Comfort women were women and girls forced into sexual slavery by the Imperial Japanese Army in occupied territories before and during World War II. Controversy over and protest against the term remain from surviving women and the nations from which they were taken, about how wrong it is to continue referring to the women as "comfort women" when in fact they were "sex slaves."The name "comfort women" is a translation of the Japanese ianfu, a euphemism for "prostitute". Estimates vary as to how many women were involved, with numbers ranging from as low as 20,000 to as high as 360,000 to 410,000. Most of the women were from occupied countries, including Korea and the Philippines. Women were used for military "comfort stations" from Burma, Vietnam, Manchukuo, the Dutch East Indies, Portuguese Timor, New Guinea and other Japanese-occupied territories. Stations were located in Japan, the Philippines, Indonesia Malaya, Burma, New Guinea, Hong Kong and French Indochina. A smaller number of women of European origin were involved from the Netherlands and Australia with an estimated 200–400 Dutch women alone.
According to testimonies, young women were abducted from their homes in countries under Imperial Japanese rule. In many cases, women were lured with promises of work in factories or restaurants, or opportunities for higher education. Military correspondence of the Imperial Japanese Army shows that the aim of facilitating comfort stations was the prevention of rape crimes committed by Japanese army personnel and thus preventing the rise of hostility among people in occupied areas. Carmen Argibay, a former member of the Argentine Supreme Court of Justice states that the Japanese government aimed to prevent atrocities like the Rape of Nanking by confining rape and sexual abuse within military controlled facilities, or stop the incident from leaking to the international press should such events occur, she states that the government wanted to minimize medical expenses on treating venereal diseases that the soldiers acquired from frequent and widespread rape, which hindered Japan's military capacity.
Furthermore, Yuki Tanaka suggests that local brothels outside of the military's reach had issues of security since there were possibilities of spies disguised as workers of such private facilities. Since prostitution in Japan was well-organized, the Japanese government and military developed a similar program to serve the Japanese Armed Forces; the Japanese Army established the comfort stations to prevent venereal diseases and rape by Japanese soldiers, to provide comfort to soldiers and head off espionage. According to Japanese historian Yoshiaki Yoshimi, the comfort stations did not solve, but aggravated the first two problems. Yoshimi has asserted, "The Japanese Imperial Army feared most that the simmering discontentment of the soldiers could explode into a riot and revolt; that is why it provided women". The first comfort station was established in the Japanese concession in Shanghai in 1932. Earlier comfort women were Japanese prostitutes. However, as Japan continued military expansion, the military found itself short of Japanese volunteers, turned to the local population to abduct or coerce women into serving in these stations.
Many women responded to calls for work as factory workers or nurses, did not know that they were being pressed into sexual slavery. In the early stages of the war, Japanese authorities recruited prostitutes through conventional means. In urban areas, conventional advertising through middlemen was used alongside kidnapping. Middlemen advertised in newspapers circulating in Japan and the Japanese colonies of Korea, Taiwan and China; these sources soon dried up from Japan. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs resisted further issuance of travel visas for Japanese prostitutes, feeling it tarnished the image of the Japanese Empire; the military turned to acquiring comfort women outside mainland Japan from Korea and occupied China. An existing system of licensed prostitution within Korea made it easy for Japan to recruit females in large numbers. Many women were defrauded into joining the military brothels. Based on false characterizations and payment from Japanese or the local recruitment agents which could help relieve family debts, many Korean girls enlisted to take the job.
Furthermore, the South East Asia Translation and Interrogation Center Psychological Warfare Interrogation Bulletin No.2 states that a Japanese facility manager purchased Korean women for 300 to 1000 yen depending on her physical characteristics, who became his property and were not released after completing the servitude terms specified in the contract. In northern Hebei province of China Hui Muslim girls were recruited to "Huimin Girls' school" to be trained as entertainers, but forced to serve as sex slaves; the American historian Gerhard Weinberg wrote that a major issue that no historian has examined is whether the soldiers of the Indian National Army "...were permitted to share in the "comfort" provided by thousands of kidnapped Korean young women held as sex slaves by the Imperial Japanese Army at its camps. This might have provided them with some insight into the nature of Japanese, as opposed to British, colonial rule, as well what might be in store for their sisters and daughters."Under the strain of the war effort, the military became unable to provide enough supplies to Japanese units.
