.
Resolute lost the first two matches before recovering to defend the cup 3-2 against Shamrock IV. Robert Wales Emmons, Jr. was the manager of the yacht in 1920. In 1925 Resolute was sold to E. Walter Clark of Philadelphia, her racing career lasted another ten years, in 1930 Resolute again participated in the America's cup selection races, albeit as a "trial horse" against which the potential defenders could be judged. Robert F Kennedy named his Wianno Senior Resolute after the America's Cup yacht; the International Yacht Race Technical article, Marine Engineering, July 1920 by C. A. McAllister including photos
Stars & Stripes 88
Stars & Stripes 88 is an American catamaran that defended the 1988 America's Cup. Stars & Stripes won against KZ1 with 2–0 in matches
Freedom is a 12-metre class racing yacht and winner of the 1980 America's Cup, defeating the challenging yacht Australia. Freedom was designed with an alloy rather than a wood hull by Olin Stephens and Bill Langan, constructed at Minneford Yacht Yard, she was skippered in the Cup by Dennis Conner. Today Freedom is available for charter out of Newport, Rhode Island from America's Cup Charters, along with fellow America's Cup winners Intrepid and Weatherly. "Freedom". America's Cup Charters. Retrieved April 16, 2009