Royal Netherlands Army
The Royal Netherlands Army is the land forces element of the military of the Netherlands. Though the Royal Netherlands Army was raised on 9 January 1814, its origins date back to 1572, when the Staatse Leger was raised -- making the Dutch standing army one of the oldest in the world, it fought in the Napoleonic Wars, World War II, the Indonesian War of Independence, the Korean War and served with NATO on the Cold War frontiers in Germany from the 1950s to the 1990s. Since 1990, the army has been sent into the Iraqi War and into the War in Afghanistan, as well as deployed in several United Nations' peacekeeping missions. Two of the three brigades of the present Dutch Army are now under German command. In 2014, the 11th Airmobile Brigade was integrated into the Rapid Forces Division; this Dutch-German military co-operation is seen as a harbinger of a European defensive union. The Royal Netherlands Army was raised on 9 January 1814, but its origins date back to the founding of the Staatse Leger in 1572: the creation of one of the first modern standing armies.
One of the best-organised and best-trained armies of the 17th and early 18th centuries, this army of the Dutch Republic saw action in the Eighty Years' War, the Dano-Swedish War, the Franco-Dutch War, the Nine Years' War, the War of Spanish Succession, the War of Austrian Succession, the French Revolutionary Wars. With the French conquest of the Netherlands, the Staatse Leger was replaced by the army of the Batavian Republic in 1795, which in turn was replaced by the army of the Kingdom of Holland in 1806; this army fought beside the French, to repel the Anglo-Russian invasion of Holland in 1799 and to wage several campaigns in Germany and Spain between 1800 and 1810. The independent army was disbanded in 1810, when Napoleon decided to integrate the Netherlands into France: Dutch military units became part of the Grande Armée. Dutch military elements participated in the disastrous French invasion of Russia in 1812, the actions of the Pontonniers company under Captain Benthien at the Berezina River are noteworth.
New research points out that, contrary to long-held belief, around half of the Dutch contingent of the Grande Armée survived the Russian Campaign. An independent Dutch army was resurrected by the new Kingdom of the United Netherlands in 1814, following the Orangist uprising against Napoleonic rule in 1813; this new force, the Netherlands Mobile Army, formed an integral part of the allied army during the Hundred Days campaign that culminated in the Battle of Waterloo. Units such as Baron Chassé's were key in securing victory for the allied army; the army has been involved in various conflicts since 1814, including the Waterloo campaign, different colonial wars, the Belgian Revolution. At the beginning of the Second World War, the I Corps was the force strategic reserve and was located in the Vesting Holland, around The Hague, Haarlem and in the Westland; the Royal Netherlands Army was defeated in May 1940 and only began to rise again with the formation of the Princess Irene Brigade Group in exile.
In the Far East, the Royal Netherlands East Indies Army was defeated by the Japanese in 1942. Today's army grew out of the wartime force, starting with the liberation of parts of the Netherlands in 1944; the army fought in the Indonesian War of Independence 1945–1949, in Korea in 1950-53, the war with Indonesia over New Guinea, 1960–1962. The Royal Netherlands Navy and an army battalion were sent to Korea between 1950 and 1954. In total, 3,972 Soldiers were sent to fight the war in Korea, 123 died in combat; the I Corps stood watch alongside its NATO allies in Germany during the Cold War. The corps consisted of three divisions during the 1980s, the 1st, 4th, 5th divisions, it was part of the NATO Northern Army Group. The corps's war assignment, as formulated by Commander, Northern Army Group, would be to: Assume responsibility for its corps sector and relieve 1st German Corps forces as soon as possible. Fight the covering force battle in accordance with COMNORTHAG's concept of operations. In the main defensive battle: hold and destroy the forces of the enemy's leading armies conventionally as far east as possible, maintaining cohesion with 1 Corps.
