A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
U.S. Route 67
U. S. Route 67 is a major north–south U. S. highway. The southern terminus of the route is at the United States-Mexico border in Presidio, where it continues south as Mexican Federal Highway 16 upon crossing the Rio Grande; the northern terminus is at U. S. Route 52 in Sabula, Iowa. US 67 crosses the Mississippi River twice along its routing; the first crossing is at West Alton, where US 67 uses the Clark Bridge to reach Alton, Illinois. About 240 miles to the north, US 67 crosses the river again at the Rock Island Centennial Bridge between Rock Island and Davenport, Iowa. Additionally, the route crosses the Missouri River via the Lewis Bridge a few miles southwest of the Clark Bridge. Throughout Texas, US 67 runs in a northeast–southwest manner violating the norms for numbering U. S. highways as odd-numbered routes are north–south in orientation, because prevailing north–south versus prevailing east–west designation is determined by the ultimate termini as the route traverses multiple states. US 67 is part of the La Entrada al Pacifico international trade corridor from its southern terminus to an intersection with U.
S. Route 385 in McCamey. Between Dallas and Weaver in eastern Hopkins County, the highway runs concurrently with Interstate 30, is unsigned between Dallas and Royse City. From Weaver east to the Arkansas state line in Texarkana, US 67 runs parallel to I-30. East of the Interstate 35E/Interstate 30 "mixmaster" in Downtown Dallas, U. S. Route 67 follows Interstate 30. West of the "mixmaster," U. S. 67 follows I-35E south through Oak Cliff. Along this portion, the Route 67 shield is alongside the Interstate shield. Just north of Kiest Boulevard, U. S. Route 67 breaks off from Interstate 35E and maintains controlled-access status down to Midlothian, where it becomes a four-lane divided highway to the western edge of Cleburne; the route from Alpine to San Angelo was a previous route of SH 99. Though it passes through the heart of the Ozarks, the highest elevation along US 67 is the last 150 miles between Fort Stockton and Presidio. Below Fort Stockton, US 67 passes near the Glass Mountains and the Sierra Del Norte range at 6810 ft. West of Alpine, US 67 passes near the Twin Sisters, Ranger Peak, Paisano Peak before going through Paisano Pass.
East of Marfa are views of Twin Mountains, Goat Mountain, Cathedral Peak, Cienega Mountain. The Puertacitas Mountains and the Davis Mountains can be seen from the Marfa Ghost Lights observatory to the north; the Davis Mountains are the highest elevation near US 67. Thirty miles south of Marfa, US 67 reaches its highest point at 5428 ft, with Chinatti Peak seen to the southwest. In Arkansas, US 67 runs parallel with Interstate 30 from Texarkana to Benton, where it runs concurrently with I-30 to North Little Rock, it runs on a freeway north to US 412 in Walnut Ridge, where the freeway ends and the road becomes a five-lane undivided highway to Pocahontas. After Pocahontas, the road returns to a two-lane alignment north to the state line. In 2009, a bill was introduced to rename the portion of US 67; the bill, by Rep. J. R. Rogers of Walnut Ridge, designates US 67 in Jackson and Randolph Counties as "Rock'n' Roll Highway 67." Besides Elvis Presley and Johnny Cash, the bill notes that Roy Orbison, Jerry Lee Lewis, Fats Domino played at clubs along that stretch of highway.
Going from south to north, US 67 enters Missouri at the Arkansas state line. About 10 miles north of the state line, it intersects US 160. At the southwest corner of Poplar Bluff, Business Route 67 goes into Poplar Bluff while US 67 bypasses Poplar Bluff to the west on a freeway-grade highway, it joins US 60 at the northwest corner of Poplar Bluff. Both 60 and 67 follow a four-lane route to an interchange about 6 miles northwest of Poplar Bluff, where US 60 heads west toward Springfield, while US 67 heads north to St. Louis. Construction is complete to divide the highway through Wayne and Butler Counties, including bypasses around Greenville and Cherokee Pass; the new divided highway opened on August 2011, with a ribbon-cutting ceremony. Additionally, MoDOT has extended the divided highway south to US 160 south of Poplar Bluff. From Fredericktown, US 67 passes through Farmington, where an existing interchange with Route 221 was converted to a diverging diamond interchange in September 2012. US 67 proceeds through Park Hills and Bonne Terre.
