A glitch is a short-lived fault in a system, such as a transient fault that corrects itself, making it difficult to troubleshoot. The term is common in the computing and electronics industries, in circuit bending, as well as among players of video games. More all types of systems including human organizations and nature experience glitches. A glitch, slight and temporary, differs from a more serious software bug, a genuine functionality-breaking problem. Alex Pieschel, writing for Arcade Review, said: "“bug” is cast as the weightier and more blameworthy pejorative, while “glitch” suggests something more mysterious and unknowable inflicted by surprise inputs or stuff outside the realm of code." Some reference books, including Random House's American Slang, claim that the term comes from the German word glitschen and the Yiddish word gletshn. Either way, it is a new term, it was first defined for the American people by Bennett Cerf on the June 20, 1965 episode of What's My Line as "a kink... when anything goes wrong down there, they say there's been a slight glitch."
Astronaut John Glenn explained the term in his section of the book Into Orbit, writing that Another term we adopted to describe some of our problems was "glitch." A glitch is a spike or change in voltage in an electrical circuit which takes place when the circuit has a new load put on it. You have noticed a dimming of lights in your home when you turn a switch or start the dryer or the television set; these changes in voltage are protected by fuses. A glitch, however, is such a minute change in voltage. John Daily further defined the word on the July 4, 1965, episode of the same show, saying that it's a term used by the Air Force at Cape Kennedy, in the process of launching rockets, "it means something's gone wrong and you can't figure out what it is so you call it a "glitch". On July 23, 1965, Time Magazine felt it necessary to define it in an article: "Glitches—a spaceman's word for irritating disturbances." In relation to the reference by Time Magazine, the term has been believed to enter common usage during the American Space Race of the 1950s, where it was used to describe minor faults in the rocket hardware that were difficult to pinpoint.
An electronics glitch or hazard is a transition that occurs on a signal before the signal settles to its intended value in a digital circuit. This implies an electrical pulse of short duration due to a race condition between two signals derived from a common source but with different delays. In some cases, such as a well-timed synchronous circuit, this could be a harmless and well-tolerated effect that occurs in a design. In other contexts, a glitch can represent an undesirable result of a fault or design error that can produce a malfunction; some electronic components, such as flip-flops, are triggered by a pulse that must not be shorter than a specified minimum duration in order to function correctly. A related concept is the runt pulse, a pulse whose amplitude is smaller than the minimum level specified for correct operation, a spike, a short pulse similar to a glitch but caused by ringing or crosstalk. A computer glitch is the failure of a system containing a computing device, to complete its functions or to perform them properly.
In public declarations, glitch is used to suggest a minor fault which will soon be rectified and is therefore used as a euphemism for a bug, a factual statement that a programming fault is to blame for a system failure. It refers to an error, not detected at the time it occurs but shows up in data errors or incorrect human decisions. Situations which are called computer glitches are incorrectly written software, incorrect instructions given by the operator, undetected invalid input data, undetected communications errors, computer viruses, Trojan attacks and computer exploiting; such glitches could produce problems such as keyboard malfunction, number key failures, screen abnormalities, random program malfunctions, abnormal program registering. Examples of computer glitches causing disruption include an unexpected shutdown of a water filtration plant in New Canaan, 2010, failures in the Computer Aided Dispatch system used by the police in Austin, resulting in unresponded 911 calls, an unexpected bit flip causing the Cassini spacecraft to enter "safe mode" in November 2010.
Glitches can be costly: in 2015, a bank was unable to raise interest rates for weeks resulting in losses of more than a million dollars per day. Glitches/bugs are software errors that can cause drastic problems within the code, go unnoticed or unsolved during the production of said software; these errors can be game caused or otherwise exploited until a developer/development team repairs them with patches. Complex software is bug-free or otherwise free from errors upon first release. Texture/model glitches are a kind of bug or other error that causes any specific model or texture to either become distorted or otherwise to not look as intended by the developers. Bethesda's The Elder Scrolls V: Skyrim is notorious for texture glitches, as well as other errors that affect many of the company's popular titles. Many games that use ragdoll physics for their character models can have such glitches happen to them. Physics glitches are errors in a game's physics e
Cheating in online games
Cheating in online games is defined as the action of pretending to comply with the rules of the game, while secretly subverting them to gain an unfair advantage over an opponent. Depending on the game, different activities constitute cheating and it is either a matter of game policy or consensus opinion as to whether a particular activity is considered to be cheating. Cheating exists in most multiplayer online games, but it is difficult to measure; the Internet and darknets can provide players with the methodology necessary to cheat in online games, sometimes in return for a price. An aimbot is a type of computer game bot used in multiplayer first-person shooter games to provide varying levels of automated target acquisition to the player, they are most common in first person shooter games, are sometimes used along with a TriggerBot, which automatically shoots when an opponent appears within the field-of-view or aiming reticule of the player. Aimbotting relies on each player's client computer receiving information about all other players, whether they are visible from the player's position or not.
