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The rapture is an eschatological concept of certain Christians within branches of American evangelicalism, consisting of an end-time event when all Christian believers who are alive, along with resurrected believers, will rise "in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air."In Paul the Apostle's First Epistle to the Thessalonians in the Bible, he uses the Greek word harpazo, meaning "to snatch away" or "to seize," and explains that believers in Jesus Christ will be snatched away from earth into the air. The term is most used among conservative Christian theologians in the United States. Rapture has been used for a mystical union with God or for eternal life in Heaven. Differing viewpoints exist about the exact timing of the rapture and whether Christ's return will occur in one event or two. Pretribulationism distinguishes the rapture from the second coming of Jesus Christ to earth, mentioned in the Gospel of Matthew, 2 Thessalonians, Revelation; this view holds that the rapture will precede the seven-year Tribulation, which will culminate in Christ's second coming and be followed by a thousand-year Messianic Kingdom.

Adherents of this perspective are referred to as premillenial dispensationalists. This theory grew out of the translations of the Bible that John Nelson Darby analyzed in 1833, it was promulgated by the cult followers of Darbyism, a doctrine, deemed heretical by most mainstream Christians. Pretribulationism is the most held view in America today, although this view is disputed within evangelicalism. There are differing views among Christians regarding the aerial gathering described in 1 Thessalonians 4; the majority of broadly Christian and mainline churches do not subscribe to pretribulational views. Roman Catholics, Eastern Orthodox, Lutherans, United Methodists, the United Church of Christ, most Reformed Christians do not use rapture as a specific theological term, nor do they subscribe to the premillennial dispensational views associated with its use. Instead these groups interpret rapture in the sense of the elect gathering with Christ in Heaven after His second coming and reject the idea that a large segment of humanity will be left behind on earth for an extended tribulation period after the events of 1 Thessalonians 4:17.

Rapture is derived from Middle French rapture, via the Medieval Latin raptura, which derives from the Latin raptus. The Koine Greek of 1 Thessalonians 4:17 uses the verb form ἁρπαγησόμεθα, which means "we shall be caught up" or "taken away," with the connotation that this is a sudden event; the dictionary form of this Greek verb is harpazō. This use is seen in such texts as Acts 8:39, 2 Corinthians 12:2-4, Revelation 12:5; the Latin Vulgate translates the Greek ἁρπαγησόμεθα as rapiemur meaning "we are caught up" or "we are taken away" from the Latin verb rapio meaning "to catch up" or "take away". English versions of the Bible have expressed the concept of rapiemur in various ways: The Wycliffe Bible, translated from the Latin Vulgate, uses "rushed"; the Tyndale New Testament, the Bishop's Bible, the Geneva Bible and the King James Version use "caught up". This is carried over to the Revised Standard Version; the online NET Bible translates the Greek of 1 Thessalonians 4:17 using the phrase "suddenly caught up" with the footnote: "Or'snatched up.'

The Greek verb ἁρπάζω implies that the action is quick or forceful, so the translation supplied the adverb'suddenly' to make this implicit notion clear." The Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, the Anglican Communion and Protestant Calvinist denominations have no tradition of a preliminary return of Christ. The Orthodox Church, for example, rejects a preliminary return because it depends on a premillennial interpretation of prophetic Scriptures, favoring amillennial or postmillennial fashion. Baptists, Bible churches, Brethren churches, non-denominational evangelicals, various other evangelical groups adhere to the pretribulational Rapture; as dispensationalism began to rise in America during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, pretribulationism became common among many Episcopalians, Congregationalists, Presbyterians. Today, Congregationalists, Presbyterians hold to pretribulationism; those who are alive and remain unto the coming of the Lord shall not precede those. The dead in Christ will resurrect first.

The living and the resurrected dead will be caught up together in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air. The rapture will occur as a component of the parousia: "those who are alive and remain unto the coming of the Lord, shall be caught up together with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air"; the meeting with the Lord will be permanent: "And so shall we be with the Lord". Most premillennialists distinguish the Second Coming as separate events; some dispensational premillennialists hold the return of Christ to be two distinct events. According to this view, 1 Thessalonians 4:15–17 is a description of a preliminary event to the return described in Matthew 24:29–31. Although both describe a coming of Jesus, these are seen to be different events; the first event is a coming where the saved are to be'caught up,' whence the term "rapture" is taken. The second event is described as the second coming; the majority of dispensationalists hold that the first event preced


Nizhalgal is a 1980 Indian Tamil-language film co-written and directed by P. Bharathiraja; the film stars newcomers such as Rajasekaran, Ravi and Suvitha. The film's crew too contained a host of newcomers including the lyricist Vairamuthu and Manivannan, both would go on to become an established lyricist and a director respectively; the film revolves around a group of youngsters and their struggles to overcome the challenges faced by them in society. Though a commercial failure, the film was screened at the "Indian Panorama" section of the International Film Festival of India in 1981; the same year it won two awards at the Tamil Nadu State Film Awards. Gopi and Hari, two unemployed graduates, live together in Madras. While Gopi is looking for a job, Hari aspires to become a music composer in the film industry, they both manage to make ends meet with the help of their friends. Their neighbour is Prabhu, a college-going student who spends all the time in smoking and singing. A new family relocates to their apartment.