About 25 miles north of Bonne Terre, US 67 crosses Interstate 55 and enters Festus and Crystal City and picks up US 61. This becomes known as Truman Boulevard in Festus and Crystal City, Highway 61-67 from Herculaneum to Imperial, Jeffco Boulevard from Arnold until it exits Jefferson County and enters St. Louis County, over the Meramec River where it becomes Lemay Ferry Road; when US 67/61 reaches St. Louis County, It travels Lemay Ferry Road until it reaches Lindbergh Boulevard. There, it overlaps Lindbergh Boulevard. US 61 turns west onto I-64/US 40 West towards Wentzville. Lindbergh, named for aviator Charles Lindbergh, continues north through Frontenac, Creve Coeur, Maryland Heights, Bridgeton and Florissant until it reaches Lewis & Clark Boulevard. From there, it continues straight north to West Alton and crosses the Mississippi River on the Clark Bridge and enters Alton, Illinois; the only vehicular tunnel in Missouri is located on US 67 at St. Louis Lambert International Airport, where the road
1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity. The main forms of precipitation include drizzle, sleet, snow and hail. Precipitation occurs when a portion of the atmosphere becomes saturated with water vapor, so that the water condenses and "precipitates", thus and mist are not precipitation but suspensions, because the water vapor does not condense sufficiently to precipitate. Two processes acting together, can lead to air becoming saturated: cooling the air or adding water vapor to the air. Precipitation forms as smaller droplets coalesce via collision with other rain drops or ice crystals within a cloud. Short, intense periods of rain in scattered locations are called "showers."Moisture, lifted or otherwise forced to rise over a layer of sub-freezing air at the surface may be condensed into clouds and rain. This process is active when freezing rain occurs. A stationary front is present near the area of freezing rain and serves as the foci for forcing and rising air.
Provided necessary and sufficient atmospheric moisture content, the moisture within the rising air will condense into clouds, namely stratus and cumulonimbus. The cloud droplets will grow large enough to form raindrops and descend toward the Earth where they will freeze on contact with exposed objects. Where warm water bodies are present, for example due to water evaporation from lakes, lake-effect snowfall becomes a concern downwind of the warm lakes within the cold cyclonic flow around the backside of extratropical cyclones. Lake-effect snowfall can be locally heavy. Thundersnow is possible within lake effect precipitation bands. In mountainous areas, heavy precipitation is possible where upslope flow is maximized within windward sides of the terrain at elevation. On the leeward side of mountains, desert climates can exist due to the dry air caused by compressional heating. Most precipitation is caused by convection; the movement of the monsoon trough, or intertropical convergence zone, brings rainy seasons to savannah climes.
Precipitation is a major component of the water cycle, is responsible for depositing the fresh water on the planet. 505,000 cubic kilometres of water falls as precipitation each year. Given the Earth's surface area, that means the globally averaged annual precipitation is 990 millimetres, but over land it is only 715 millimetres. Climate classification systems such as the Köppen climate classification system use average annual rainfall to help differentiate between differing climate regimes. Precipitation may occur on other celestial bodies, e.g. when it gets cold, Mars has precipitation which most takes the form of frost, rather than rain or snow. Precipitation is a major component of the water cycle, is responsible for depositing most of the fresh water on the planet. 505,000 km3 of water falls as precipitation each year, 398,000 km3 of it over the oceans. Given the Earth's surface area, that means the globally averaged annual precipitation is 990 millimetres. Mechanisms of producing precipitation include convective and orographic rainfall.