Targeting is a matter of determining the location of any opponent relative to the player's location and pointing the player's weapon at the target. This targeting works regardless of whether the opponent is behind walls or too far away to be seen directly; some servers allow inactive players to spectate, watching the game from the viewpoints of the active players. Recording of gameplay actions is often possible. If someone was using a targeting aimbot, the bot would be obvious to the spectator as unnatural exact position tracking; some aimbots and triggerbots attempt to hide from spectators the fact they are being used through a number of methods, such as delaying firing to hide the fact it shoots the instant an opponent is in the cheater's crosshair. Some Triggerbot programs can be toggled on and off using the mouse or keyboard. Cheat suites may incorporate these in addition to other features, including adjustments to extrasensory perception, move speed, ammo count, player radar. Neophytes may colloquially define these suites as aimbot programs.
In the peer-to-peer gaming model, lagging is what happens when the stream of data between one or more players gets slowed or interrupted, causing movement to stutter and making opponents appear to behave erratically. By using a lag switch, a player is able to disrupt uploads from the client to the server, while their own client queues up the actions performed; the goal is to gain advantage over another player without reciprocation. From the opponent's perspective, the player using the device may appear to be teleporting, invisible or invincible, while the opponents suffer delayed animations and fast-forwarded game play, delivered in bursts; some gaming communities refer to this method as "tapping" which refers to the users "tapping" on and off their internet connection to create the lag. The term "lag switch" encompasses many methods of disrupting the network communication between a client and its server. One method is by attaching a physical device, called a hardware lag switch, to a standard Ethernet cable.
By flipping the switch on and off, the physical connection between the client and the server is disrupted. The designers of video game console hardware have started to introduce built-in protection against lag switches in the form of voltage detectors, which detect a change in voltage when the switch is flipped; some manufacturers have taken counter measures to trick this detector. This can be achieved by unplugging the Ethernet cord going to the client, causing a disruption in the player's internet connection. Other methods, called a software or wireless lag switch, involve using a computer program. In this method, the cheater runs an application on a computer connected to the same network as the client; the application hogs the network bandwidth, disrupting the communication between the client and its server. However, one cannot do this for an unlimited amount of time. At some point, if no traffic is being received, most game clients and/or game servers will decide that the connection has been lost and will remove the player from the game.
More advanced methods are firewall or router rules that apply bandwidth shaping and network latency, a cheat is able to adjust limits on both bandwidth and latency to stay relevant to a P2P network yet have considerable advantage over other players. Look-ahead cheating is a method of cheating within a peer-to-peer multiplayer gaming architecture where the cheating client gains an unfair advantage by delaying their actions to see what other players do before announcing its own action. A client can cheat using this method by acting. A partial solution is the lockstep protocol. World-hacking is a method or third-party program that enables a user to exploit bugs and to view more of a level than intended by the developer. A common aspect of real-time strategy games is the player's partial limitation or complete inability to see beyond the visibility range of individual game objects that are under their ownership. World-hacking enables the user to bypass this mechanism, either by removing it and/or by rendering objects through the fog that would not be visible.
In multiplayer modes, this allows for a distinct advantage against the other players who are subj
A letter is a grapheme in an alphabetic system of writing. It is a visual representation of the smallest unit of spoken sound. Letters broadly correspond to phonemes in the spoken form of the language, although there is a consistent, exact correspondence between letters and phonemes. Written signs in other writing systems are called logograms; the contemporary English-language alphabet, known as Roman style, consists of twenty-six letters. Each letter corresponds to one or more sounds, the letters are combined in the order of sounds to make words. A letter is classed depending on how its sound is produced; the basic Roman alphabet is used with slight variations. Some versions contain as few as some as many as thirty. Letters have specific names associated with them, which may differ with language and history. Z, for example, is called zed in all English-speaking countries except the US, where it is named zee; as elements of alphabets, letters have prescribed orders. In Spanish, for instance, ñ is a separate letter, sorted after n.
