Raptor (rocket engine family)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Raptor (rocket engine))
Jump to: navigation, search
Raptor test firing, 2015-09-25.jpg
First test firing of a Raptor development engine on September 25, 2016 in McGregor, Texas.
Country of origin United States
Manufacturer SpaceX
Application Multistage propulsion
Status In development
Liquid-fuel engine
Propellant LOX / Liquid methane
Mixture ratio 3.8
Cycle Full-flow staged combustion
Pumps 2 × multi-stage
Chamber 1
Nozzle ratio

Atmospheric: 150

Vacuum: 200[1]
Thrust (vac.) ~3,285 kN (738,000 lbf)[1]
Thrust (SL) 3,050 kN (690,000 lbf)[1]
Chamber pressure 30 MPa (4,400 psi)[1]
Isp (vac.) 361 s[1]
Isp (SL) 334 s[1]

Atmospheric <2 m (6 ft 7 in)[1]

Vacuum: 4 m (13 ft)
Used in

Raptor is a family of cryogenic, methane-fueled rocket engines under development by SpaceX. The engines will be powered by densified liquid methane and liquid oxygen (LOX), rather than the RP-1 kerosene and LOX used in all previous Falcon 9 rockets which use Merlin 1C & D engines. The earliest concepts for Raptor considered liquid hydrogen (LH2) as fuel rather than methane.[2] The Raptor engine will have over three times the thrust of the Merlin 1D vacuum engine that powers the current Falcon 9 launch vehicle.

The broad Raptor concept "is a highly reusable methane staged-combustion engine that will power the next generation of SpaceX launch vehicles designed for the exploration and colonization of Mars".[3] According to Elon Musk,[when?] this design will be able to achieve full reusability of all rocket stages and, as a result, "a two order of magnitude reduction in the cost of spaceflight".[4] A variety of Raptor engines were planned to be used on both stages of the several vehicle designs explained in September 2016: ITS launch vehicle, as well as both of the long-duration spacecraft used to support all aspects of the Interplanetary Transport System on-orbit, those vehicle designs were the ITS tanker—a transport carrier of propellant cargo to Earth orbit—and also the Interplanetary Spaceship—a very long-duration carrier of both passengers and space cargo to interplanetary destinations, and which was also to serve in the 2016 mission architecture as both a descent and ascent vehicle at Mars—were to be powered by six vacuum-optimized Raptor rocket engines with three additional sea-level-nozzle Raptor engines to be used for maneuvering. The ITS booster stage was to be powered by 42 Raptors. Unlike nearly all other launch vehicles or spacecraft, on all Earth-away launches, the long-duration spacecraft (tanker or spaceship) designs would also provide second-stage acceleration to orbital velocity; all propulsion was to be provided by Raptor engines.

The engine development from 2009 to 2015 was funded exclusively by private investment by SpaceX, and not as a result of any funding from the US government;[5][6] in January 2016, SpaceX did agree with the US Air Force to take US$33.6 million in defense department funding in order to develop a prototype of a new upper-stage variant of the Raptor engine designed for potential use as an upper stage on Falcon 9 and Falcon Heavy, with SpaceX agreeing to fund at least US$67.3 million on the same upper-stage development project, on a minimum 2:1 private-to-government funding basis.[7] In August 2016, a development Raptor engine was shipped to their McGregor testing facility in Texas,[8] where it is undergoing development testing,[9] the first test firing on a ground test stand was in September 2016.[1]

As of September 2016, the engines were specifically intended to power both high-performance lower and upper stages of the ITS launch vehicle, a part of a more extensive Interplanetary Transport System (ITS) championed by Elon Musk, that may provide technological and economic improvements in interplanetary spaceflight, particularly with respect to a long-term aim of colonizing Mars.[1] In 2017, this changed with Raptor first use now planned for a smaller but, as yet, unspecified launch vehicle.[10]


Initial concept[edit]

An advanced rocket engine design project named Raptor—then a hydrolox engine—was first publicly discussed by SpaceX's Max Vozoff at the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Commercial Crew/Cargo symposium in 2009.[11] As of April 2011, SpaceX had a small number of staff working on the Raptor upper-stage engine, then still a LH2/LOX concept, at a low level of priority.[12] Further mention of the development program occurred in 2011;[13] in March 2012, news accounts asserted that the Raptor upper-stage engine development program was underway, but that details were not being publicly released.[14]

