Santa Lucia in Selci
The Church of Saint Lucy in Selci is an ancient Roman Catholic church, located in Rome, dedicated to Saint Lucy, a 4th-century virgin and martyr. The church was built no than the 8th century above the ruins of a Roman structure, the Portico of Livia. According to the tradition, the first church was built under Pope Symmachus back in the 6th century; the building was restored by Pope Honorius I in the 7th century and again by Pope Leo III in the 9th century. The deaconry of Saint Lucy in Silice created around 300 is one of the seven original deaconries in Rome, it was confirmed by Pope Saint Sylvester. 314. The church was restored by Pope Honorius I ca 630 in the vicinity of the monumental fountain lacus orphei, it was assigned to one of the seven deacons by Pope Agatho ca. 678. According to Liber Pontificalis, this deaconry received donations from Pope Leo III. After the 10th century it was known as Santa Lucia in Silice; the deaconry was suppressed in 1587 by Pope Sixtus V. In the 13th century, a monastery was attached to the church.
In 1370, it was granted to the Carthusians. In 1534, it was given to the Benedictines, in 1568 Pope Pius V granted it to the Augustinians, who still serve the church. Pope Urban VIII altered the monastery in 1624, dividing it into three parts. One was kept by the Augustinians, one was given to Dominican friars and the last was given to the Poor Clares; the monastery was amplified in 1603 according to designs by Bartolomeo Bassi, active in Rome at that time. However, all that remains of this amplification is the portal of the exterior. In 1878 the Italian state expropriated the convent of the Poor Clares, adjacent to San Lorenzo in Panisperna, but the nuns came to the monastery of Santa Lucia in Selci. Carlo Maderno reconstructed the church in 1604, keeping it enclosed within the Augustinian monastery; the church was restored in 1637-1638 by Francesco Borromini. The church is built on a rectangular ground barrel vault, it has a single nave with three shallow chapels on each side. The barrel vault has a 19th-century fresco by an unknown artist that replaced one with the same motif by Giovanni Antonio Lelli, depicting the Glory of St Lucy.
The counterfaçade is decorated with the painting God the Father by Cavaliere d'Arpino. The high altar dates from the 19th century, replaces one made by Borromini; the painting above the high altar depicting the Annunciation is a work of the Florentine painter Anastasio Fontebuoni. The Landi Chapel, commissioned by the prioress Vittoria Landi, is the first chapel on the left, it was decorated by Borromini, the altarpiece is a painting by Cavaliere d'Arpino depicting The Holy Trinity with Saint Augustine and Saint Monica The Chapel of the Blessed Sacrament, the second on the left, contains works attributed to Carlo Maderno: a tabernacle in polychrome marble and gilt bronze and the alabaster statues. At the first altar on the right is the painting Martyrdom of St Lucy by Giovanni Lanfranco; the Vision of St Augustine by Andrea Camassei is at the second altar on the right. In the choir, attributed to Francesco Borromini, several paintings by Baccio Ciarpi are displayed. List of the Cardinal-deacons until the suppression of the deaconry in 1577: Cardinal Cencio Savelli Cardinal Philibert Hugonet Cardinal Georg Hesler von Wurzburg Cardinal Hélie de Bourdeilles Cardinal Ippolito I d'Este Cardinal Giacomo Savelli Cardinal Ranuccio Farnese Cardinal Alessandro Campeggi Cardinal Johann Gropper Cardinal Innico d'Avalos d'Aragona Cardinal Luigi d'Este Schroeder, Joseph.
