Palmerston North is a city in the North Island of New Zealand and the seat of the Manawatu-Wanganui region. Located in the eastern Manawatu Plains, the city is near the north bank of the Manawatu River, 35 km from the river's mouth, 12 km from the end of the Manawatu Gorge, about 140 km north of the capital, Wellington. Palmerston North is the country's seventh-largest city and eighth-largest urban area, with an urban population of 86,600; the official limits of the city take in rural areas to the south, north-east, north-west and west of the main urban area, extending to the Tararua Ranges. The city covers a land area of 395 square kilometres; the city's location was once little more than a clearing in a forest and occupied by small communities of Māori, who called it Papa-i-Oea, believed to mean "How beautiful it is". In the mid-19th century, it was discovered and settled by Europeans—originally by Scandinavians and British colonists. On foundation, the British settlement was bestowed the name Palmerston, in honour of Viscount Palmerston, a former British Prime Minister.
The suffix North was added in 1871 to distinguish the settlement from Palmerston in the South Island. Today, the name is informally shortened to "Palmy". Early Palmerston North sawmilling; the west coast railway was built in 1886, linking the town to Wellington, Palmerston North benefited from a booming pastoral farming industry. Linton Military Camp, Palmerston North Hospital, the establishment of Massey University have reduced the dependence on farming since the early 20th century. Popular attractions include Te Manawa, several performing arts venues. Ngāti Rangitāne were the local Māori iwi living in the area known as Te Ahu-ā-Tūranga, when a trader, Jack Duff, became the earliest known European to explore the area c. 1830. He came on a whaling ship and explored as far inland as the site of Woodville, he reported his discovery on arrival back to Porirua. Colonel Wakefield heard of the potential that the Manawatu had for development and visited in 1840. In 1846 Charles Hartley, another trader, heard from tangata whenua of a clearing in the Papaioea forest and he proceeded through the dense bush and forest and discovered it for Europeans.
In 1858, the Government began negotiations with local iwi to purchase land in Manawatu. There was a dispute at the time between rival iwi Ngāti Rangitāne and Ngāti Raukawa as to who has the right to sell; the dispute is resolved in favour of Rangitāne. On a visit in 1859, John Tiffin Stewart, an employee of the Wellington Provincial Council, was shown the Papaioea clearing by Rangitāne chief, Te Hirawanu, noted its suitability for a "good site for a township". In 1864, Te Ahu-a-Turanga Block was sold by Rangitāne to the Government for £12,000, in an effort to open the Manawatu to settlement. Stewart returned in 1866 on behalf of the Wellington Provincial Council and made the original survey and subdivision in the Papaioea forest clearing; the settlement, named Palmerston to commemorate the deceased Prime Minister of Great Britain, was laid out according to Stewart's plan consisting of a series of wide and straight streets in a rectangular pattern. The focal point was an open space of 17 acres subsequently known as The Square.
On 3 October 1866, Palmerston was formally endorsed after Isaac Earl Featherston signed a proclamation defining the boundaries of the settlement. The first sections were sold after. Among the first settlers included Scandinavians, who arrived in 1871, they established settlements at Whakarongo/Stoney Creek. The same year, the suffix North was added to distinguish the settlement of the same name in Otago. In 1872 a petition was launched to change the name of the settlement. A public meeting in 1873 ends with no clear decision on the name; the railway line was laid through the Square in 1875. The foundation stone for the original All Saints Church was laid by Louisa Snelson on 29 September 1875. By 1875 there were a doctor and a post office. In 1876, Palmerston North became a Local Board District, within the Wellington Provincial Council; this existed until the abolition of the provinces the same year. In the same year, the council set aside land north of the Manawatu River for the purposes of a reserve.