Maintain cohesion with LANDJUT and secure NORTHAG's left flank in the Forward Combat Zone. During the early 1990s I Corps was reduced to the First Division 7 December, which became part of I. German/Dutch Corps, later the division headquarters itself was disbanded. Since the end of the Cold War, the army concentrates on peace-keeping and peace-enforcing operations and has been involved in several operations (in Lebanon between 1979 and 1985, a
Saarlouis is a city in the Saarland, capital of the district of Saarlouis. In 2017, the town had a population of 34,758. Saarlouis, as the name implies, is located on the River Saar, it was named after Louis XIV of France. With the Treaties of Peace of Nijmegen in 1678/79, the Lorraine fell to France. In 1680, Louis XIV of France gave order to build a fortification on the banks of the river Saar, called Sarre-Louis. France's famous military engineer, Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban, constructed the city, the plans were made by Thomas de Choisy, the city's first Gouvenour. In 1683, Louis XIV granted arms; the coat of arms shows three Fleur-de-lis. The heraldic motto is Dissipat Atque Fovet: He heats. In 1697, the Treaty of Ryswick made most parts of Lorraine independent again, but Saarlouis and the surrounding areas remained a French exclave. During the French Revolution, the town was renamed Sarre-Libre, but it returned to its original name in 1810. With the Treaty of Paris in 1815, Saarlouis became Prussian.
Marshal Michel Ney, born in Saarlouis, was arrested and tried for treason after the failure of Napoleon I's Waterloo Campaign. Ney's attorney tried to use the Prussian annexation to save his client's life, arguing that Ney was no longer a French citizen and therefore exempt from the court's jurisdiction. Ney refused to cooperate, declaring himself to be French, so was convicted and executed. After World War I, French troops occupied Saarlouis; the Saargebiet became a protectorate of the League of Nations for 15 years. In 1933, a considerable number of anti-Nazi Germans fled to the Saar, as it was the only part of Germany left outside the Third Reich's control; as a result, anti-Nazi groups campaigned for the Saarland to remain under control of League of Nations as long as Adolf Hitler ruled Germany. However, long-held sentiments against France remained entrenched, few sympathized with France; when the 15-year-term was over, a plebiscite was held in the territory on 13 January 1935: 90.3% of those voting wished to rejoin Germany.
From 1936 till 1945, Saarlouis was named as Saarlautern in an attempt by the Nazis to Germanise the town name. After World War II, the region, was again occupied by France. In a plebiscite in 1955, most of the people in the Saarland opted for the reunification with the Federal Republic of Germany, on 1 January 1957, it became the 10th federal state of West Germany. In 1980, Saarlouis celebrated its 300th anniversary. Today, the fortress dominates the city's hexagonal floor plan. Beside the buildings made by Vauban, there are some constructions left from the 19th century when the Prussians got control over the town. After 1887, some parts of the fortress were slighted, but many buildings and places, e.g. the casemates, some barracks and the Great Market with the Commander's Office and the Vauban island, a former ravelin with a memorial for Michel Ney can still be seen today. Saarlouis was famous for its nearby mining facilities. Today, the Ford Motor Company is the city's largest employer, producing the Ford Focus and Ford Kuga.