In English, n and ñ are classified alike. As symbols that indicate segmental speech, letters are associated with phonetics. In a purely phonemic alphabet, a single phoneme is denoted by a single letter, although in history and in practice letters indicate more than one phoneme. There are more phonemes, in English -- about 44 -- than there are letters of the alphabet. A letter may therefore be associated with more than one phoneme, with the phoneme determined by the surrounding letters or etymology of the word. Regional accents have a significant effect; as an example of positional effects, the letter c is pronounced before a, o, u, or consonants, but is pronounced before e, i, or y. Conversely, the same phoneme may be shared by more than one letter, as shown by the c and s in fence and tense. A pair of letters designating a single phoneme is called a digraph. Examples of digraphs in English include ch, sh, th. A phoneme can be represented by three letters, called a trigraph. An example is the combination sch in German.
Letters may have a numerical or quantitative value. This applies to the letters of other writing systems. In English, Arabic numerals are used instead of letters. Greek and Roman letters are used as mathematical symbols in expressions. People and objects are sometimes named after letters, for one of these reasons: The letter is an abbreviation, e.g. "G-man" as slang for a Federal Bureau of Investigation agent, arose as short for "Government Man" Alphabetical order used as a counting system, e.g. Plan A, Plan B, etc.. The shape of the letter, e.g. A-clamp, D-ring, F-clamp, G-clamp, H-block, H engine, O-ring, R-clip, U engine, V engine, Z-drive, a river delta, omega block Other reasons, e.g. X-ray after "x the unknown" in algebra, because the discoverer did not know what they were The Consistori del Gay Saber was the first literary academy in the world and held the Floral Games to award the best troubadour with the violeta d'aur top prize. Guilhem Molinier, a member of the academy, gave a definition of the letter in his Leys d'Amors, a book aimed at regulating then-flourishing Occitan poetry: Before there were alphabets, there were pictographs, or symbols.
Ancient Egyptian examples date to about 3500 BCE. Pictographs could communicate basic ideas, but were general and ambiguous if they were comprehensible at all. Tense, for example, could not be specified, symbols do not carry meaning across cultures. Memorization of tens of thousands of symbols is a daunting task; the relative ease of memorizing 26 letters contributed to the spread of literacy throughout the world. The first consonantal alphabet found emerged around 1800 BCE to represent the language of the Phoenicians, Semitic workers in Egypt, was derived from the alphabetic principles of the Egyptian hieroglyphs. Our present Roman system derives from this Phoenician alphabet. Nineteen of our present letters evolved from the early Phoenician forms; the Greek alphabet, adapted around 800 BCE, added four letters. This was the first alphabet assigning letters not only to consonant sounds, but to vowels; the Roman Empire brought the development and refinement of our Roman alphabet, beginning around 500 BCE.
The Romans dropped certain letters to accommodate Greek and Etruscan words. By about the fifth century CE, the beginnings of lowercase letterforms began to emerge in Roman writing, but they did not come into common use until the end of the Middle Ages, a thousand years later. Letter, borrowed from Old French letre, entered Middle English around 1200 CE displacing the native English term bōcstaf. Letter is descended from the Latin littera, which may have descended from the Greek "διφθέρα", via Etruscan. More the development of SMS technology is eliminating use of unnecessary letters in informal communication. Time pressure and limited character counts have introduced common abbreviations and variations such as gr8fl
SOCOM U.S. Navy SEALs
SOCOM U. S. Navy SEALs is a series of third-person tactical shooter video games for the PlayStation 2, PlayStation 3, PlayStation Portable, one for the mobile phone created by Zipper Interactive; the title for the series comes from the United States Special Operations Command, a Unified Combatant Command. The games focus on various teams of United States Navy SEALs completing missions with occasional help from other special operations forces from around the world such as the SAS, SBS and GROM. Information needed This is a tactical shooter based on a asquad of american fighters Information needed Information needed Information needed Information needed Information needed Information needed Information needed Information needed Information needed Official website
A skill is the ability to carry out a task with determined results within a given amount of time, energy, or both. Skills can be divided into domain-general and domain-specific skills. For example, in the domain of work, some general skills would include time management and leadership, self-motivation and others, whereas domain-specific skills would be used only for a certain job. Skill requires certain environmental stimuli and situations to assess the level of skill being shown and used. People need a broad range of skills to contribute to a modern economy. A joint ASTD and U. S. Department of Labor study showed that through technology, the workplace is changing, identified 16 basic skills that employees must have to be able to change with it. Three broad categories of skills are suggested and these are technical and conceptual; the first two can be substituted with soft skills, respectively. Hard skills called technical skills, are any skills relating to a specific task or situation, it involves both understanding and proficiency in such specific activity that involves methods, procedures, or techniques.