In 1890, this land would become in 1897, the Victoria Esplanade. By 1877, when the Borough Council came into existence, Palmerston North was an isolated village in the midst of the native forest that covered inland Manawatu. By 1878, the population was 800 people and sawmilling was the main industry of the district; as the settlement grew, the forest diminished to make way for farms and housing, today no remnant of it survives. The arrival of the railway in 1886 saw an increase in the speed of growth and the town was at the centre of a lucrative agricultural district; the opening of the nearby Longburn Freezing Works provided employment, while the Borough Council instigated more infrastructural schemes such as the sewerage system. The Railway through the Manawatu Gorge to Napier was completed in 1891. In 1893, Rangitāne sold the Hokowhitu block. In the same year, the Public Hospital opened in a wooden building on Terrace Street; the hospital required significant fundraising. At the end of the decade, the
Whanganui spelled Wanganui, is a city on the west coast of the North Island of New Zealand. The Whanganui River, New Zealand's longest navigable waterway, runs from Mount Tongariro to the sea. Whanganui is part of the Manawatu-Wanganui region. Like several New Zealand centres, it was designated a city until administrative reorganisation in 1989, is now run by a District Council. Although the city was called Wanganui from 1854, in February 2009, the New Zealand Geographic Board recommended the spelling be changed to "Whanganui". In December 2009, the government decided that while either spelling was acceptable, Crown agencies would use the Whanganui spelling. On 17 November 2015, Land Information New Zealand announced that Wanganui District would be renamed to Whanganui District; this changed the official name of the District Council, because Whanganui is not a city but a district, the official name of the urban area as well. Whanganui is located on the South Taranaki Bight, close to the mouth of the Whanganui River.
It is 200 kilometres north of Wellington and 75 kilometres northwest of Palmerston North, at the junction of State Highways 3 and 4. Most of the city lies on the river's northwestern bank, due to the greater extent of flat land; the river is crossed by four bridges – Cobham Bridge, City Bridge, Dublin Street Bridge and Aramoho Railway Bridge. Both Mount Ruapehu and Mount Taranaki can be seen from Durie Hill and other vantage points around the city; the suburbs within Whanganui include: Northeast: Wanganui East, Bastia Hill, Aramoho East: Durie Hill South: Pūtiki West: Gonville, Tawhero Northwest: Springvale, St. Johns Hill, Otamatea The area around the mouth of the Whanganui river was a major site of pre-European Māori settlement; the pā named Pūtiki is home to the Ngāti Tūpoho hapū of the iwi Te Āti Haunui-a-Pāpārangi. It took its name from the legendary explorer Tamatea Pōkai Whenua, who sent a servant ashore to find flax for tying up his topknot. In the 1820s coastal tribes in the area assaulted the Kapiti Island stronghold of Ngāti Toa chief Te Rauparaha.
Te Rauparaha retaliated in 1830 slaughtering the inhabitants. The first European traders arrived in 1831, followed in 1840 by missionaries Octavius Hadfield and Henry Williams who collected signatures for the Treaty of Waitangi. On 20 June 1840, the Revd John Mason, Mrs Mason, Mr Richard Matthews and his wife Johanna arrived to establish a mission station of the Church Missionary Society; the Revd Richard Taylor joined the CMS mission station in 1843. The Revd Mason drowned on 5 January 1843. By 1844 the brick church built by Mason was inadequate to meet the needs of the congregation and it had been damaged in an earthquake. A new church was built under the supervision of Taylor, with the timber supplied by each pā on the river in proportion to its size and number of Christians. After the New Zealand Company had settled Wellington it looked for other suitable places for settlers. Edward Wakefield, son of Edward Gibbon Wakefield, negotiated the sale of 40,000 acres in 1840, a town named Petre – after Lord Petre, one of the directors of the New Zealand Company – was established four kilometres from the river mouth.
The settlement was threatened in 1846 by a chief from up the Whanganui River. The British military arrived on 13 December 1846 to defend the township. Two stockades, the Rutland and York, were built to defend the settlers. Two minor battles were fought on 19 May and 19 July 1847 and after a stalemate the up river iwi returned home. By 1850 Te Mamaku was receiving Christian instruction from Revd Taylor. There were further incidents in 1847 when four members of the Gilfillan family were murdered and their house plundered; the name of the city was changed to Wanganui on 20 January 1854. The early years of the new city were problematic. Purchase of land from the local tribes had been haphazard and irregular, as such many Māori were angered with the influx of Pākehā onto land that they still claimed, it was not until the town had been established for eight years that agreements were reached between the colonials and local tribes, some resentment continued. Wanganui grew after this time, with land being cleared for pasture.