In October 2012, SpaceX publicly announced concept work on a rocket engine that would be "several times as powerful as the Merlin 1 series of engines, and won't use Merlin's RP-1 fuel", but declined to specify which fuel would be used,[15] they indicated that details would be forthcoming in "one to three years" and that the large engine was intended for a new SpaceX rocket, using multiple of these large engines, that would notionally launch payload masses of the order of 150 to 200 tonnes (150,000 to 200,000 kg) to low Earth orbit, exceeding the payload mass capability of the NASA Space Launch System.[15]

Methane engine[edit]

This was cleared up the next month when, in November 2012, CEO Elon Musk announced a new direction for the propulsion division of SpaceX: developing methane-fueled rocket engines,[16] he further indicated that the engine concept that had been codenamed Raptor would now become a methane-based design,[16] and that methane would be the fuel of choice for SpaceX's plans for Mars colonization.[17]

Potential sources and sinks of methane (CH4) on Mars.

Because of the presence of water underground and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere of Mars, methane, a simple hydrocarbon, can easily be synthesized on Mars using the Sabatier reaction.[18] In-situ resource production on Mars has been examined by NASA and found to be viable for oxygen, water, and methane production.[19] According to a study published by researchers from the Colorado School of Mines, in-situ resource utilization such as methane from Mars makes space missions more feasible technically and economically and enables reusability.[20]

When first mentioned by SpaceX in 2009, the term "Raptor" was applied exclusively to an upper-stage engine concept[11]—and 2012 pronouncements indicate that it still was a concept for an upper stage engine[21]—but in early 2014 SpaceX confirmed that Raptor would be used both on a new second stage, as well as for the large (then, nominally a 10-meter-diameter) core of the then-named Mars Colonial Transporter (later, after 2016, Interplanetary Transport System). At the time, each booster core was thought to utilize nine Raptor engines, similar to the use of nine Merlin 1s on each Falcon 9 booster core.[17]

The earliest public hints that a staged-combustion methane engine was under consideration at SpaceX were given in May 2011 when SpaceX asked if the Air Force was interested in a methane-fueled engine as an option to compete with the mainline kerosene-fueled engine that had been requested in the USAF Reusable Booster System High Thrust Main Engine solicitation.[17]

Public information released in November 2012 indicated that SpaceX might have a family of Raptor-designated rocket engines in mind;[22] this was confirmed by SpaceX in October 2013.[3] However, in March 2014 SpaceX COO Gwynne Shotwell clarified that the focus of the new engine development program is exclusively on the full-size Raptor engine; smaller subscale methalox engines were not planned on the development path to the very large Raptor engine.[23]

Component development[edit]

In October 2013, SpaceX announced that they would be performing methane engine tests of Raptor engine components at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Mississippi,[24][25] and that SpaceX would add equipment to the existing test stand infrastructure in order to support liquid methane and hot gaseous methane[1] engine component testing.[26] In April 2014, SpaceX completed the requisite upgrades and maintenance to the Stennis test stand to prepare for testing of Raptor components,[27] and the testing program began in earnest, enabling the development of robust startup and shutdown procedures, something that is ordinarily quite difficult to do for full-flow staged combustion cycle engines. Component testing at Stennis also allowed hardware characterization and verification of proprietary analytical software models that SpaceX developed to push the technology on this engine cycle that had little prior development work in the West.[1]

October 2013 was the first time SpaceX disclosed a nominal design thrust of the Raptor engine—2,900 kN (661,000 lbf)[3]—although early in 2014 they announced a Raptor engine with greater thrust, and in 2015, one with lower thrust that might better optimize thrust-to-weight.

In February 2014, Tom Mueller, the head of rocket engine development at SpaceX, revealed in a speech that Raptor was being designed for use on a vehicle where nine engines would "put over 100 tons of cargo up to Mars" and that the rocket would be more powerful than previously released publicly, producing greater than 4,400 kN (1,000,000 lbf).[17][28] A June 2014 talk by Mueller provided more specific engine performance target specifications indicating 6,900 kN (1,600,000 lbf) of sea-level thrust, 8,200 kN (1,800,000 lbf) of vacuum thrust, and a specific impulse (Isp) of 380 s for a vacuum version.[29] Earlier information had estimated the design Isp under vacuum conditions as only 363 s.[17] Jeff Thornburg, who led development of the Raptor engine at SpaceX 2011–2015, noted that methane rocket engines have higher performance than kerosene/RP-1 and lower than hydrogen, with significantly fewer problems for long-term, multi-start engine designs than kerosene—methane is cleaner burning—and significantly lower cost than hydrogen, coupled with the ability to "live off the land" and produce methane directly from extraterrestrial sources.[30][31][32]