These skills are quantifiable unlike soft skills, which are related to one's personality. These are skills that can be or have been tested and may entail some professional, technical, or academic qualification. Skilled workers have long had historical import as electricians, carpenters, bakers, coopers and other occupations that are economically productive. Skilled workers were politically active through their craft guilds. An ability and capacity acquired through deliberate and sustained effort to smoothly and adaptively carryout complex activities or job functions involving ideas, and/or people. See competence. According to the Portland Business Journal, people skills are described as: understanding ourselves and moderating our responses talking and empathizing building relationships of trust and productive interactions. A British definition is "the ability to communicate with people in a friendly way in business." The term is not listed yet in major US dictionaries. The term people skills is used to include both psychological skills and social skills but is less inclusive than life skills.
Social skill is any skill facilitating communication with others. Social rules and relations are created and changed in verbal and nonverbal ways; the process of learning such skills is called socialization. Soft skills are a combination of interpersonal people skills, social skills, communication skills, character traits, career attributes and emotional intelligence quotient among others. Skills can be categorized based on the level of motivation; the highest level of engagement corresponds to the craftsman. About 2% of people reach the highest level. Communication skills Deskilling DISCO - European Dictionary of Skills and Competences Dreyfus model of skill acquisition Game of skill Online skill-based game Procedural knowledge Transferable skills analysis American Society for Training & Development Australian National Training Authority NCVER's Review of generic skills for the new economy SKILLS EU Research Integrated Project
Online chat may refer to any kind of communication over the Internet that offers a real-time transmission of text messages from sender to receiver. Chat messages are short in order to enable other participants to respond quickly. Thereby, a feeling similar to a spoken conversation is created, which distinguishes chatting from other text-based online communication forms such as Internet forums and email. Online chat may address point-to-point communications as well as multicast communications from one sender to many receivers and voice and video chat, or may be a feature of a web conferencing service. Online chat in a less stringent definition may be any direct text-based or video-based, one-on-one chat or one-to-many group chat, using tools such as instant messengers, Internet Relay Chat, talkers and MUDs; the expression online chat comes from the word chat which means "informal conversation". Online chat includes web-based applications that allow communication – directly addressed, but anonymous between users in a multi-user environment.
Web conferencing is a more specific online service, sold as a service, hosted on a web server controlled by the vendor. The first online chat system was called Talkomatic, created by Doug Brown and David R. Woolley in 1973 on the PLATO System at the University of Illinois, it offered several channels, each of which could accommodate up to five people, with messages appearing on all users' screens character-by-character as they were typed. Talkomatic was popular among PLATO users into the mid-1980s. In 2014, Brown and Woolley released a web-based version of Talkomatic; the first online system to use the actual command "chat" was created for The Source in 1979 by Tom Walker and Fritz Thane of Dialcom, Inc. The first transatlantic Internet chat took place between Oulu and Corvallis, Oregon in February 1989; the first dedicated online chat service, available to the public was the CompuServe CB Simulator in 1980, created by CompuServe executive Alexander "Sandy" Trevor in Columbus, Ohio. Ancestors include network chat software such as UNIX "talk" used in the 1970s.
The term chatiquette describes basic rules of online communication. These conventions or guidelines have been created to avoid misunderstandings and to simplify the communication between users. Chatiquette varies from community to community and describes basic courtesy; as an example, it is considered rude to write only in upper case, because it appears as if the user is shouting. The word "chatiquette" has been used in connection with various chat systems since 1995. Chatrooms can produce a strong sense of online identity leading to impression of subculture. Chats are valuable sources of various types of information, the automatic processing of, the object of chat/text mining technologies. Criticism of online chatting and text messaging include concern that they replace proper English with shorthand or with an completely new hybrid language. Writing is changing as it takes on some of the features of speech. Internet chat rooms and rapid real-time teleconferencing allow users to interact with whoever happens to coexist in cyberspace.
These virtual interactions involve us in'talking' more and more than before. With chatrooms replacing many face-to-face conversations, it is necessary to be able to have quick conversation as if the person were present, so many people learn to type as as they would speak; some critics are wary that this casual form of speech is being used so much that it will take over common grammar. With the increasing population of online chatrooms there has been a massive growth of new words created or slang words, many of them documented on the website Urban Dictionary. Sven Birkerts wrote: "as new electronic modes of communication provoke similar anxieties amongst critics who express concern that young people are at risk, endangered by a rising tide of information over which the traditional controls of print media and the guardians of knowledge have no control on it". In Guy Merchant's journal article Teenagers in Cyberspace: An Investigation of Language Use and Language Change in Internet Chatrooms; this new literacy develops skills that may well be important to the labor market but are viewed with suspicion in the media and by educationalists.