Convective processes involve strong vertical motions that can cause the overturning of the atmosphere in that location within an hour and cause heavy precipitation, while stratiform processes involve weaker upward motions and less intense precipitation. Precipitation can be divided into three categories, based on whether it falls as liquid water, liquid water that freezes on contact with the surface, or ice. Mixtures of different types of precipitation, including types in different categories, can fall simultaneously. Liquid forms of precipitation include drizzle. Rain or drizzle that freezes on contact within a subfreezing air mass is called "freezing rain" or "freezing drizzle". Frozen forms of precipitation include snow, ice needles, ice pellets and graupel; the dew point is the temperature to which a parcel must be cooled in order to become saturated, condenses to water. Water vapor begins to condense on condensation nuclei such as dust and salt in order to form clouds. An elevated portion of a frontal zone forces broad areas of lift, which form clouds decks such as altostratus or cirrostratus.
Stratus is a stable cloud deck which tends to form when a cool, stable air mass is trapped underneath a warm air mass. It can form due to the lifting of advection fog during breezy conditions. There are four main mechanisms for cooling the air to its dew point: adiabatic cooling, conductive cooling, radiational cooling, evaporative cooling. Adiabatic cooling occurs when air expands; the air can rise due to convection, large-scale atmospheric motions, or a physical barrier such as a mountain. Conductive cooling occurs when the air comes into contact with a colder surface by being blown from one surface to another, for example from a liquid water surface to colder land. Radiational cooling occurs due to the emission of infrared radiation, either by the air or by the surface underneath. Evaporative cooling occurs when moisture is added to the air through evaporation, which forces the air temperature to cool to its wet-bulb temperature, or until it reaches saturation; the main ways water vapor is added to the air are: wind convergence into areas of upward motion, precipitation or virga falling from above, daytime heating evaporating water from the surface of oceans, water bodies or wet lan
McCamey is a city in Upton County, West Texas. The population was 1,887 at the 2010 census; the Texas legislature has declared McCamey "the Wind Energy Capital of Texas" because of the many wind farms that have been built in the area. Its history, however, is that of an oil boomtown. McCamey is located at 31°7′56″N 102°13′20″W; the town is about five miles east of the Pecos River along U. S. Route 67. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.0 square miles, all land. McCamey is named for George B. McCamey, whose 1925 wildcat well brought about the oil boom in the region, he brought in a real estate developer from Corpus Christi, Texas, to lay out a townsite near the oil field and along the Kansas City and Orient Railway capable of housing 10,000 people. The town was a jumble of tents and frame shacks. A post office was built in 1926, the town was incorporated near the end of that year. In 1927, the McCamey Independent School District was formed, an enterprising newspaperman printed the first issue of the Tri-County Record, the first town newspaper.
Water supply was a problem in the early years of McCamey, as the nearby water sources were not drinkable. Water came in by train from Alpine 100 miles away, at a cost of $1 a barrel. A potable water supply was found in a geologic unit only 17 miles distant, pipes were built to transport it to town in 1929. McCamey was one of the first built in West Texas. Humble Oil & Refining Company was a corporate predecessor of Exxon Company. An early experiment by Shell Oil Company in massive oil storage in McCamey proved a failure: local oilmen built a reservoir to hold up to one million barrels of oil in an earthen tank, but the limestone formation underneath the tank cracked under the weight of the crude, allowing much of it to leak into the subsurface; the population of the town declined during the Great Depression along with the price of oil, as the discovery of large oil fields elsewhere pulled workers away. In 1940 there were 2,600 people in McCamey. In 1940, the Texas oilman and industrialist Bill Noël moved to McCamey, where he joined M. H. McWhirter of Monahans and J. B.