SpaceX successfully began development testing of injectors in 2014 and completed a full-power test of a full-scale oxygen preburner in 2015. 76 hot fire tests of the preburner, totaling some 400 seconds of test time, were executed from April–August 2015.[6] SpaceX completed its planned testing at NASA Stennis in 2014 and 2015, although as recently as February 2016, the Stennis center indicated publicly that it was hopeful of establishing additional test agreements.[33]

In January 2015, Elon Musk stated that the thrust they were currently targeting was around 2,300 kN (510,000 lbf), much lower than older comments mentioned. This brought into question much of the speculation surrounding a 9-engine booster, as he stated "there will be a lot of [engines]".[34] By August 2015, an Elon Musk statement surfaced that indicated the oxidizer to fuel ratio of the Mars-bound engine would be approximately 3.8 to 1.[35]

In January 2016, the US Air Force awarded a US$33.6 million development contract to SpaceX to develop a prototype version of its methane-fueled reusable Raptor engine for use on the upper stage of the Falcon 9 and Falcon Heavy launch vehicles, which required double-matching funding by SpaceX of at least US$67.3 million. Work under the contract is expected to be completed in 2018, with engine performance testing to be done at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center in Mississippi.[7][36]

Subscale engine development[edit]

By August 2016, the first integrated Raptor rocket engine, manufactured at the SpaceX Hawthorne facility in California, shipped to the McGregor rocket engine test facility in Texas for development testing.[8] The engine had 1 MN thrust, which makes it approximately one-third the size of the full-scale Raptor engine planned for flight tests in 2019/2020 timeframe, it is the first full-flow staged-combustion methalox engine to ever reach a test stand.[1]

On September 26, 2016, Elon Musk tweeted two images of the first test firing of an integrated Raptor in SpaceX's McGregor test complex,[37][38] on the same day Musk revealed that their target performance for Raptor was a vacuum specific impulse of 382 seconds, with a thrust of 3 MN (670,000 lbf) with a chamber pressure of 30 MPa (4,400 psi) and an expansion ratio of 150 for the altitude optimized version.[39][40][41] When asked if the nozzle diameter for such version was 14 ft (4.3 m), he stated that it was pretty close to that dimension. He also disclosed that it used multi-stage turbopumps,[42][43] on the 27th he clarified that 150 expansion ratio was for the development version, that the production vacuum version would have an expansion ratio of 200.[44] Substantial additional technical details of the ITS propulsion were summarized in a technical article on the Raptor engine published the next week.[1]

Projected flight testing platform[edit]

As of November 2016, the first flight test of the Raptor engine was to be on the ITS launch vehicle, no earlier than the early 2020s.[1]

In July 2017, the earlier (November 2016) plan for the Raptor engine to be initially flown and flight tested on the ITS launch vehicle had been modified. Musk made public plans to build a much smaller launch vehicle and spacecraft prior to building the ITS, the new system architecture has "evolved quite a bit" since the November 2016 articulation of the very large Interplanetary Transport System. A key driver of the new architecture is to make the new system useful for substantial Earth-orbit and Cislunar launches so that the new system might pay for itself, in part, through economic spaceflight activities in the near-Earth space zone.[10]


Raptor development engine
In order to eliminate flow separation problems while being tested in Earth's atmosphere, the test nozzle expansion ratio is limited to only 150. This engine began testing on a ground test stand beginning in September 2016.[1] Sources differ on the performance of this engine; in reporting during the two weeks following the Musk reveal on 27 September, NASASpaceFlight.com indicated that the development engine is only one-third the size of any of the three larger engines above, approximately 1,000 kN (220,000 lbf) thrust.[1] SpaceNews, on the other hand, reported a full-size engine on the test stand in fall 2016.[45]
Raptor with expansion ratio 40
With an expansion ratio 40 nozzle, 42 of these engines were planned to power the 2016 high-level design of the ITS booster stage. 3,050 kN (690,000 lbf) of thrust at sea-level, and 3,285 kN (738,000 lbf) in vacuum.[1] In addition, three gimbaled short-nozzle engines were to be used for maneuvering the 2016-design ITS launch vehicle second-stages; and these engines were to be used for retropropulsive landings on Mars (with mean atmospheric pressure on the Martian surface 600 Pa (0.60 kPa),[46]), as well as, potentially, other Solar System objects.
Raptor with expansion ratio 200
With an expansion ratio 200 nozzle; six of these non-gimbaled engines were planned to provide primary propulsion for the 2016 designs of the Interplanetary Spaceship and the Earth-orbit ITS tanker. As designed, both of these vehicles play a short-term role as second stages on launches to Earth orbit, as well as provide high-Isp efficiency on transfer from geocentric to heliocentric orbit for transport to beyond-Earth-orbit celestial bodies. 3,500 kN (790,000 lbf) thrust at vacuum, the only conditions under which the six ER200 engines are expected to be fired.[1]