The town was a major military centre during the New Zealand Wars of the 1860s, although local Māori at Pūtiki led by Te Keepa Te Rangihiwinui remained friendly to settlers. In 1871 a town bridge was built, followed six years by a railway bridge at Aramoho. Wanganui was linked by rail to both New Plymouth and Wellington by 1886; the town was incorporated as a Borough on 1 February 1872, declared a city on 1 July 1924. Wanganui's biggest scandal happened in 1920, when Mayor Charles Mackay shot and wounded a young poet, Walter D'Arcy Cresswell, blackmailing him over his homosexuality. Mackay served seven years in prison and his name was erased from the town's civic monuments, while Cresswell was praised as a "wholesome-minded young man". Mackay's name was restored to the foundation stone of the Sarjeant Gallery in 1985; the Whanganui River catchment is seen as a sacred area to Māori, the Whanganui region is still seen as a focal point for any resentment over land ownership. In 1995, Moutoa Gardens in Wanganui, known to local Māori as Pakaitore, were occupied for 79 days in a peaceful protest by the Whanganui iwi over land claims.
Wanganui was the site of the New Zealand Police Law Enforcement System from 1976 to 1995. An early Sperry mainframe computer-based intelligence and data manage
Reform Party (New Zealand)
The Reform Party, formally the New Zealand Political Reform League, was New Zealand's second major political party, having been founded as a conservative response to the original Liberal Party. It was in government between 1912 and 1928, formed a coalition with the United Party, merged with United to form the modern National Party; the Liberal Party, founded by John Ballance and fortified by Richard Seddon, was dominant in New Zealand politics at the beginning of the 20th century. The conservative opposition, consisting only of independents, was demoralised, it had no cohesive plan to counter the Liberal Party's dominance, could not always agree on a single leader — it was described by one historian as resembling a disparate band of guerrillas, presented no credible threat to continued Liberal Party rule. However, the Liberals began to falter — the first blow came with the death of Richard Seddon, their popular leader, but other factors contributed to their decline. For conservatives, the Liberals were losing support from small farmers, who had once backed the Liberals due to their promise of land reform.
Having achieved the land reforms, farmers had little reason to continue their support the Liberals, drifted towards the conservative opposition. At the same time, the Liberals were slowly losing their other base of support, the urban working class — the Ballance and Seddon governments had introduced many reformist labour laws, but under leaders the reforms had slowed; the Liberals were split between the farmers and the workers, attempting to please both and therefore satisfying neither. The attempts of the Liberals to win back the labour vote were decried by conservatives as "socialistic", the flight of farmers and businessmen from the Liberal Party was accelerated; the conservative opposition, which pledged its opposition to the alleged socialist tendencies of the Liberals, was strengthened. The foundation of the Reform Party was associated with this return of the opposition to political significance, with growing agitation against the Liberal Party's alleged socialism; the party itself crystallised around a farmer-turned-politician named William Massey, who became the leader of most conservatives in Parliament in 1903 after serving many years prior as the conservative whip.
Linked to the group were the Political Reform League, Auckland's "National Association", the Farmers' Union. The opposition began referring to itself as the Reform Party in 1909, adopted a common platform for contesting elections. Among the party's important policy planks were farmers' freehold and the reform of the public service. Despite campaigning against the government's "socialism", it did not propose to undo the Liberal Party's labour and welfare reforms. In 1911 a consistent theme of the Reform campaign was that it stood for "true Liberalism" and the Opposition accepted the permanency of the basic reforms of the Liberals in the 1890s, they claimed corruption and "Tammanyism" e.g. in civil service appointments. In the 1911 elections, the Reform Party won thirty-seven seats compared with thirty-three for the Liberals. Supporters of the Liberals denied that Reform had won a mandate to rule, pointing out that the country quota worked to "inflate" Reform's vote, it did not take long for the Liberal government, now ruling only with the support of independents, to fall.