The plant in the Roederberg suburb is one of Ford's most efficient facilities worldwide. The industrial port in Saarlouis-Roden is Germany's 8th largest inland port. Saarlouis is a manufacturer of chocolate. Saarlouis has a station on the Saar railway who provides hourly connections to Saarbrücken and Trier, it is connected to Saarbrücken by the A 620 and with Luxembourg by the A 8. St-Nazaire, since 1969 Eisenhüttenstadt, since 1986 Matiguás, since 1986 Bochnia, since 2001 Ralf Altmeyer, virologist Esther Béjarano, survivor of the Women's Orchestra of Auschwitz Martin de Bervanger, priest Rudolf Hesse and graphic artist Eduard von Knorr, admiral of the Imperial German Navy and chief of the East Asia Squadrons Oskar Lafontaine, German politician Paul Emil von Lettow-Vorbeck, colonial general and politician Heinrich Marx and father of Karl Marx Michel Ney, Marshal of France Charles-Nicolas Peaucellier and inventor of the Peaucellier–Lipkin linkage Rainer Rupp, spy List of places named after people Official website Fire Brigade of Saarlouis History of Saarlouis 1 and Saarlouis 2 1936–1945 History of one of the most favomous companies in Saarlouis: Donnerbräu Media related to Saarlouis at Wikimedia Commons
Stadtallendorf is a town in the county of Marburg-Biedenkopf, Germany. It lies about 18 km east of Marburg. In 2010, the town hosted the 50th Hessentag state festival. Under the German system of Naturräume, Stadtallendorf lies in the West Hesse Depression zone, divided into basins and ridges. With respect to these, the town lies on the Upper Hesse Ridge which separates the Amöneburg Basin in the west from the Schwalmbecken in the east. On this ridge may be found the Neustadt Saddle, abutted by the town's northeast edge; this upland is part of the divide between the Weser watersheds. Stadtallendorf borders in the north on the town of Rauschenberg and the community of Gilserberg, in the east on the town of Neustadt, in the southeast on the town of Kirtorf, in the south on the town of Homberg, in the west on the towns of Amöneburg and Kirchhain. Niederklein Schweinsberg Erksdorf – This village of 1,000 inhabitants was amalgamated in the 1970s. Hatzbach Wolferode Stadtallendorf was given city rights in 1960.
During World War II, Stadtallendorf was a secret munitions centre. The armament firms WASAG and DAG produced munitions and explosives in two separate large facilities located in the woods nearby. At the time, it was one of the largest of all munitions production centres in Europe; the Munition centre continued throughout the war without being detected by the Allies. Labor was provided by both German and foreign forced laborers, including prisoners of war and concentration camp inmates, housed in about a dozen camps in the surrounding area; the 6 square kilometre premises where the wartime arms works were built were said to be one of Germany's biggest contaminated former industrial sites, in parts with high concentrations of chemical contaminants on residential properties. Since 1991, the premises have undergone a far-reaching cleanup. According to information from the Hesse Environment Ministry, the cleanup cost € 167 million. 154 tonnes of contaminants were dug out of the ground, 697 tonnes were dug out of a dump, 3 tonnes of TNT – still capable of exploding – were unearthed.
Steinlager Allendorf was a primitive American prison near the University of Marburg. Where Nazi Germany general and staff officers such as Franz Halder and Heinz Guderian and scientists such as Wilhelm Schaefer were interrogated after World War II. Since 2012: Christian Somogyi As of the last municipal elections held on 27 March 2011, town council seats are apportioned thus: Stadtallendorf's civic coat of arms might be described thus: In azure, dexter a bear rampant sinister Or armed gules and langued Or, sinister a lion rampant striped per fess nine times in gules and argent, langued gules and armed Or, both holding a six-spoked wheel argent; the Hessian lion and the Wheel of Mainz stand for the town's old allegiances. Until secularization, Stadtallendorf belonged to the Archbishopric of Mainz, thereafter to Hesse; the bear is a reference to an old name for the town, Allendorf im Bärenschießen, once used to distinguish the town from other places called Allendorf, now needless thanks to the town's newer name.