The Raptor engine is powered by subcooled liquid methane and subcooled liquid oxygen using a more efficient staged combustion cycle, a departure from the 'open cycle' gas generator system and lox/kerosene propellants that current Merlin engines use.[21] The Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME, with hydrolox propellant) also used a staged combustion process,[47] as do several Russian rocket engines (such as the RD-180[21] and the very-high chamber pressure (25.74 MPa) RD-191).[1]

Raptor has been explicitly designed to be able to deliver "long life ... and more benign turbine environments".[5][1]

More specifically, Raptor utilizes a full-flow staged combustion cycle, where 100 percent of the oxidizer—with a low-fuel ratio—will power the oxygen turbine pump, and 100 percent of the fuel—with a low-oxygen ratio—will power the methane turbine pump. Both streams—oxidizer and fuel—will be completely in the gas phase before they enter the combustion chamber. Prior to 2014, only two full-flow staged combustion rocket engines have ever progressed sufficiently to be tested on test stands: the Soviet RD-270 project in the 1960s and the Aerojet Rocketdyne Integrated Powerhead Demonstrator in the mid-2000s.[1][17]

Full-flow staged combustion rocket cycle

The Raptor engine is designed for the use of deep cryogenic methalox propellants—fluids cooled to near their freezing points, rather than nearer their boiling points which is more typical for cryogenic rocket engines.[48] The use of subcooled propellants—in addition to densification and therefore allowing more propellant to be carried by a given tank volume and has two benefits for the engine as well: specific impulse is increased, and the risk of cavitation at inputs to the turbopumps is reduced.[1] Engine ignition for all Raptor engines, both on the pad and in the air, will be by spark ignition, which will totally eliminate the pyrophoric mixture of triethylaluminum-triethylborane (TEA-TEB) used for engine ignition on the Falcon 9 and Falcon Heavy.[1]

The turbopump and many of the critical parts of the injectors are manufactured by using 3D printing, which also increases the speed of development and iterative testing.[48] Forty percent of the 1 MN engine (by mass) on the test stand in 2016 was manufactured by 3D printing.[1]

Stated design size for the Raptor engine varied widely during 2012–2016 as detailed design continued, from a high target of 8,200 kN (1,800,000 lbf) of vacuum thrust[49] to a more recent, much lower target of 3,500 kN (790,000 lbf). The engine targets a vacuum Isp of 361 seconds[50] and a sea-level Isp of 334 seconds.[50] and an expansion ratio of 40.[50]

Additional characteristics of the full-flow design, projected to further increase performance or reliability include:[17]

  • eliminating the fuel-oxidizer turbine interseal, which is a potential point of failure in more traditional engine designs
  • lower pressures are required through the pumping system, increasing life span and further reducing risk of catastrophic failure
  • ability to increase the combustion chamber pressure, thereby either increasing overall performance, or "by using cooler gases, providing the same performance as a standard staged combustion engine but with much less stress on materials, thus significantly reducing material fatigue or [engine] weight".[17]

Vacuum version[edit]

Like the SpaceX Merlin engine, a vacuum version of the Raptor rocket engine is planned which would target a specific impulse of 382s,[50] using a larger nozzle giving an expansion ratio of 200.[50]

Comparison to other engine designs[edit]

Engine name thrust
[kilonewtons (lbf)]
specific impulse
weight ratio
Propellant Cycle
SpaceX Raptor vacuum 3,500 (790,000)[51] 382[51] Subcooled
full-flow staged combustion
SpaceX Raptor sea-level 1:40 nozzle 3,050 (690,000)[51] 361[51]
Blue Origin BE-4 2,400 (550,000)[52] Methane/LOX staged combustion (oxidizer rich)
SpaceX Merlin 1D 914 (205,000) 311 [53] 199[54] Subcooled
gas generator
SpaceX Merlin 1D Vacuum 934 (210,000)[55] 348[55]
NK-33 1,638 (368,000)[56] 331[56] 136.66[56] RP-1/LOX staged combustion (oxidizer rich)
RD-180 4,152 (933,000)[57] 338[57] 78.44[57] RP-1/LOX staged combustion (oxidizer rich)
RD-191 2,090 (470,000)[58] 337.5[58] 89[58]
RD-270 6,710 (1,510,000) 322 125.77 N2O4/UDMH full-flow staged combustion
RD-276 1,832 (412,000) 315.8 174.5 N2O4/UDMH staged combustion (oxidizer rich)
Space Shuttle Main Engine 2,280 (510,000) 453[59] 73[60] LH/LOX staged combustion (fuel rich)
Rocketdyne F-1 (Saturn V) 7,740 (1,740,000) 304[61] 83 RP-1/LOX gas generator
TR-107 4,900 (1,100,000)[62] RP-1/LOX staged combustion (oxidizer rich)