William Massey became Prime Minister on 10 July 1912. In government, the Reform Party implemented many of its policies regarding freehold and public service reform. Many other Liberal-era policies were not changed and Reform gained further support from disillusioned members of the Liberal Party. Reform demonstrated its tough line against "socialism" with its responses to a number of notable strikes — the Waihi miners' strike, led by left-wing unions which Massey condemned as "enemies of order", was harshly suppressed, one worker died. A dockworkers' strike in 1913 was broken; the strikes prompted considerable concern about socialism in certain sectors of society, boosting Reform's results in the 1914 elections. In the 1919 elections, Reform further strengthened its position, despite the emergence of a single united Labour Party. In the 1922 elections, the approach of depression cost the government and Reform was forced to build an unstable coalition of independents. In 1925, Massey died. After a period under interim leader Francis Bell, Reform chose Gordon Coates as its new leader.
Coates, while not regarded as politically astute, was popular with the public, campaigned well. In the 1925 elections, Reform won a high number of seats — fifty-five, compared with twelve for Labour and eleven for the chaotic Liberals; this victory was not as pronounced in the statistics for the popular vote, however — many believed that Reform had profited from the three-party configuration, with the anti-Reform vote being split. In the 1928 elections, there was a substantial reversal; the new United Party, founded on the ashes of the Liberal Party, experienced a surge of support, tying with Reform on twenty-seven seats. The Labour Party won nineteen seats; the Reform Party government was defeated by an alliance of Labour. The Reform Party, still led by Coates, continued in opposition; the worsening economic situation left the United Party government struggling, in 1931, the Labour Party withdrew its support in protest at certain economic measures. The Reform Party reluctantly ag
John Stevens (New Zealand politician)
John Stevens was a Liberal Party Member of Parliament in New Zealand. Stevens was born in Wellington in 1845. Stevens moved north and resided in first the Rangitikei Manawatu districts from 1854, he made a living in agricultural until 1873, when he was hired by Henry Russell as an assistant and interpreter during a Native Lands Alienation Commission at Napier. He pursued an occupation as a Maori interpreter and land agent began an auctioneering and land agency in 1875. Stevens represented the Rangitikei electorate from 1881 to 1884 when he was defeated, from 1893 to 1896, he unsuccessfully contested the Palmerston electorate in the 1890 election. Stevens contested the 1892 Rangitikei by-election as an Independent Liberal as the Liberal Party was reluctant to endorse him in light of the recent Bruce by-election in which the candidate the Liberal Party endorsed lost by a large margin. Stevens lost by only 61 votes, he returned to parliament, representing the Manawatu electorate from 1896 to 1902 when he was defeated, from 1905 to 1908 when he was again defeated.
Stevens served as the Liberal Party's Senior Whip from 1900 until 1902. In his years, he had become blind and his lower limbs were paralysed, but he was in good spirits and would not allow others to sympathise with him, he was in the midst of a conversation with friends when he leaned back and died on 31 July 1916. The New Zealand Liberals: the Years of Power 1891–1912 by David Hamer Wilson, James Oakley. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1984. Wellington: V. R. Ward, Govt. Printer. OCLC 154283103
1860–61 New Zealand general election
The New Zealand general election of 1860–61 was held between 12 December 1860 and 28 March 1861 to elect 53 MPs to the third session of the New Zealand Parliament. 13,196 electors were registered.1860 was the year gold miners who held a Miner’s Right continuously for at least three months were able to vote without having to own, lease or rent property. Scholefield, Guy. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1949. Wellington: Govt. Printer
William Fox (politician)
Sir William Fox was the second Premier of New Zealand and held that office on four separate occasions in the 19th century, while New Zealand was still a colony. He was known for his confiscation of Māori land rights, his contributions to the education system, his work to increase New Zealand's autonomy from Britain, he has been described as determined and intelligent, but as bitter and "too fond" of personal attacks. Different aspects of his personality are emphasised by different accounts, changing due to the reviewers' political beliefs. Fox was born on 2 September 1812 at 5 Westoe Village in South Shields, in north east England, his family was a successful one. He was educated at Durham School and at Wadham College, Oxford, his activities for several years after graduating are a mystery: some speculate that he was not in England. In 1838 he studied law in London. Shortly after qualifying to practice as a lawyer, Fox married Sarah Halcomb; the couple decided that they would emigrate to New Zealand, joining an increasing number of other colonists.