Tubb of Crane County to establish the Trebol Oil Company. He worked eighteen-hour days as Trebol's tool pusher and production supervisor; the company drilled fifty-two producing wells. Noël was so occupied in the pursuits of the business that he claimed to have been unaware that he had become a millionaire until several years after the accumulation of his early fortune; as of the census of 2000, 1,805 people, 676 households, 494 families resided in the city. The population density was 900.4 people per square mile. There were 854 housing units at an average density of 426.0/sq mi. The racial makeup of the city was 72.30% White, 1.55% African American, 1.27% Native American, 23.82% from other races, 1.05% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 52.30% of the population. Of the 676 households, 35.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.1% were married couples living together, 10.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.9% were not families. About 24.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.67 and the average family size was 3.20. In the city, the population was distributed as 30.3% under the age of 18, 8.0% from 18 to 24, 24.7% from 25 to 44, 22.6% from 45 to 64, 14.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.2 males. The median income for a household in the city was $25,233, for a family was $28,906. Males had a median income of $31,513 versus $16,724 for females; the per capita income for the city was $12,171. About 23.2% of families and 24.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 30.6% of those under age 18 and 16.6% of those age 65 or over. The City of McCamey is served by the McCamey Independent School District. Gary Gilmore, first person executed in the United States after capital punishment was reinstated in 1976, he was born in McCamey on December 4, 1940. Jill Jackson, Ray Hildebrand's partner in the 1960s duo Paul & Paula.
Their 1963 hit song called. She was born in McCamey on May 20, 1942. Bill Keffer, Republican member of the Texas House of Representatives from District 107 from 2003 to 2007. Known as "England Dan", half of the soft rock duo England Dan & John Ford Coley. Born February 8, 1948 in McCamey. Died March 25, 2009 of mantle cell lymphoma in Nashville, Tennessee. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, McCamey has a semi-arid climate, abbreviated "BSk" on climate maps
Albany is a city in Shackelford County, United States. The population was 2,034 at the 2010 Census, it is the county seat of Shackelford County. Established in 1873, Albany was named by county clerk William Cruger after his former home of Albany, Georgia. Lieutenant Colonel William Dyess, survivor of the Bataan Death March in the Philippines and namesake of Dyess Air Force Base, was born in Albany on August 9, 1916. Major General Robert B. Williams, who led the World War II aerial bombing raid on Schweinfurt, was born in Albany on November 9, 1901. Albany is located northeast of Abilene, the seat of Taylor County. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.5 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2000, 1,921 people, 746 households, 531 families resided in the city; the population density was 1,305.9 people per square mile. The 880 housing units averaged 598.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 93.13% White, 0.68% African American, 0.47% Native American, 4.84% from other races, 0.88% from two or more races.
Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 8.07% of the population. Of the 746 households, 33.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.1% were married couples living together, 8.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.7% were not families. Of all households, 27.3% were made up of individuals, 16.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.51 and the average family size was 3.08. In the city, the population was distributed as 27.0% under the age of 18, 6.4% from 18 to 24, 25.4% from 25 to 44, 23.0% from 45 to 64, 18.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 86.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.2 males. The median income for a household in the city was $31,563, for a family was $40,592. Males had a median income of $28,846 versus $17,411 for females; the per capita income for the city was $17,470. About 8.1% of families and 9.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.1% of those under age 18 and 11.1% of those age 65 or over.
Albany is served by the Albany Independent School District. Their mascot is the Lion and their school colors are red and white. Nancy Smith Elementary 2006 National Blue Ribbon School Albany Junior/Senior High School Since 1938, Texas' oldest outdoor musical, the Fort Griffin Fandangle, has been presented during the last two weekends of June in the Prairie Theater about historic Fort Griffin, a military outpost established in 1867 near Albany and now a state park; the program, the content of, different each year, attempts to recapture the theatrical charm of the American West. The show offers covered wagons and buggies, a stagecoach, a replica of the first Texas Central Railroad train, an oil derrick, cowboys whose ancestors pushed Longhorn herds up the nearby Great Western Cattle Trail; the Dallas Morning News describes Fandangle, accordingly: "as professional as a multimillion dollar Broadway musical, with sets and costumes to match, with a cast of three hundred". The Abilene Reporter-News calls the program "Frontier history served up with genuine earthiness, spiced by rare humor."
Www.albanytexas.org Albany's City Hall website Albany's Chamber of Commerce website The Albany News Fort Griffin Fandangle Association The Old Jail Art Center Albany Independent School District Albany Ex-Students Association Fort Griffin State Park Handbook of Texas