Engine testing[edit]

Testing of the Raptor's oxygen preburner at Stennis in 2015

Initial development testing[6] of Raptor methane engine components was done at the Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Mississippi, where SpaceX added equipment to the existing infrastructure in order to support liquid methane engine testing.[3][26] Initial testing was limited to components of the Raptor engine, since the 440 kN (100,000 lbf) test stands at the E-2 complex at Stennis were not large enough to test the full Raptor engine. The development Raptor engine discussed in the October 2013 time frame relative to Stennis testing was designed to generate more than 2,900 kN (661,000 lbf) vacuum thrust.[3] A revised, higher-thrust, specification was discussed by the company in February 2014, but it was unclear whether that higher thrust was something that would be achieved with the initial development engines.[17] Raptor engine component testing began in May 2014[27] at the E-2 test complex which SpaceX modified to support methane engine tests.[3] The first items tested were single Raptor injector elements,[63] various designs of high-volume gas injectors,[64] the modifications to the test stands made by SpaceX are now a part of the Stennis test infrastructure and are available to other users of the test facility after the SpaceX facility lease was completed.[3] SpaceX successfully completed a "round of main injector testing in late 2014" and a "full-power test of the oxygen preburner component" for Raptor by June 2015. Tests continued at least into September 2015.[6]

SpaceX constructed a new engine test stand at their site of McGregor in central Texas that can handle the larger thrust of the full Raptor engine,[1][3] the B-2 test stand at Stennis Space Center was upgraded in 2014 to accommodate testing of NASA's 7,440 kN (1,700,000 lbf) SLS core stage.[65]

In August 2016, SpaceX confirmed a Raptor engine was shipped to the testing site in McGregor for development tests.[66]

The 1,000 kN (220,000 lbf) development Raptor did an initial 9-second firing test on 26 September 2016, the day before Musk's talk at the International Aeronautical Congress. The development engine has "an expansion ratio of just 150, the maximum possible within Earth’s atmosphere" to prevent flow separation problems.[1]


As of September 2016, the Raptor engine was slated to be used in, broadly, three spaceflight vehicles, which although capable of independent flight, also make up the two launch stages of an ITS launch vehicle stack, the first stage is always an Interplanetary booster while the second stage may be either an Interplanetary Spaceship (for beyond-Earth-orbit missions) or an ITS tanker (for on-orbit propellant transfer operations nearer to Earth).

The SpaceX 2016-design of the Interplanetary booster was announced with 42 sea-level optimized Raptors in the first stage of the ITS launch vehicle, the SpaceX Interplanetary Spaceship—which makes up the second stage of the ICT launch vehicle on Earth launches is also an interplanetary spacecraft carrying cargo and passengers to beyond-Earth-orbit destinations after on-orbit refueling—was slated in the 2016 design to use six vacuum-optimized Raptors for primary propulsion plus three Raptors with sea-level nozzles for maneuvering.[51]