"John Gropper". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Ott, Michael. "Pope Honorius II". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Caroline Goodson, The Rome of Pope Paschal I: Papal Power, Urban Renovation, Church Rebuilding and Relic Translation, 817-824, pp. 101-102, 297. Santa Lucia in Selci - The Hidden Churches of Rome Cardinal Deaconry S. Lucia in Silice Official website of the Vicariate of Rome
Ranuccio II Farnese, Duke of Parma
Ranuccio II Farnese was the sixth Duke of Parma and Piacenza from 1646 until his death nearly 50 years and Duke of Castro from 1646 until 1649. Ranuccio was the eldest son of Odoardo Farnese, the fifth sovereign duke of Parma, his Tuscan wife, Margherita de' Medici. After his father's sudden death, Ranuccio succeeded as duke; as he was a minor and had not yet reached his majority, he ruled the first two years of his reign under the regency of his uncle, Francesco Maria Farnese and his mother. Ranuccio belonged to the House of Farnese, whose duchy were founded by his patrilineal ancestor, Pope Paul III Alessandro Farnese; the Farnese Dukes had been ruling Parma and Piacenza since Pope Paul's illegitimate son Pier Luigi Farnese was given it as a possession. Pier Luigi was Duke of Castro, a title he was bestowed upon by his father, after the latter created it from the lands recovered after the death of Ranuccio the Elder, Pier Luigi's younger brother. During Odoardo's reign the declining Duchy had been involved in the Wars of Castro, over the above-mentioned duchy of Castro, a Farnese fief in the Papal States, north of Rome, which the powerful Pope Urban VIII's family, the Barberini, was eager to acquire.
They found the excuse when Odoardo was unable to repay his creditors, from whom he had incurred debts. Urban responded to the creditors' plea for help and had Castro occupied. However, the first war ended with Papal defeat. Ranuccio refused to repay the debts incurred by his father, despite the latter having a signed a peace treaty agreeing to do so, he refused to recognise the new bishop of Castro, appointed by Urban's successor, Innocent X. In 1649, the new bishop, Cardinal Cristoforo Giarda, was murdered on his way to Castro. Innocent accused Ranuccio of the murder and in retaliation, forces loyal to the Pope besieged Castro, razed it to the ground. In August of that same year the Parmense troops had been crushed not far from Bologna, Ranuccio remained with no means to gain back his fief, despite his attempts to buy it back with money. In 1672 he bought the principate of Bardi and Compiano from Gianandrea Doria Landi, giving the Duchy its final shape. In the last days of his reign, the Duchy suffered from the presence of Imperial troops, who were fighting in the dispute between Victor Amadeus II of Savoy and France.
Ranuccio II was married three times: On 29 April 1660, Ranuccio married firstly Marguerite Yolande of Savoy, a daughter of Victor Amadeus I, Duke of Savoy and Christine Marie of France. They had two children: On 18 February 1664 Ranuccio married secondly Isabella d'Este of Modena, a daughter of Francesco I d'Este and his cousin, they had three children: On 1 January 1668 he married Maria d'Este of Modena, his second wife's sister. They had nine children: https://web.archive.org/web/20050204142743/http://www.comune.piacenza.it/english/history/Ifarnese.htm http://www.italycyberguide.com/History/factspersons/wxyz.htm http://page.freett.com/mako_vl/name/hausf.html
Charles II, Duke of Parma
Charles Louis was King of Etruria, Duke of Lucca, Duke of Parma. He was the only son of Louis, Prince of Piacenza, his wife Infanta Maria Luisa of Spain. Born at the Royal Palace of Madrid at the court of his maternal grandfather King Charles IV of Spain, he spent his first years living at the Spanish court. In 1801, by the Treaty of Aranjuez, Charles became Crown Prince of Etruria, a newly created kingdom formed from territories of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. Charles moved to Italy with his parents and in 1803, not yet four years old, he succeeded his father as King of Etruria under the name Charles Louis I, his mother Infanta Maria Luisa assumed the regency. In 1807 Napoleon Bonaparte dissolved the kingdom of Etruria and Charles Louis and his mother took refuge in Spain. In May 1808 they were forced to leave Spain by Napoleon who arrested Charles Louis' mother in a convent in Rome. Between 1811 and 1814 Charles Louis was placed under the care of his grandfather, the deposed King Charles IV of Spain.