The arms have been kept as other communities have been amalgamated with the old Allendorf as part of Hesse's municipal reforms. Stadtallendorf maintains partnerships with the following towns: St Ives, United Kingdom since 1989 Coswig, Saxony-Anhalt since 1993 Stadtallendorf station is served at hourly intervals by the Mittelhessen-Express; the town is economically successful, as large factories such as Ferrero oHG mbH, Fritz Winter GmbH & Co. KG, Hoppe AG, others have chosen to build here; the town's transport connections are by road to the Federal Highways B 454 and B 62, by rail to the railway station on the Main-Weser line. An extension to Bundesautobahn 49 is being discussed, but there have been ecological questions about the wisdom of such an undertaking: the Herrenwald is home to the Great Crested Newt, on the list of protected species. In an area of 78.3 km² live approx. 21,600 inhabitants, 16,900 of those in the main centre, whose population is about 25% foreign. 1998 – 21,587 1999 – 21,643 2000 – 21,656 2001 – 21,671 2002 – 21,704 2003 – 21,708 2004 – 21,528 2006 – 21,540 2009 – 21,146 Johann Georg Estor and genealogist, born in Schweinsberg district Eike Immel a football goalkeeper Margot Käßmann, Protestant theologian and former bishop, grew up in Stadtallendorf Stadtallendorf's official website
KSK Kommando Spezialkräfte is an elite special forces military unit composed of special operations soldiers selected from the ranks of Germany's Bundeswehr and organized under the Rapid Forces Division. KSK has received many decorations and awards from NATO, the United States and its affiliates and KSK operatives are requested for joint anti-terror operations, notably in the Balkans and Middle East. From 1973, until the KSK's formation in 1996, the West German government assigned all counter-terrorist and special operations activities to the GSG 9, a trained police force created shortly after the hostage-taking that transpired during the 1972 Munich Olympic Games. Prior to 1973, the army's Fernspäher, the navy's Kampfschwimmer, the Special Weapons Escort Companies—Sonderwaffenbegleitkompanien were the only military units comparable to anything that other nations may have seen as dedicated special forces units. Following the KSK's activation on April 1, 1997, all but one of the Fernspähkompanie have been either disbanded or merged into the newly constituted unit.
Like those of all German military units, KSK deployments require authorization from the German Bundestag. The unit has engaged in numerous anti-terror campaigns both in Europe and abroad. During the War in Afghanistan, although nominally under OEF command, the KSK worked under ISAF command since 2005, carrying out numerous operations in the vicinity of the German deployment in Kabul, including a successful raid on an al-Qaeda safehouse for suicide bombers in October 2006. KSK operators have commented in the German media about the restrictions placed on them by their national caveats and stated that a preference for working directly for the Americans as part of OEF-A as they had done as part of Task Force K-Bar; as is to be expected with such units, specific operational details such as success and casualty rates are considered to be top secret and withheld from the highest-ranking members of the Bundestag. This practice has elicited some serious concerns, resulting in agreement to increase both transparency and accountability, by disclosing mission details to selected members of the Bundestag, in relation to the future deployments of KSK forces.
On May 4, 2013 the KSK reported its first casualty. First Sergeant Daniel Wirth was fatally shot in Baghlan Province - Afghanistan during operation "Maiwand". US Army forces were part of the attempted rescue mission. Daniel Wirth was honored by his sister Kathrin Wirth-Torrente in a book titled "Brothers in Bravery", it not only tells her brother's story, but reflects on 40 additional military members who lost their lives while fighting The Global War on Terror in the Greater Middle East. The book was published by the Travis Manion Foundation in September 2017. There have been eight commanders in the 20-year period since KSK was formed in 1996, they are as follows: 1996–1998: Brigadier General Fred Schulz 1998–2000: Brigadier General Hans-Heinrich Dieter 2000–2003: Brigadier General Reinhard Günzel 2003–2005: Brigadier General Carl-Hubertus von Butler 2005–2007: Brigadier General Rainer Hartbrod 2007–2010: Brigadier General Hans-Christoph Ammon 2010–2013: Brigadier General Heinz Josef Feldmann 2013–2017: Brigadier General Dag Knut Baehr* 2017–2018: Brigadier General Alexander Sollfrank 2018–present: Brigadier General Markus Kreitmayr*Brigadier general Dag Baehr has served twice as a field officer in the KSK: First, under the command of Brigadier general Schulz, when it was founded from 1996 until 1999 and again between 2004 until 2007 under the command of Brigadegeneral Hartbrod.