Following comments by Elon Musk in July 2017, the Raptor engine development program is ongoing, but the launch vehicles that the engines will be used on is currently undergoing change, with vehicle details not yet announced.[10]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z Belluscio, Alejandro G. (2016-10-03). "ITS Propulsion – The evolution of the SpaceX Raptor engine". NASASpaceFlight.com. Retrieved 2016-10-03. 
  2. ^ Markusic, Tom (2010-07-28). SpaceX Propulsion (PDF). 46th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference. pp. 12–15. Retrieved 2015-10-28. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Leone, Dan (2013-10-25). "SpaceX Could Begin Testing Methane-fueled Engine at Stennis Next Year". Space News. Retrieved 2013-10-26. 
  4. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hJD0MMP4nkM
  5. ^ a b Gwynne Shotwell (17 March 2015). "Statement of Gwynne Shotwell, President & Chief Operating Officer, Space Exploration Technologies Corp. (SpaceX)" (PDF). Congressional testimony. US House of Representatives, Committee on Armed Service Subcommittee on Strategic Forces. pp. 14–15. Retrieved 2016-01-11. SpaceX has already begun self-funded development and testing on our next-generation Raptor engine. ... Raptor development ... will not require external development funds related to this engine. 
  6. ^ a b c d "NASA-SpaceX testing partnership going strong" (PDF). Lagniappe, John C. Stennis Space Center. NASA. September 2015. Retrieved 2016-01-10. this project is strictly private industry development for commercial use 
  7. ^ a b "Contracts: Air Force". U.S. Department of Defense Contracts press release. 13 January 2016. Retrieved 2016-01-15. 
  8. ^ a b Berger, Eric (10 August 2016). "SpaceX has shipped its Mars engine to Texas for tests". Ars Technica. Retrieved 17 August 2016. 
  9. ^ "Elon Musk reveals first photos of SpaceX’s powerful new Raptor engine". ars technica. 26 September 2016. Retrieved 26 September 2016. 
  10. ^ a b c Elon Musk (19 July 2017). Elon Musk, ISS R&D Conference (video). ISS R&D Conference, Washington DC, USA. Event occurs at 49:48–51:35. Retrieved 21 September 2017. the updated version of the Mars architecture: Because it has evolved quite a bit since that last talk. ... The key thing that I figured out is how do you pay for it? if we downsize the Mars vehicle, make it capable of doing Earth-orbit activity as well as Mars activity, maybe we can pay for it by using it for Earth-orbit activity. That is one of the key elements in the new architecture, it is similar to what was shown at IAC, but a little bit smaller. Still big, but this one has a shot at being real on the economic front. 
  11. ^ a b "Long term SpaceX vehicle plans". HobbySpace.com. 2009-07-07. Archived from the original on 2010-02-14. Retrieved 2009-07-13. 
  12. ^ "Notes: Space Access'11: Thurs. - Afternoon session - Part 2: SpaceX". RLV and Space Transport News. 2011-04-07. Archived from the original on 2012-03-20. Retrieved 2011-04-08. 
  13. ^ "SpaceX Raptor LH2/LOX engine". RLV and Space Transport News. 2011-08-08. Archived from the original on 2011-11-02. Retrieved 2011-08-09. 
  14. ^ Rosenberg, Zach (2012-03-16). "SpaceX readies upgraded engines". Flightglobal. Retrieved 2012-03-17. SpaceX is in the midst of a variety of ambitious engine programmes, including the Merlin 2, a significant modification of the Merlin 1 series, and the Raptor upper stage engine. Details of both projects are tightly held. 
  15. ^ a b Rosenberg, Zach (2012-10-15). "SpaceX aims big with massive new rocket". Flightglobal. Retrieved 2012-10-17. 
  16. ^ a b Todd, David (2012-11-20). "Musk goes for methane-burning reusable rockets as step to colonise Mars". FlightGlobal Hyperbola. Retrieved 2015-11-04. "We are going to do methane." Musk announced as he described his future plans for reusable launch vehicles including those designed to take astronauts to Mars within 15 years, "The energy cost of methane is the lowest and it has a slight Isp (Specific Impulse) advantage over Kerosene," said Musk adding, "And it does not have the pain in the ass factor that hydrogen has". 
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i Belluscio, Alejandro G. (2014-03-07). "SpaceX advances drive for Mars rocket via Raptor power". NASAspaceflight.com. Retrieved 2014-03-07. 