After Napoleon's fall, in 1817, Infanta Maria Luisa became Duchess of Lucca in her own right and Charles Louis, age sixteen, became hereditary Prince of Lucca. In 1820 he married Princess Maria Teresa of Savoy, they had only one surviving son. At his mother's death in 1824, Charles Louis became the reigning Duke of Lucca as Charles I, he had little interest in ruling. He spent most of his time traveling around Europe. A liberal movement led him to abdicate Lucca in favor of the Grand Duke of Tuscany in October 1847 in exchange for financial compensation, as he wanted to retire to private life. Two months in December 1847, at the death of the former Empress Marie Louise, he succeeded her as the reigning Duke of Parma according to what had been stipulated by the Congress of Vienna, his reign in Parma as Duke Charles II was brief. He was ill-received by his new subjects and within a few months he was ousted by a revolution, he regained control of Parma under the protection of Austrian troops, but abdicated in favor of his son Charles III on 14 March 1849.
His son was assassinated in 1854 and his grandson Robert I, the last reigning Duke of Parma, was deposed in 1860. In exile Charles Louis assumed the title of count of Villafranca, he spent the last years of his life in France, dying at Nice on 16 April 1883. He was the only son of Louis, Prince of Piacenza, his wife Infanta Maria Luisa of Spain. Born at the Royal Palace of Madrid at the court of his maternal grandfather King Charles IV of Spain, he spent his first years living at the Spanish court. In 1801, by the Treaty of Aranjuez, Charles became Crown Prince of Etruria, a newly created kingdom formed from territories of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. Charles moved to Italy with his parents and in 1803, not yet four years old, he succeeded his father as King of Etruria under the name Charles Louis I, his mother Infanta Maria Luisa assumed the regency. In 1807 Napoleon Bonaparte dissolved the kingdom of Etruria and Charles Louis and his mother took refuge in Spain. In May 1808 they were forced to leave Spain by Napoleon who arrested Charles Louis' mother in a convent in Rome.
Between 1811 and 1814 Charles Louis was placed under the care of his grandfather, the deposed King Charles IV of Spain. After Napoleon's fall, in 1817, Infanta Maria Luisa became Duchess of Lucca in her own right and Charles Louis, age sixteen, became hereditary Prince of Lucca. In 1820 he married Princess Maria Teresa of Savoy, they had only one surviving son. At his mother's death in 1824, Charles Louis became the reigning Duke of Lucca as Charles I, he had little interest in ruling. He spent most of his time traveling around Europe. A liberal movement led him to abdicate Lucca in favor of the Grand Duke of Tuscany in October 1847 in exchange for financial compensation, as he wanted to retire to private life. Two months in December 1847, at the death of the former Empress Marie Louise, he succeeded her as the reigning Duke of Parma according to what had been stipulated by the Congress of Vienna, his reign in Parma as Duke Charles II was brief. He was ill-received by his new subjects and within a few months he was ousted by a revolution.
He regained control of Parma under the protection of Austrian troops, but abdicated in favor of his son Charles III on 14 March 1849. His son was assassinated in 1854 and his grandson Robert I, the last reigning Duke of Parma, was deposed in 1860. In exile Charles Louis assumed the title of count of Villafranca, he spent the last years of his life in France, dying at Nice on 16 April 1883. Charles Louis was born at the Royal Palace of Madrid, his father, a member of the Bourbons of Parma, was Louis, Prince of Piacenza and heir of Ferdinand, Duke of Parma. His mother, Infanta Maria Louisa of Spain, was a daughter of King Charles IV of Spain, they had married in 1795. The couple remained in Spain for the first years of their married life, it was for this reason that Charles Louis was born in Madrid at his maternal grandfather's court and he was included in Francisco de Goya's famous portrait of the family of Charles IV, in the arms of his mother. Charles Louis's early life was over-shadowed by the actions of Napoleon Bonaparte, interested in conquering the Italian states.