Upon his arrival in Wellington Fox's legal qualifications were recognised, but there was little work, so he supplemented his income by writing for local periodicals. Fox lost the right to practice as a lawyer when, in 1843, he refused to swear an oath that he considered "degrading"; this event forced him to focus entirely on writing and journalism. Fox was opposed to government negotiations with Māori over land, stating that Māori had a right only to land that they used, he condemned the colonial government's "weak" response to the killing of Arthur Wakefield, a New Zealand Company official who had attempted to expand the settlement at Nelson into Māori-held lands. Fox's criticism of Governor Robert FitzRoy played a part in FitzRoy's removal from office. In 1843 Fox was chosen by the New Zealand Company as Wakefield's replacement in Nelson. In Nelson, Fox met with mixed success. There was little direct conflict with the Māori, most of Fox's work was related to economic development. Poor planning and inaccurate land surveying had left colonists with less than had been promised them, Fox was responsible for resolving the matter.
While many modern historians believe that he did a good job, Fox himself found that his best efforts were not good enough for the angry colonists. Fox spent his time leading parties into the wilderness near Nelson, an activity which he seems to have enjoyed. Fox was physically active all through his life. In 1848, William Wakefield died; as the New Zealand Company's senior officer in the colony, he was Fox's superior. Fox travelled to Wellington, managed to secure himself Wakefield's position, he accomplished this because of the short distance between Nelson and Wellington, which enabled him to win the position before instructions could be received from other cities. He was not the first choice of the Company's board in London, which preferred Dillon Bell, but his quick action managed to gain him enough support to receive the appointment; the Company was in decline after the deaths of both Arthur Wakefield. Fox became less active in the Company, taking more of an interest in the colonial government.
He was a strong opponent of Governor George Grey, refusing to grant self-government to the settlers. He denounced the administration and the judiciary as corrupt and incompetent. In 1851, Fox travelled to London on behalf of a group of Wellington settlers. There he met elder brother of William and Arthur, he discussed his ideas about a constitution for New Zealand supporting self-rule, provincial autonomy, two elected houses of parliament. He attempted to meet Earl Grey, the British minister for colonial possessions, but was refused; when a constitution was promulgated the following year it incorporated some of Fox's ideas, but was not satisfactory to him. Before returning to New Zealand and his wife spent some time travelling in Canada, the United States, Cuba; when they returned to New Zealand, the new constitution was in effect, elections had been held. In 1855 Fox was elected MP for Wanganui, he fought on a strong platform of provincial autonomy, was opposed to the government formed the following year by Henry Sewell, who took the newly created office of Premier of New Zealand.
Fox managed becoming New Zealand's second Premier. Fox, lasted only 13 days himself before being ousted by Edward Stafford. Fox spent the first years of Stafford's premiership in semi-retirement, but returned to be Stafford's primary opponent in parliament. Fox appears to have changed his views somewhat regarding Māori land rights, as he opposed the government's policy on that issue, he blamed Stafford's administration, along with Governor Thomas Gore Browne, for the wars in Taranaki, which broke out when a Māori chief refused to sell his land. Fox was believed to have converted to support of the Māori, although many modern historians claim that his opposition to land seizure was due to a pragmatic wish to avoid war, not a change of philosophy. Lack of evidence makes it difficult to tell, the case. In 1861, Fox proposed a vote of no confidence in Stafford, took the premiership again. Among the measures introduced were law changes designed to accommodate Māori political structures, a halt on attempts to acquire Māori land, a less confrontational attitude in existing conflicts.