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Rape during the occupation of Japan
Rapes during the occupation of Japan were war rapes or rapes committed under the Allied military occupation of Japan. Allied troops committed a number of rapes during the Battle of Okinawa during the last months of the Pacific War and the subsequent occupation of Japan; the Allies occupied Japan until 1952 following the end of World War II and Okinawa Prefecture remained under US governance for two decades after. Estimates of the incidence of sexual violence by Allied occupation personnel differ considerably. By 1945 U. S. troops were occupying territory with a Japanese civilian population. On February 19, 1945, U. S. troops landed on Iwo Jima, on April 1, 1945, on Okinawa. In August 1945, Japan surrendered and Allied occupation troops landed on the main islands, starting the formal occupation of Japan; the Allied occupation ended in most of Japan on April 28, 1952, but did not end in Okinawa until May 15, 1972, when the terms of the Treaty of San Francisco went into effect. During the Pacific War the Japanese Government issued propaganda claiming that if the country was defeated Japanese women would be raped and murdered by Allied soldiers.
The government used this claim to justify orders to soldiers and civilians in areas which were invaded by Allied forces to fight to the death or commit suicide. According to Calvin Sims of The New York Times: "Much has been written and debated about atrocities that Okinawans suffered at the hands of both the Americans and Japanese in one of the deadliest battles of the war. More than 200,000 soldiers and civilians, including one-third of the population of Okinawa, were killed". There is no documentary evidence that mass rape was committed by Allied troops during the Pacific War. There are, numerous credible testimony accounts which allege that a large number of rapes were committed by U. S. forces during the Battle of Okinawa in 1945. Okinawan historian Oshiro Masayasu writes: Soon after the U. S. marines landed, all the women of a village on Motobu Peninsula fell into the hands of American soldiers. At the time, there were only women and old people in the village, as all the young men had been mobilized for the war.
Soon after landing, the marines "mopped up" the entire village, but found no signs of Japanese forces. Taking advantage of the situation, they started "hunting for women" in broad daylight and those who were hiding in the village or nearby air raid shelters were dragged out one after another. According to Toshiyuki Tanaka, 76 cases of rape or rape-murder were reported during the first five years of the American occupation of Okinawa. However, he asserts this is not the true figure, as most cases were unreported. Peter Schrijvers finds it remarkable that looking Asian was enough to be in danger of rape by American soldiers, as for example happened to some of the Korean comfort women that the Japanese had by force brought to the island. Schrijvers writes that "many women" were brutally violated with "not the least mercy". Marching south, men of the 4th Marines passed a group of some 10 American soldiers bunched together in a tight circle next to the road, they were'quite animated', noted a corporal who assumed they were playing a game of craps.'Then as we passed them', said the shocked marine,'I could see they were taking turns raping an oriental woman.
I was furious, but our outfit kept marching by as though nothing unusual was going on'. Although Japanese reports of rape were ignored at the time, academic estimates have been that as many as 10,000 Okinawan women may have been raped, it has been claimed that the rape was so prevalent that most Okinawans over age 65 around the year 2000 either knew or had heard of a woman, raped in the aftermath of the war. Military officials denied the mass rapings, all surviving veterans refused the New York Times' request for an interview. Professor of East Asian Studies and expert on Okinawa Steve Rabson said: "I have read many accounts of such rapes in Okinawan newspapers and books, but few people know about them or are willing to talk about them". Books, diaries and other documents refer to rapes by American soldiers of various races and backgrounds. Masaie Ishihara, a sociology professor, supports this: "There is a lot of historical amnesia out there, many people don't want to acknowledge what happened".
An explanation given for why the US military has no record of any rapes is that few – if any – Okinawan women reported abuse out of fear and embarrassment. Those who did report them are believed by historians to have been ignored by the U. S. military police. A large scale effort to determine the extent of such crimes has never been called for. Over five decades after the war has ended the women who were believed to have been raped still refused to give a public statement, with friends, local historians and university professors who had spoken with the women instead saying they preferred not to discuss it publicly. According to a Nago, Okinawan police spokesman: "Victimized women feel too ashamed to make it public". In his book Tennozan: The Battle of Okinawa and the Atomic Bomb, George Feifer noted that by 1946 there had been fewer than 10 reported cases of rape in Okinawa, he explains that it was: "partly because of shame and disgrace because Americans were victors and occupiers". Feifer claimed: "In all there were thousands of incidents, but the victims' silence kept rape another dirty secret of the campaign".