French troops invaded the Duchy of Parma in 1796. In 1801, for the Treaty of Aranjuez, Charles Louis became Crown Prince of the newly created Kingdom of
Valentano is a town and comune of the province of Viterbo, in the Lazio region of central Italy. It is 33 kilometres from Viterbo; the placename is of uncertain origin. Some identify the town with an Etruscan Verentum, others trace the name to ontano, Italian for alder, since alders cover the slopes of a nearby valley: Valle Ontano becoming Valentano; the town is named for the first time in a manuscript of 813 in the Farfa Register. The land was inhabited in prehistoric times, important finds in the Lake Mezzano and near Mt. Becco, Mt. Saliette, the Poggi del Mulino and Mt. Starnina seem to confirm the theories of historians, who identify the lake with the Lake of Statonia described by Seneca in his Naturales Quaestiones and by Pliny the Elder. In the Renaissance period, the town fell under the dominion of the Farnese family: it is to them that Valentano owes its fortress and many of its churches. In 1649, when the town of Castro, capital of the Duchy of Castro, was destroyed, Valentano became the natural center of the Castrense region and the custodian of its archives.
In June 1944, an artillery shell exploded in the "Portonaccio" gate, killing seven civilians who had taken shelter in it. The gate itself is a witness to the tragedy, since one of its stones is missing, but in 2004 a plaque was placed in the Via Trento e Trieste to commemorate all local victims of World War II. Palazzo Comunale Porta Magenta, designed by Vignola Vitozzi Palace Cruciani Palace, birthplace of Paolo Ruffini San Martino lookout Museum of the Prehistory of Tuscia and of the Rocca Farnese Churches: Collegiate church of San Giovanni Evangelista Santa Maria Santa Croce Madonna del Monte Sanctuary of the Madonna della Salute Chiesa dell'Annunziata at Villa Fontane Sancta Maria ad Templum Chiesa dell'Eschio' Church of the Madonna della Pietà Ranuccio Farnese, Roman Catholic cardinal Alessandro Guarnelli Paolo Ruffini, 18th century mathematician Good Friday: Procession of the Body of Christ Third Sunday in May: Cedar Fair, instituted by the Farnese in 1461 August 14–15 Agosto: Feast of the Assumption, with a Plowing Competition.
Throughout the summer: various events, including the Palio of the Duchy of Castro, a historical pageant. Haltwhistle, United Kingdom Saint-Méen-le-Grand, France Official website Valentano. Org ProLoco Valentano George Dennis on Valentano
The word diocese is derived from the Greek term dioikesis meaning "administration". Today, when used in an ecclesiastical sense, it refers to the ecclesiastical district under the jurisdiction of a bishop. In the organization of the Roman Empire, the subdivided provinces were administratively associated in a larger unit, the diocese. After Christianity was given legal status in 313, the Churches began to organize themselves into dioceses based on provinces, not on the larger regional imperial districts; the dioceses were smaller than the provinces since there were more bishops than governors. Christianity was declared the Empire's official religion by Theodosius I in 380. Constantine I in 318 gave litigants the right to have court cases transferred from the civil courts to the bishops; this situation must have hardly survived Julian, 361-363. Episcopal courts are not heard of again in the East until 398 and in the West in 408; the quality of these courts were low, not above suspicion as the bishop of Alexandria Troas found out that clergy were making a corrupt profit.
Nonetheless, these courts were popular. Bishops had no part in the civil administration until the town councils, in decline, lost much authority to a group of'notables' made up of the richest councilors and rich persons exempted from serving on the councils, retired military, bishops post-450 A. D; as the Western Empire collapsed in the 5th century, bishops in Western Europe assumed a larger part of the role of the former Roman governors. A similar, though less pronounced, development occurred in the East, where the Roman administrative apparatus was retained by the Byzantine Empire. In modern times, many dioceses, though subdivided, have preserved the boundaries of a long-vanished Roman administrative division. For Gaul, Bruce Eagles has observed that "it has long been an academic commonplace in France that the medieval dioceses, their constituent pagi, were the direct territorial successors of the Roman civitates."Modern usage of'diocese' tends to refer to the sphere of a bishop's jurisdiction.