Again, dispute exists as to whether this was motivated by support of Māori rights. His attempts to reduce con
2014 New Zealand general election
The 2014 New Zealand general election took place on Saturday 20 September 2014 to determine the membership of the 51st New Zealand Parliament. Voters elected 121 members to the House of Representatives, with 71 from single-member electorates and 49 from party lists. Since 1996, New Zealand has used the Mixed Member Proportional voting system, giving voters two votes: one for a political party and one for their local electorate MP; the party vote decides. The House has 120 seats but extra seats may be added where there is an overhang, caused by a party winning more electorates than seats it is entitled to; the one-seat overhang from the 50th Parliament will remain for the 51st Parliament, after United Future won one electorate when their 0.22% party vote did not entitle them to any seats. A total of 3,140,417 people were registered to vote in the election. A total of 2,446,279 votes were cast, including a record 717,579 advance votes, more than double the number cast in 2011. Turnout was 77.90%, higher than the 2011 election, but the sixth-lowest since women gained the vote in 1893.
The centre-right National Party, led by incumbent Prime Minister John Key, gained a plurality with 47.0% of the party vote and 60 of the 121 seats. On election night counts, the party appeared to hold the first majority since 1994 with 61 seats, but lost one seat to the Green Party on the official count. National re-entered confidence and supply agreements with the centrist United Future, the neoliberal ACT Party, the indigenous rights-based Māori Party to form a minority government and give the Fifth National Government a third term; the centre-left Labour Party, National's traditional opponent, lost ground for the fourth election in a row, receiving 25.1% of the party vote and 32 seats. The Green Party remained steady on 14 seats. New Zealand First meanwhile increased its vote share to 8.7% and seat count to 11. The Māori Party, ACT, United Future retained their Parliamentary representation, despite losing party votes; the Internet Mana Party did not return to Parliament after its only representative in Parliament, Hone Harawira, was defeated in his electorate of Te Tai Tokerau.
A referendum on the voting system took place in conjunction with the 2011 election, with 57.8% of voters voting to keep the existing Mixed Member Proportional voting system. Under the terms of the Electoral Referendum Act 2010 the majority vote in favour of retaining MMP meant that the Electoral Commission had the task of conducting an independent review of the workings of the MMP system; the Commission released a consultation paper in February 2012 calling for public submissions on ways to improve the MMP system, with the focus put on six areas: basis of eligibility for list seats by-election candidates dual candidacy order of candidates on party lists overhang proportion of electorate seats to list seatsThe Commission released a proposal paper for consultation in August 2012 and published its final report on 29 October 2012. In the report, the Commission recommended the following: Reducing the party vote threshold from 5 percent to 4 percent. If introduced, the 4 percent threshold should be reviewed after three general elections.
Abolishing the one electorate seat threshold – a party must cross the party vote threshold to gain list seats. Abolishing the provision of overhang seats for parties not reaching the threshold – the extra electorates would be made up at the expense of list seats to retain 120 MPs Retaining the status quo for by-election candidacy and dual candidacy. Retaining the status quo with closed party lists, but increasing scrutiny in selection of list candidates to ensure parties comply with their own party rules. Parliament should give consideration to fixing the ratio between electorate seats and list seats at 60:40. Parliament has the right to decide whether to implement any changes to the system, unchanged since it was introduced in 1994 for the 1996 election. In November 2012 a private member's bill under the name of opposition Labour Party member Iain Lees-Galloway proposed implementing the first two recommendations. In May 2014 Judith Collins and John Key announced that no inter-party consensus existed on implementing the recommendations of the Commission, so the Government would not introduce any legislation.
Following the 2011 general election, the National Party entered into confidence and supply agreements with ACT, the Māori Party and United Future to continue the Fifth National Government. These arrangements give the National-led government a majority of seven seats, with 64 on confidence-and-supply in the 121-seat Parliament; the Labour, New Zealand First and Mana parties are all in opposition, but only the Labour Party constitutes the formal Opposition. At the 2011 election, the National Party gained 59 seats, the Labour Party 34 seats, the Green Party 14 seats, New Zealand First eight seats, Māori three seats, Mana, ACT, United Future gained one seat each. One change was made to the allocation during the Parliament. In 2012, Brendan Horan was expelled from the NZ First caucus but continued to sit as an Independent, meaning NZ First had seven caucus MPs for the remainder of the Parliament. On 31 May 2013, the Electoral Commission de-registered United Future after it could not prove it had the 500 financial members required for registration.
The party success