  18. ^ GPUs to Mars: Full-Scale Simulation of SpaceX's Mars Rocket Engine. YouTube. 5 May 2015. Retrieved 4 June 2015. 
  19. ^ mmooney (8 November 2015). "In-Situ Resource Utilization - Mars Atmosphere/Gas Chemical Processing". NASA SBIR/STTR. NASA. Retrieved 2 June 2015. 
  20. ^ "Comparative study of ISRU-based transportation architectures for the Moon and Mars: LOX/LH2 vs. LOX/Methane" (PDF). Lunar and Planetary Institute. Retrieved 2 June 2015. 
  21. ^ a b c Todd, David (2012-11-22). "SpaceX’s Mars rocket to be methane-fuelled". Flightglobal. Retrieved 2012-12-05. Musk said Lox and methane would be SpaceX’s propellants of choice on a mission to Mars, which has long been his stated goal. SpaceX’s initial work will be to build a Lox/methane rocket for a future upper stage, codenamed Raptor, the design of this engine would be a departure from the “open cycle” gas generator system that the current Merlin 1 engine series uses. Instead, the new rocket engine would use a much more efficient “staged combustion” cycle that many Russian rocket engines use. 
  22. ^ Todd, David (2012-11-20). "Musk goes for methane-burning reusable rockets as step to colonise Mars". FlightGlobal Hyperbola. Retrieved 2012-11-22. The new Raptor upper stage engine is likely to be only the first engine in a series of lox/methane engines. 
  23. ^ Gwynne Shotwell (2014-03-21). Broadcast 2212: Special Edition, interview with Gwynne Shotwell (audio file). The Space Show. Event occurs at 21:25–22:10. 2212. Archived from the original (mp3) on 2014-03-22. Retrieved 2014-03-22. our focus is the full Raptor size 
  24. ^ "NASA Stennis Space Center to Test SpaceX Next Generation Rocket Engines Systems". Mississippi Development Authority. October 23, 2013. Retrieved 27 October 2013. 
  25. ^ "Cochran: Space-X Decision Bodes Well for Job Growth in South Mississippi". Senator Cochran. October 23, 2013. Retrieved 27 October 2013. 
  26. ^ a b Messier, Doug (2013-10-23). "SpaceX to Conduct Raptor Engine Testing in Mississippi". Parabolic Arc. Retrieved 2013-10-23. 
  27. ^ a b Guess, Natalie (2014-04-21). "NASA, SpaceX Cut Ribbon To Launch Testing Partnership". MS EIGS. Retrieved 2014-04-22. 
  28. ^ "SpaceX propulsion chief elevates crowd in Santa Barbara". Pacific Business Times. 19 February 2014. Retrieved 22 February 2014. 
  29. ^ Butler, Amy; Svitak, Amy. "AR1 vs. Raptor: New rocket program will likely pit kerosene against methane" (2014-06-09). Aviation Week & Space Technology. SpaceX is developing the Raptor as a reusable engine for a heavy-lift Mars vehicle, the first stage of which will feature 705 metric tons of thrust, making it 'slightly larger than the Apollo F-1 engine,' Tom Mueller, SpaceX vice president of propulsion development, said during a space propulsion conference last month in Cologne, Germany. The vacuum version is targeting 840 metric tons of thrust with 380 sec. of specific impulse. The company is testing subscale components using the E-2 test stand at NASA's Stennis Space Center in Mississippi, says Stennis spokeswoman Rebecca Strecker. ... Mueller said many people ask why the company switch to methane for its Mars rocket, with reusability in mind, SpaceX's cost studies revealed that 'by far the most cost-effective propellant to use is methane,' he said, which would be easier than hydrogen to manufacture on Mars. 
  30. ^ "The Wind Rises at SpaceX". SpaceNews. 24 December 2015. Retrieved 2015-12-26. 
  31. ^ House testimony bio, HHRG-114-AS29, June 2015]
  32. ^ "SpaceX Prepared Testimony by Jeffrey Thornburg". SpaceRef.com. 26 June 2015. 
  33. ^ "Stennis set for busy 2016 test schedule" (PDF). Lagniappe. NASA-John C. Stennis Space Center. February 2016. p. 3. Retrieved 2016-03-02. After completing successful test series in 2014 and 2015 on components for the new Raptor rocket engine being developed by SpaceX, there also is hope for additional test agreements with the company. 
  34. ^ Musk, E. (January 6, 2015) "Thrust to weight is optimizing for a surprisingly low thrust level, even when accounting for the added mass of plumbing and structure for many engines. Looks like a little over 230 metric tons (~500 klbf) of thrust per engine, but we will have a lot of them :)" Reddit.com