Merchant says "Younger people tend to be more adaptable than other sectors of society and, in general, quicker to adapt to new technology. To some extent they are the innovators, the forces of change in the new communication landscape." In this article he is saying that young people are adapting to what they were given. The following are common chat programs and protocols: Chat programs supporting multiple protocols: Web sites with browser-based chat services: Chat room Collaborative software Instant messaging Internet forum List of virtual communities with more than 100 million active users Online dating service Real-time text Videotelephony Voice chat
Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas
Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas is an action-adventure video game developed by Rockstar North and published by Rockstar Games. It was released on 26 October 2004 for PlayStation 2, on 7 June 2005 for Microsoft Windows and Xbox. A high definition remastered version received a physical release for both Xbox 360 and PlayStation 3 on 30 June 2015 and 1 December 2015, respectively, it is the seventh title in the Grand Theft Auto series, the first main entry since 2002's Grand Theft Auto: Vice City. It was released on the same day as the handheld game Grand Theft Auto Advance for Game Boy Advance. On 8 June 2018, the game was added to the Xbox One Backward Compatible library. Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas is played from a third-person perspective in an open world environment, allowing the player to interact with the game world at their leisure; the game is set within the fictional U. S. state of San Andreas, based on California and Nevada. The state of San Andreas consists of three metropolitan cities: Los Santos, based on Los Angeles.
The single-player story follows Carl "CJ" Johnson, an ex-gangbanger who returns home to Los Santos from Liberty City after his mother's murder. Carl finds his old friends and family in disarray, over the course of the game he attempts to re-establish his old gang, clashes with corrupt cops, unravels the truth behind his mother's murder; the plot is based on multiple real-life events in Los Angeles, including the rivalry between the Bloods and Hispanic street gangs, the 1980s crack epidemic, the LAPD Rampart scandal, the 1992 Los Angeles riots. Considered one of the sixth generation of video gaming's most significant titles, by many reviewers to be one of the greatest video games made, San Andreas received rave reviews by many critics who praised the music and gameplay, it became the best-selling video game of 2004, has sold over 27.5 million copies worldwide as of 2011. The game, like its predecessors, is cited as a landmark in video games for its far-reaching influence within the industry.
However, the violence and sexual content of San Andreas has been the source of much public concern and controversy. In particular, a player-made software patch, dubbed the "Hot Coffee mod", unlocked a hidden sexual scene; the next main entry in the series, Grand Theft Auto IV, was released in April 2008. San Andreas has been ported to various other platforms and services, such as OS X, Xbox Live, PlayStation Network and mobile devices. Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas is an action-adventure game with role-playing and stealth elements. Structured to the previous two games in the series, the core gameplay consists of elements in a third-person shooter and a driving game, affording the player a large, open world environment in which to move around. On foot, the player's character is capable of walking, sprinting, swimming and jumping as well as using weapons and various forms of hand-to-hand combat; the player can drive a variety of vehicles, including automobiles, semis, fixed-wing aircraft, trains, tanks and bikes.
The player may import vehicles in addition to stealing them. The open, non-linear environment allows the player to explore and choose how they wish to play the game. Although storyline missions are necessary to progress through the game and unlock certain cities and content, they are not required as the player can complete them at their own leisure; when not taking on a storyline mission, the player can freely-roam and look around the cities of San Andreas, eat in restaurants, or cause havoc by attacking people and causing destruction. Creating havoc can attract unwanted and fatal attention from the authorities; the more chaos caused, the stronger the response: police will handle "minor" infractions, whereas SWAT teams, the FBI, the military respond to higher wanted levels. The player can partake in a variety of optional side missions that can boost their character's attributes or provide another source of income; the traditional side missions of the past games are included, such as dropping off taxi cab passengers, putting out fires, driving injured people to the hospital and fighting crime as a vigilante.
New additions include burglary missions, pimping missions and train driving missions requiring the player to make deliveries on time, driving/flying/boating/biking schools, which help the player learn skills and techniques to use in their corresponding vehicles. Not all locations are open to the player at the start of the game; some locales, such as mod garages, restaurants and shops, become available only after completing certain missions. For the first portion of the game, only Los Santos and its immediate suburbs are available for exploration. If the player were to travel in locked locations early in the game, they would end up attracting the attention of SWAT teams and police-controlled Hydras if in an aircraft. Unlike Grand Theft Auto III and Vice City, which needed loading screens when the player moved between different districts of the city, San Andreas has no load times when the player is in transit; the only loading screens in the game are for interiors. Other differences between San Andreas and its predecessors include the switch from single-player to multiplayer Rampage missions, the replacement of the'hidden packages' with spray paint tags, hidden