Many people wondered why it never came to light after the inevitable American-Okinawan babies the many women must have had. In interviews and Okinawan elders said that some Okinawan women who were raped did give birth to biracial children, but that many of them were killed or left beh
Collaboration is the process of two or more people or organizations working together to complete a task or achieve a goal. Collaboration is similar to cooperation. Most collaboration requires leadership, although the form of leadership can be social within a decentralized and egalitarian group. Teams that work collaboratively access greater resources and rewards when facing competition for finite resources. Structured methods of collaboration encourage introspection of communication; such methods aim to increase the success of teams. Collaboration is present in opposing goals exhibiting the notion of adversarial collaboration, though this is not a common use of the term. In its applied sense," collaboration is a purposeful relationship in which all parties strategically choose to cooperate in order to accomplish a shared outcome." Trade is a form of collaboration between two societies. Trade continues because it benefits all of its participants. Prehistoric peoples bartered services with each other without a modern currency.
Peter Watson dates the history of long-distance commerce from circa 150,000 years ago. Trade exists because different communities have a comparative advantage in the production of tradable goods; the members of an intentional community hold a common social, political or spiritual vision. They share resources. Intentional communities include cohousing, residential land trusts, communes, kibbutzim and housing cooperatives. New members of an intentional community are selected by the community's existing membership, rather than by real estate agents or land owners. In Hutterite communities housing units are built and assigned to individual families, but belong to the colony with little personal property. Meals are taken by the entire colony in a common long room; the Oneida Community practiced Communalism and Mutual Criticism, where every member of the community was subject to criticism by committee or the community as a whole, during a general meeting. The goal was to eliminate bad character traits.
A Kibbutz is an Israeli collective community. The movement combines Zionism seeking a form of practical Labor Zionism. Choosing communal life, inspired by their own ideology, kibbutz members developed a communal mode of living; the kibbutzim lasted for several generations as utopian communities, although most became capitalist enterprises and regular towns. Collaboration in indigenous communities in the Americas involves the entire community working toward a common goal in a horizontal structure with flexible leadership. Children in some indigenous American communities collaborate with the adults. Children can be contributors in the process of meeting objectives by taking on tasks that suit their skills. Indigenous learning techniques comprise Learning by Pitching In. For example, a study of Mayan fathers and children with traditional Indigenous ways of learning worked together in collaboration more when building a 3D model puzzle than Mayan fathers with western schooling. Chillihuani people of the Andes value work and create work parties in which members of each household in the community participate.
Children from indigenous-heritage communities want to help around the house voluntarily. In the Mazahua Indigenous community of Mexico, school children show initiative and autonomy by contributing in their classroom, completing activities as a whole and correcting their teacher during lectures when a mistake is made. Fifth and sixth graders in the community work with the teacher installing a classroom window, they all work together without needing leadership, their movements are all in sync and flowing. It is not a process of instruction, but rather a hands-on experience in which students work together as a synchronous group with the teacher, switching roles and sharing tasks. In these communities, collaboration is emphasized, learners are trusted to take initiative. While one works, the other watches intently and all are allowed to attempt tasks with the more experienced stepping in to complete more complex parts, while others pay close attention. Ayn Rand said that one way people pursue their rational self-interest is by building strong relationships with other people.
According to Rand, participants in capitalism are connected through the voluntary division of labor in the free market, where value is exchanged always for value. Rand's theory of rational egoism claims that acting in one's self-interest entails looking out for others in order to protect the innocent from injustice, to aid friends and loved ones. Game theory is a branch of applied mathematics, computer science, economics that looks at situations where multiple players make decisions in an attempt to maximize their returns; the first documented discussion of game theory is in a letter written by James Waldegrave, 1st Earl Waldegrave in 1713. Antoine Augustin Cournot's Researches into the Mathematical Principles of the Theory of Wealth in 1838 provided the first general theory. In 1928 it became a recognized field. Von Neumann's work in game theory culminated in the 1944 book The Theory of Games and Economic Behavior by von Neumann and Oskar Morgenstern; the term military-industrial complex refers to a close and symbiotic relationship among a nation's armed forces, its private industry, associated political interests.