  35. ^ How (and Why) SpaceX Will Colonize Mars, accessed 19 August 2015. Musk: "The critical elements of the solution are rocket reusability and low cost propellant (CH4 and O2 at an O/F ratio of ~3.8). And, of course, making the return propellant on Mars, which has a handy CO2 atmosphere and lots of H2O frozen in the soil."
  36. ^ "Orbital ATK, SpaceX Win Air Force Propulsion Contracts". SpaceNews. 13 January 2016. Retrieved 2016-01-15. 
  37. ^ Musk, Elon (2016-09-26). "Mach diamonds". Twitter.com. Archived from the original on 2016-09-26. Retrieved 2016-09-26. 
  38. ^ Musk, Elon (2016-09-26). "SpaceX propulsion just achieved first firing of the Raptor interplanetary transport engine". Twitter.com. Archived from the original on 2016-09-26. Retrieved 2016-09-26. 
  39. ^ Musk, Elon (2016-09-26). "Production Raptor goal is specific impulse of 382 seconds and thrust of 3 MN (~310 metric tons) at 300 bar". Twitter.com. Archived from the original on 2016-09-26. Retrieved 2016-09-26. 
  40. ^ Musk, Elon (2016-09-26). "Chamber pressure is almost 3X Merlin, so engine is about the same size for a given area ratio". Twitter.com. Archived from the original on 2016-09-26. Retrieved 2016-09-26. 
  41. ^ Musk, Elon (2016-09-26). "382s is with a 150 area ratio vacuum (or Mars ambient pressure) nozzle. Will go over specs for both versions on Tues.". Twitter.com. Archived from the original on 2016-09-26. Retrieved 2016-09-26. 
  42. ^ Musk, Elon (2016-09-26). "based on your other specs, is that like a ~14 foot diameter nozzle? Elon Musk: pretty close". Twitter.com. Archived from the original on 2016-09-26. Retrieved 2016-09-26. 
  43. ^ Musk, Elon (2016-09-26). "Sweet Jesus, that means you are pumping to 45-50 MPa... Surely this will be using multiple stage pumps? Elon Musk: yes". Twitter.com. Archived from the original on 2016-09-26. Retrieved 2016-09-26. 
  44. ^ Musk, Elon (2016-09-26). "Meant to say 200 AR for production vac engine. Dev will be up to 150. Beyond that, too much flow separation in Earth atmos.". Twitter.com. Archived from the original on 2016-09-26. Retrieved 2016-09-26. 
  45. ^ Foust, Jeff (2016-10-10). "Can Elon Musk get to Mars?". SpaceNews. Retrieved 2016-10-12. 
  46. ^ Bolonkin, Alexander A. (2009). Artificial Environments on Mars. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer. pp. 599–625. ISBN 978-3-642-03629-3. 
  47. ^ "Space Shuttle Main Engines". NASA. Retrieved 6 March 2013. 
  48. ^ a b Elon Musk, Mike Suffradini (7 July 2015). Elon Musk comments on Falcon 9 explosion - Huge Blow for SpaceX (2015.7.7) (video). Event occurs at 39:25–40:45. Retrieved 2015-12-30. 
  49. ^ Bergin, Chris (2014-08-29). "Battle of the Heavyweight Rockets -- SLS could face Exploration Class rival". NASAspaceflight.com. Retrieved 2014-08-30. 
  50. ^ a b c d e Musk, Elon (2016-09-27). "SpaceX IAC 2016 Announcement" (PDF). Mars Presentation. SpaceX. Retrieved 2016-09-27. 
  51. ^ a b c d e "Making Humans a Multiplanetary Species" (PDF). SpaceX. 2016-09-28. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-09-28. Retrieved 2016-09-28. 
  52. ^ Ferster, Warren (2014-09-17). "ULA To Invest in Blue Origin Engine as RD-180 Replacement". Space News. Retrieved 2014-09-19. 
  53. ^ "Merlin 1C". Astronautix.com. Retrieved 2013-11-02. 
  54. ^ Mueller, Thomas (2015-06-08). "Is SpaceX's Merlin 1D's thrust-to-weight ratio of 150+ believable?". Retrieved 2015-07-09. 
  55. ^ a b "SpaceX Falcon 9 product page". Retrieved 2016-09-30. 
  56. ^ a b c "NK-33". Astronautix.com. Retrieved 1 April 2015. 
  57. ^ a b c "RD-180". NPO Energomash. Retrieved 30 June 2015. 
  58. ^ a b c "RD-191". NPO Energomash. Retrieved 7 April 2016. 
  59. ^ "SSME". Astronautix.com. Retrieved 2013-11-02. 
  60. ^ "Encyclopedia Astronautica: SSME". Retrieved 2014-07-07. 
  61. ^ "F-1". Astronautix.com. Retrieved 2013-11-02. 
  62. ^ "TR-107" (PDF). NASA Marshall. Retrieved 17 August 2015. 
  63. ^ "SpaceX to test methane rocket engine in Miss.". The Sacramento Bee. 22 April 2014. Archived from the original on 29 April 2014. 
  64. ^ SpaceX Commercial Spaceflight, Garrett Reisman, Future in Space Operations (FISO) Colloquium, 2014-08-27, Retrieved 2014-08-28.
  65. ^ Rebecca Strecker (May 15, 2014). "NASA Moving Forward on Test Stand Upgrades for SLS Core Stage Testing". 
  66. ^ Berger, Eric (10 August 2016). "SpaceX has shipped its Mars engine to Texas for tests". Ars Technica. Retrieved 10 August 2016. 

External links[edit]