The KSK is a regular army unit at brigade level and divided into two battalion-sized departments: Operational Forces and Support Forces. Kommando Spezialkräfte HQ KSK Psychological Service Language Service Force Development Group Operational Forces 1st Commando Company 2nd Commando Company 3rd Commando Company 4th Commando Company Special Commando Company Training and Development Centre Support Forces Staff & Supply Company Signal Company Support Company Supply Platoon Maintenance Platoon Support Platoon Medical Company Combat-ready units are divided into four Commando companies of one hundred men; the Special Commando Company is staffed with veteran members, taking on various supporting roles. Each of the four Commando Companies has five specialized platoons, each with a unique specialty and ability that can be adapted to both the terrain and situation, depending on type action required: Command Platoon 1st Platoon: vehicle insertion 2nd Platoon: airborne insertion 3rd Platoon: amphibious operations 4th Platoon: operations in special geographic or meteorological surroundings 5th Platoon: reconnaissance, intelligence operations and sniper/counter-sniper operationsThere are four commando squads in every platoon.
Each of these squads consists of four skilled members that have been hand-picked from the German Army into the platoon that best suits their abilities. Each squad member is specially trained as a weapons expert, combat engineer or communications expert, respectively. Additionally, some groups may contain other specialists, such as language expert; the HQ & Support Company is responsible for supply duties in Germany. For that, the unit is made up of: HQ Platoon Material Platoon Supply Echelon Catering Section Transport Platoon Ammunition and Refueling PlatoonThe Signal Company consists of three signal platoons. While the HQ & Support Company supports the KSK in Germany
The Eurocopter Tiger is a four-bladed, twin-engined attack helicopter which first entered service in 2003. It is manufactured by Eurocopter, the successor company to Aérospatiale's and DASA's respective helicopter divisions, which designate it as the EC665. Following their languages, in Germany it is known as the Tiger. Development of the Tiger started during the Cold War, it was intended as an anti-tank helicopter platform to be used against a Soviet ground invasion of Western Europe. During its prolonged development period the Soviet Union collapsed, but France and Germany chose to proceed with the Tiger, developing it instead as a multirole attack helicopter, it achieved operational readiness in 2008. The Tiger has the distinction of being the first all-composite helicopter developed in Europe. Improved variants have since entered service, outfitted with more powerful engines and compatible with a wider range of weapons. Since the type's introduction to service, Tigers have been used in combat in Afghanistan and Mali.
In 1984, the French and West German governments issued a requirement for an advanced multirole battlefield helicopter. A joint venture consisting of Aérospatiale and MBB was subsequently chosen as the preferred supplier. In 1986, the development programme was cancelled due to spiralling costs. According to statements by the French Defence Minister André Giraud in April 1986, the collaborative effort had become more expensive than an individual national programme and was forecast to take longer to complete. In July 1986, a government report into the project alleged that development had become distanced from the requirements and preferences of its military customers. France and Germany reorganised the programme, including steps such the adoption of fixed term contracts which placed greater financial risk upon the private firms involved. Thomson CSF took over the majority of the Tiger's electronic development work, such as the visual systems and sensors. Despite the early development problems and the political uncertainty between 1984 and 1986, the program was formally relaunched in November 1987.
Much of the project's organisational framework was redeveloped between 1987 and 1989. In November 1989, Eurocopter signed an agreement that financially secured the majority of the helicopter's development through to serial production, including arrangements for two assembly lines to be built at Aerospatiale's Marignane plant and MBB's Donauwörth facility; this same arrangement included the manufacture of five Tiger prototypes. Three were to operate as unarmed testbeds and the other two as armed combat prototypes with one for the French escort helicopter variant and the other for the German anti-tank variant; the first prototype took the Tiger's maiden flight on 27 April 1991. Due to the end of the Cold War and subsequent defence budgets decreases in the 1990s, financial pressures led to further questions regarding the necessity for the entire program. However, Germany was increasingly keen for the Tiger to perform a wider assortment of missions. In 1992, Aérospatiale and MBB, among other companies, merged to form the Eurocopter Group.