Rape during the Soviet occupation of Poland
The subject of rape during the Soviet occupation of Poland at the end of World War II in Europe was absent from the postwar historiography until the dissolution of the Soviet Union, although the documents of the era show that the problem was serious both during and after the advance of Soviet forces against Nazi Germany in 1944–1945. The lack of research for nearly half a century regarding the scope of sexual violence by Soviet males, wrote Katherine Jolluck, had been magnified by the traditional taboos among their victims, who were incapable of finding "a voice that would have enabled them to talk openly" about their wartime experiences "while preserving their dignity." Joanna Ostrowska and Marcin Zaremba of the Polish Academy of Sciences wrote that rapes of the Polish women reached a mass scale during the Red Army's Winter Offensive of 1945. Among the factors contributing to the escalation of sexual violence against women, during the liberation of Poland, was a sense of impunity on the part of individual Soviet units left to fend for themselves by their military leaders.
In search of food supplies and provisions – wrote Dr Janusz Wróbel of IPN – the marauding soldiers formed gangs ready to open fire. Livestock was being herded away, fields cleared of grain without recompense and Polish homes looted. In a letter to his Voivode, a Łódź county starosta warned that plunder of goods from stores and farms was accompanied by the rape of farmhands as in Zalesie, Olechów, Feliksin and Huta Szklana, not to mention other crimes, including murder-rape in Łagiewniki; the armed marauders robbed cars, horse-drawn carriages trains. In his next letter to Polish authorities, the same starosta wrote that rape and plunder is causing the population to fear and hate the Soviet regime. Cases of mass rape occurred in major Polish cities taken by the Red Army. In Kraków, Soviet entry into the city was accompanied by the wave of rapes of women and girls, the widespread theft of personal property. According to Prof. Chwalba of Jagiellonian University, this behavior reached such a scale that the Polish communists installed in the city by the Soviet Union, composed a letter of protest to Joseph Stalin himself.
At the Kraków Main station, Poles who tried to rescue the victims of gang rape were shot at. Meanwhile, church masses were held in expectation of the Soviet withdrawal. Polish women in Silesia were the target of mass rape along with their German counterparts after the Soviet front moved much further west. In the first six months of 1945, in Dębska Kuźnia 268 rapes were reported. In March 1945 near Racibórz, 30 women captured at a linen factory were locked in a house in Makowo and raped over a period of time under the threat of death; the woman who gave her testimony to the police, was raped by four men. German and Polish women were apprehended on the streets of Katowice and Chorzów and gang raped by drunken soldiers outdoors. According to Naimark, the Red Army servicemen did not differentiate along the ethnic lines, or between victims and occupiers. Polish and German women in Warmia and Masuria wrote Ostrowska & Zaremba. One letter from the Recovered Territories claimed that in the city of Olsztyn in March 1945 no woman survived without being violated by the Soviet rapists "irrespective of their age".
Their ages were estimated to range from 9 to 80. Sometimes, a grandmother, a mother and a granddaughter were among the victims. Women were gang raped by as many as several dozen soldiers. In a letter from Gdańsk dated 17 April 1945, a Polish woman who acquired work around the Soviet garrison reported: "because we spoke Polish, we were in demand. However, most victims there were raped up to 15 times. I was raped seven times, it was horrible." A letter from Gdynia, written a week said that the only resort for the women was to hide in the basements all day. There is evidence that a loophole in the Soviet directives might have contributed to greater number of rapes committed on Polish women by the Red Army soldiers, according to Jerzy Kochanowski from the University of Warsaw. German women were protected by strict instructions about their treatment during transfer, issued by the Soviet command. However, there were any instructions whatsoever about the Poles. In the County of Leszno some "war commanders" began to claim that their soldiers needed to have sex.
At the same time, the farms given to Poles arriving from Kresy were robbed of anything of value by the Red Army agricultural equipment left behind by the Germans. According to Ostrowska & Zaremba, the month of June 1945 was the worst. A 52-year-old victim of gang rape from Pińczów testified that two Soviet war veterans returning from Berlin told her that they fought for Poland for three years and thus had the right to have all Polish females. In Olkusz twelve rapes were recorded in two days. In Ostrów county, 33 rapes were recorded; the local Militia report stated that on June 25 near Kraków a husband and child were shot dead before a woman was raped in one village, while in another, a 4-year-old girl was sexually assaulted by two Soviet males. According to statistics of the Polish Ministry of Health, there was a pandemic of sexually transmitted diseases across the country, affecting around 10% of the general population. In Masuria up to 50% of women were infected. According to historian Wiesław Niesiobędzki, in East Prussia many ethnic German women, alarmed by the Nazis, fled ahead of the Soviet offensive, leaving the Polish women to endure rapes and witness the systematic burning of ransacked houses, for example in the town of Iława in late January 1945 under the Soviet Major Konstantinov.