This became commonplace during the self-conscious "classicizing" structural evolution of the Carolingian Empire in the 9th century, but this usage had itself been evolving from the much earlier parochia, dating from the formalized Christian authority structure in the 4th century. Most archdioceses are metropolitan sees. A few are suffragans of a metropolitan are directly subject to the Holy See. While the terms "diocese" and "episcopal see" are applicable to the area under the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of any bishop, a bishop in charge of an archdiocese thereby holds the rank of archbishop. If the title of archbishop is granted on personal grounds to a diocesan bishop, his diocese does not thereby become an archdiocese; as of January 2019, in the Catholic Church there are 2,886 regular dioceses: 1 papal see, 645 archdioceses and 2,240 dioceses in the world. In the Eastern rites in communion with the Pope, the equivalent unit is called an eparchy; the Eastern Orthodox Church calls dioceses episkopē in the Greek tradition and eparchies in the Slavic tradition.
After the English Reformation, the Church of England retained the existing diocesan structure which remains throughout the Anglican Communion. The one change is that the areas administered under the Archbishop of Canterbury and Archbishop of York are properly referred to as dioceses, not archdioceses: they are the metropolitan bishops of their respective provinces and bishops of their own diocese and have the position of archbishop. Certain Lutheran denominations such as the Church of Sweden do have individual dioceses similar to Roman Catholics; these dioceses and archdioceses are under the government of a bishop. Other Lutheran bodies and synods that have dioceses and bishops include the Church of Denmark, the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland, the Evangelical Church in Germany, the Church of Norway. From about the 13th century until the German mediatization of 1803, the majority of the bishops of the Holy Roman Empire were prince-bishops, as such exercised political authority over a principality, their so-called Hochstift, distinct, considerably smaller than their diocese, over which they only exercised the usual authority of a bishop.
Some American Lutheran church bodies such as the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America have a bishop acting as the head of the synod, but the synod does not have dioceses and archdioceses as the churches listed above. Rather, it is divided into a middle judicatory; the Lutheran Church - International, based in Springfield, presently uses a traditional diocesan structure, with four dioceses in North America. Its current president is Archbishop Robert W. Hotes; the Church of God in Christ has dioceses throughout the United States. In the COGIC, most states are divided into at least three or more dioceses that are each led by a bishop; these dioceses are called "jurisdictions" within COGIC. In the Latter Day Saint movement, the term "bishopric" is used to describe the bishop himself, together with his two counselors, not the ward or congregation of which a bishop has charge. In the United Methodist Church, a bishop is given oversight over a geographical area called an episcopal area; each episcopal area contains one or more an
Prince Carlos, Duke of Parma
Prince Carlos of Bourbon-Parma, Duke of Parma and Piacenza is the current head of the House of Bourbon-Parma, as well a member of the Dutch Royal Family. He is the uncontested traditional claimant to the defunct throne of the Duchy of Parma under the name Carlo V. In addition, he is considered by some a contested pretender to the Carlist claim to the throne of Spain under the name Carlos Javier I. In 2016 Carlos told the Spanish press that, while he "does not abandon" his claim to the throne, it is "not a priority" in his life, he "will not dispute" the legitimacy of King Felipe VI. Carlos was born in Nijmegen in the Netherlands as the eldest child of Carlos Hugo, Duke of Parma, Princess Irene of the Netherlands, he has two younger sisters, Princess Margarita and Princess Carolina, a younger brother, Prince Jaime. Carlos spent his youth in several countries including the Netherlands, France and the United States. In 1981, when he was eleven, his parents divorced. Together with his mother and his siblings he moved to Soestdijk Palace in the Netherlands.