A major agreement was struck in December 1996 between France and Germany that cemented the Tiger's prospects and committed the development of supporting elements, such as a series of new generation missile designs for use by the new helicopter. National political issues continued to affect the prospects of the Tiger however. A proposed sale of up to 145 Tigers to Turkey proved a source of controversy. On 18 June 1999, Germany and France publicly placed orders for an initial batch of 160 Tiger helicopters, 80 for each nation, valued at €3.3 billion. On 22 March 2002, the first production Tiger was rolled out in a large ceremony held at Eurocopter's Donauwörth factory. Germany reduced its order to 57 in March 2013. In 2008 OCCAR estimated the project cost at €7,300,000,000. France's FY2013 budget put their share of the project at €6.4bn, implying a programme cost of €14.7bn to the three main partners. The 2013 French White Paper changed the mix to 60 HAP and 20 of the more expensive HAD.
Morocco the Kingdom of Morocco, is a country located in the Maghreb region of North West Africa with an area of 710,850 km2. Its capital is the largest city Casablanca, it overlooks the Mediterranean Sea to the Atlantic Ocean to the west. Morocco claims the areas of Ceuta, Melilla and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera, all of them under Spanish jurisdiction. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid and Almohad dynasties, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa; the Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, allowing Morocco to remain the only northwest African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, which rules to this day, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, it regained its independence in 1956, has since remained comparatively stable and prosperous by regional standards.
Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco occupies two thirds of the territory, peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock; the unitary sovereign state of Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors; the king can issue decrees called dahirs. He can dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court.
Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, its official languages are Arabic and Berber. E; the Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, French are widely spoken. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Sephardi Jews, West African and European influences. Morocco is a member of the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union, it has the fifth largest economy of Africa. The full Arabic name al-Mamlakah al-Maghribiyyah translates to "Kingdom of the West". For historical references, medieval Arab historians and geographers sometimes referred to Morocco as al-Maghrib al-Aqṣá to distinguish it from neighbouring historical regions called al-Maghrib al-Awsaṭ and al-Maghrib al-Adná; the basis of Morocco's English name is Marrakesh, its capital under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad Caliphate. The origin of the name Marrakesh is disputed, but is most from the Berber words amur akush or "Land of God"; the modern Berber name for Marrakesh is Mṛṛakc. In Turkish, Morocco is known as a name derived from its ancient capital of Fes.
However, this was not the case in other parts of the Islamic world: until the middle of the 20th century, the common name of Morocco in Egyptian and Middle Eastern Arabic literature was Marrakesh. The English name Morocco is an anglicisation of the Spanish "Marruecos", from which derives the Tuscan "Morrocco", the origin of the Italian "Marocco"; the area of present-day Morocco has been inhabited since Paleolithic times, sometime between 190,000 and 90,000 BC. A recent publication may demonstrate an earlier habitation period, as Homo sapiens fossils discovered in the late 2000s near the Atlantic coast in Jebel Irhoud were dated to 315,000 years before present. During the Upper Paleolithic, the Maghreb was more fertile than it is today, resembling a savanna more than today's arid landscape. Twenty-two thousand years ago, the Aterian was succeeded by the Iberomaurusian culture, which shared similarities with Iberian cultures. Skeletal similarities have been suggested between the Iberomaurusian "Mechta-Afalou" burials and European Cro-Magnon remains.
The Iberomaurusian was succeeded by the Beaker culture in Morocco. Mitochondrial DNA studies have discovered the Saami of Scandinavia; this supports theories that the Franco-Cantabrian refuge area of southwestern Europe was the source of late-glacial expansions of hunter-gatherers who repopulated northern Europe after the last ice age. Northwest Africa and Morocco were drawn into the wider emerging Mediterranean world by the Phoenicians, who established trading colonies and settlements in the early Classical period. Substantial Phoenician settlements were at Chellah and Mogador. Mogador was a Phoenician colony as early as the early 6th century BC. Morocco became a realm of the Northwest African civilisation of ancie