Eye witness Gertruda Buczkowska spoke of a labor camp near
The "Siegfried Line", known in German as the Westwall, was a German defensive line built during the 1930s opposite the French Maginot Line. It stretched more than 630 km. From September 1944 to March 1945 the Siegfried Line was subjected to a large-scale Allied offensive; the official name for German defensive line construction program before and during the Second World War that collectively came to be known as the "Westwall" changed several times during the late 1930s reflecting areas in progress. Border Watch programme for the most advanced positions Limes Programme Aachen-Saar Programme Geldern Emplacement between Brüggen and Kleve Western Air Defence Zone These programmes were all pushed forward with the highest priority, putting a concentrated demand on available resources; the origin of the name "Westwall" is unknown, but it appeared in popular use from the middle of 1939. Small bunkers with 50 cm thick walls were set up with three embrasures towards the front. Sleeping accommodations were hammocks.
In exposed positions, similar small bunkers were erected with small round armoured "lookout" sections on the roofs. The programme was carried out by the Border Watch, a small military troop activated in the Rhineland after the region was re-militarised by Germany after having been de-militarised following the First World War; the Limes Programme began in 1938 following an order by Hitler to strengthen fortifications on the western German border. Limes refers to the former borders of the Roman Empire, its Type 10 bunkers were more constructed than the earlier border fortifications. These had walls. A total of 3,471 were built along the entire length of the Siegfried Line, they featured a central room or shelter for 10-12 men with a stepped embrasure facing backwards and a combat section 50 cm higher. This elevated section had embrasures at sides for machine guns. More embrasures were provided for riflemen, the entire structure was constructed so as to be safe against poison gas. Heating was from a safety oven, the chimney of, covered with a thick grating.
Space was tight, with about 1 m2 per soldier, given a sleeping-place and a stool. Surviving examples still retain signs warning "Walls have ears" and "Lights out when embrasures are open!" The Aachen-Saar programme bunkers were similar to those of the Limes programme: Type 107 double MG casemates with concrete walls up to 3.5 m thick. One difference was. Embrasures were only built at the front in special cases and were protected with heavy metal doors; this construction phase included the towns of Aachen and Saarbrücken, which were west of the Limes Programme defence line. The Western Air Defence Zone continued parallel to the two other lines toward the east, consisted of concrete Flak foundations. Scattered MG42 and MG34 emplacements added additional defence against both land targets. Flak turrets were designed to force enemy planes to fly higher, thus decreasing the accuracy of their bombing; these towers were protected at close range by bunkers from the Aachen-Saar programmes. The Geldern Emplacement lengthened the Siegfried Line northwards as far as Kleve on the Rhine, was built after the start of the Second World War.
The Siegfried Line ended in the north near Brüggen in the Viersen district. The primary constructions were unarmed dugouts, but their strong concrete design afforded excellent protection to the occupants. For camouflage they were built near farms. Standard construction elements such as large Regelbau bunkers, smaller concrete "pillboxes", "dragon's teeth" anti-tank obstacles were built as part of each construction phase, sometimes by the thousands; this standardisation was the most effective use of scarce raw materials and workers. "Dragon's teeth" tank traps were known as Höcker in German because of their shape. These blocks of reinforced concrete stand in several rows on a single foundation. There are two typical sorts of barrier: Type 1938 with four rows of teeth getting higher toward the back, Type 1939 with five rows of such teeth. Many other irregular lines of teeth were built. Another design of tank obstacle, known as the Czech hedgehog, was made by welding together several bars of steel in such a way that any tank rolling over it would get stuck.
If the contour of the land allowed it, water-filled ditches were dug instead of tank traps. Examples of this kind of defence are those north of Aachen near Geilenkirchen; the early fortifications were built by private firms, but the private sector was unable to provide the number of workers needed for the programmes that followed. With this organisation's help, huge numbers of forced labourers — up to 500,000 at a time — worked on the Siegfried Line. Transport of materials and workers from all across Germany was managed by the Deutsche Reichsbahn railway company, which took advantage of the well-developed strategic railway lines built on Germany's western border in World War I