He lived at the palace for a number of years with his grandparents, Queen Juliana of the Netherlands and Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands. Carlos studied political sciences at Wesleyan University in Connecticut and demography and philosophy at Cambridge University in England. After completing his studies Carlos worked for the company ABN AMRO in Amsterdam, where he was involved with preparations for the introduction of the euro, he worked for a while in Brussels as a public affairs consultant for the company European Public Policy Advisors. Since 2007 he has been engaged in projects concerning sustainability in the business world. Carlos is sometimes present at representative occasions concerning the royal house of the Netherlands. In 2003 he was involved, together with his aunt, Queen Beatrix, in the inauguration of the "Prince Claus Leerstoel", a professorship named after the Queen's husband, Prince Claus. During special events of the royal house he is present. For example, he was one of the organizers of the wedding celebration of Prince Constantijn and Princess Laurentien.
Prince Carlos had a relationship with Brigitte Klynstra, the stepdaughter of Count Adolph Roderik van Rechteren Limpurg. During this relationship he fathered a son: Carlos Hugo Roderik Sybren Klynstra. In December 2015, the 18-year-old Carlos Klynstra started the legal procedure to attempt to change his surname to that of his biological father which would allow him to use the title of "Prince"; the Duke of Parma opposed this on the basis that it was in contravention of the traditions of the House of Bourbon-Parma. On 9 March 2016 the Minister of Justice declared his family name request valid; that year a court in The Hague concurred with the minister in declaring the claim valid under Dutch law. According to the judgement, Carlos Hugo will be entitled to be known as "Zijn Koninklijke Hoogheid Carlos Hugo Roderik Sybren prins de Bourbon de Parme". According to the press release of the Council of State of 28 February 2018, the name change does not mean that Klynstra is now a member of the Royal House De Bourbon de Parme.
That is a private matter of the House itself and this is outside the jurisdiction of the Dutch Nobility Law. On 7 October 2009 it was announced through his mother's private secretary that Prince Carlos would marry Annemarie Cecilia Gualthérie van Weezel; the civil marriage took place on 12 June 2010 at Wijk bij Duurstede. The church wedding was to have taken place at the La Cambre Abbey in Ixelles on 28 August, but it was postponed owing to his father's illness. Prince Carlos Hugo died shortly afterwards. Annemarie is the daughter of Ank de Visser, her father was a member of the House of Representatives of the Netherlands for the Christian Democratic party, the Dutch ambassador to the Council of Europe in Strasbourg, the ambassador in Luxembourg. Gualthérie van Weezel's paternal grandfather is Jan Hans Gualthérie van Weezel, the head of the police in The Hague and member of the Dutch resistance during the Second World War. Annemarie Gualthérie van Weezel went to secondary school in Strasbourg and obtained a Master of Laws degree at the University of Utrecht.
Subsequently, she completed a post-graduate study in Radio- and Television journalism at the University of Groningen. Gualthérie van Weezel works as a parliamentary journalist in The Hague and Brussels for the Dutch public channel NOS. In Brussels, she met Prince Carlos for the first time. On 2 August 2010, it was revealed that the health of his father, the Duke of Parma, was deteriorating due to cancer; as a consequence, the church wedding of the prince Carlos and his fiancée was delayed. In a final announcement about his condition, the Duke confirmed Carlos as the next Head of the House of Bourbon-Parma. Just before his death the old Duke of Parma named Annemarie as "Contessa di Molina". Prince Carlos's father died on 18 August 2010 in Barcelona, Spain, at the age of 80; the new Duke of Parma and Annemarie were married on 20 November 2010 in La Cambre Abbey. Together they have two daughters and a son: Her Royal Highness Princess Luisa Irene Constance Anna Maria of Bourbon-Parma, Marquise of Castell'Arquato (born on 9 May 2012 in Th
Pope Paul III
Pope Paul III, born Alessandro Farnese, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 13 October 1534 to his death in 1549. He came to the papal throne in an era following the sack of Rome in 1527 and rife with uncertainties in the Catholic Church following the Protestant Reformation. During his pontificate, in the spirit of the Counter-Reformation, new Catholic religious orders and societies, such as the Jesuits, the Barnabites, the Congregation of the Oratory, attracted a popular following, he convened the Council of Trent in 1545. He was a significant patron of the arts and employed nepotism to advance the power and fortunes of his family, it is to Pope Paul III. Born in 1468 at Canino, Alessandro Farnese was the oldest son of Pier Luigi I Farnese, Signore di Montalto and his wife Giovanna Caetani, a member of the Caetani family which had produced Pope Boniface VIII; the Farnese family had prospered over the centuries but it was Alessandro’s ascendency to the papacy and his dedication to family interests which brought about the most significant increase in the family’s wealth and power.
Alessandro's humanist education was at the court of Lorenzo de' Medici. Trained as an apostolic notary, he joined the Roman Curia in 1491 and in 1493 Pope Alexander VI appointed him Cardinal-Deacon of Santi Cosma e Damiano. Farnese’s sister, Giulia was reputedly a mistress of Alexander VI and might have been instrumental in securing this appointment for her brother. For this reason, he was sometimes mockingly referred to as the "Borgia brother-in-law," just as Giulia was mocked as "the Bride of Christ." More disparagingly he was referred to as "Cardinal Fregnese". As Bishop of Parma, he came under the influence of his vicar-general, Bartolomeo Guidiccioni; this led to the future pope breaking off the relationship with his mistress and committing himself to reform in his Parma diocese. Under Pope Clement VII he became Cardinal Bishop of Ostia and Dean of the College of Cardinals, on the death of Clement VII in 1534, was elected as Pope Paul III; as a young cleric, Alessandro lived a notably dissolute life, taking for himself a mistress and having three sons and two daughters with her.
By Silvia Ruffini, he fathered Pier Luigi Farnese. The elevation to the cardinalate of his grandsons, Alessandro Farnese, aged fourteen, Guido Ascanio Sforza, aged sixteen, displeased the reform party and drew a protest from the emperor, but this was forgiven when, shortly after, he introduced into the Sacred College Reginald Pole, Gasparo Contarini, Jacopo Sadoleto, Giovanni Pietro Caraffa, who became Pope Paul IV; the fourth pope during the period of the Protestant Reformation, Paul III became the first to take active reform measures in response to Protestantism. Soon after his elevation, 2 June 1536, Paul III summoned a general council to meet at Mantua in the following May. Paul III first deferred for a year and discarded the whole project. In 1536, Paul III invited nine eminent prelates, distinguished by learning and piety alike, to act in committee and to report on the reformation and rebuilding of the Church. In 1537 they turned in their celebrated Consilium de emendenda ecclesia, exposing gross abuses in the Curia, in the church administration and public worship.
This report was printed not only at Strasbourg and elsewhere. But to the Protestants it seemed far from thorough, yet the Pope was in earnest. He perceived that Emperor Charles V would not rest until the problems were grappled with in earnest, a council was an unequivocal procedure that should leave no room for doubt of his own readiness to make changes, yet it is clear that the Concilium bore no fruit in the actual situation, that in Rome no results followed from the committee's recommendations. As a consequence of the extensive campaign against "idolatry" in England, culminating with the dismantling of the shrine of St. Thomas Becket at Canterbury, the Pope excommunicated Henry VIII on 17 December 1538 and issued an interdict. On the other hand, serious political complications resulted. In order to vest his grandson Ottavio Farnese with the dukedom of Camerino, Paul forcibly wrested the same from the duke of Urbino, he incurred virtual war with his own subjects and vassals by the imposition of burdensome taxes.
Perugia, renouncing its obedience, was besieged by Paul's son, Pier Luigi, forfeited its freedom on its surrender. The burghers of Colonna were duly vanquished, Ascanio was banished. After this the time seemed ripe for annihilating heresy. In 1540, the Church recognized the new society forming about Ignatius of Loyola, which became the Society of Jesus; the second visible stage in the process becomes marked by the institution, or reorganization, in 1542, of the Congregation of the Holy Office of the Inquisition. On another side, the Emperor was insisting that Rome should forward his designs towards a peaceable recovery of the German Protestants. Accordingly, the Pope despatched Giovanni Morone (not yet a cardi