The couple have a daughter Maha. Prabhu and Maha both become good friends. Prabhu decided to apprentice under a Veena expert. Much to his disappointment, the expert dies. Gopi takes tuition for Maha and they both fall in love. During this time, Gopi and Prabhu get arrested for some reason. Maha takes them out on bail. In an attempt to reform, Prabhu goes to meet his college principal, but gets dismissed from the college, he gets scolded by his father, but Maha becomes supportive to him. Prabhu assumes. During this time Maha's parents force her to discontinue her tuition as a few of their relatives suspect she and Gopi are in love with each other. Hari gets an advance payment of money from the producers. Using the sum, they return Maha's chain. By this time, Maha's parents start looking for a groom for her. Maha advises him to find a job so that they can marry. Things start to take a turn for the worse when Hari is dropped from the film because the financier of the film is not convinced that having a newcomer is a good idea.

The house owner expels Hari from the house for not paying the rent. A dejected Hari seek shelter with Mani, a rickshaw puller. Gopi gets a telegram informing. To bear his travel expenses, Mani's son Singam meets with an accident. Hari is hardly able to make it. Gopi approaches a moneylender to borrow money; the moneylender talks ill about Singam. In a fit of rage, he takes away the money; when he arrives, he is informed. Meanwhile, Maha's parents arrange a marriage for her; when she meets Prabhu, he confesses his love for her. A shocked Maha informs him that she only loves Gopi. Prabhu feels life has ditched him as every single moment, he tries to molest Maha but is stopped when she takes a knife and threatens that she will kill herself. Prabhu stabs himself to death. By this time, Gopi arrives at her house and informs her that he has killed the moneylender for money, they both marry each other. The next day they are arrested for Prabhu's murder. Hari becomes mad. Manivannan joined Bharathiraaja's unit as an assistant in the film.

He co-wrote the film with Bharathiraaja. The film's cast, principal cast in particular – Ravi, Chandrasekhar and Rajasekar – featured newcomers. Ravi, was earlier asked to audition for Bharathiraaja's previous film Niram Maaratha Pookkal as a dubbing artist for the lead character. However, since Bharathiraaja himself dubbed for character, Ravi was dropped. Bharathiraaja, signed up Ravi for Nizhalgal as the lead actor, thus marking Ravi's cinematic debut; the main theme of the film is unemployment. Rajasekaran as Prabhu Radica as Mahalakshmi Ravi as Gopi Chandrasekhar as Hari Suvitha as Poongothai Charuhasan Ilaiyaraaja R. K. Kumar Manivannan as Mani Janagaraj as the moneylender K. K. Soundar as Gopi's father Master Haja Sheriff as Singam Rasi Ramasamy as Maha's father The film's soundtrack and background score were composed by Ilaiyaraaja; the song "Ithu Oru Pon Malai" was written by Vairamuthu. The song is set in Kedaram raga; the song "Madai Thiranthu" was remixed by Yogi B and Natchatra in their album Vallavan.

A remix version of "Ithu Oru Pon Malai" is featured on music artist M. Rafi's album Aasaiyae Alaipolae. Nizhalgal was released on 6 November 1980. Although the film's story and the performance of the cast members received critical acclaim, it failed at the box office. After the film's release, the name "Nizhalgal" was added to Ravi's name as a prefix. At the International Film Festival of India in 1981, Nizhalgal was one of the 21 films to be screened at the Indian Panorama section, it was one of the two Tamil films to be screened at the festival. Made in the neo-realistic style, the film was a different attempt by Bharathiraaja; the French film critic Yves Thoraval in his The cinemas of India stated: "a gloomy and violent film despite musical scenes with pretty dancers in short skirts." In 2008, short filmmaker R. V. Ramani in an interview with The Hindu recalled Nizhalgal as being a film that made a strong impact on him, he further called the film as a path breaking one in

List of first women lawyers and judges in South Carolina

This is a list of the first women lawyer and judge in South Carolina. It includes the year. Included are women who achieved other distinctions such becoming the first in their state to obtain a law degree or become a political figure. Claudia J. Sullivan: First female law graduate in South Carolina James M. Perry: First female lawyer in South Carolina Cassandra E. Maxwell: First African American female lawyer in South Carolina Sue Evelyn Lester: First female lawyer to practice in the federal court Kitty Herbert: First female magistrate in South Carolina Judy Bridges: First female judge in South Carolina Jean H. Toal: First female elected as a Justice of the South Carolina Supreme Court and serve as its Chief Justice Jean Galloway Bissell: First female to serve as a federal judge in South Carolina Margaret B. Seymour: First African American female appointed as a Judge of the U. S. District Court for the District of South Carolina Karen J. Williams: First female appointed as a Judge of the Fourth Circuit Court in South Carolina Karen L. Henderson: First female to serve as the Deputy Attorney General for South Carolina Sherri Lydon: First female appointed as the United State Attorney in South Carolina Elaine Fowler: First female to serve as the President of the South Carolina Bar Association Alphabetized by county name Courtney Clyburn-Pope: First female to serve as a resident judge in Aiken County, South Carolina Grace White: First female lawyer in Beaufort, South Carolina Mabel Lee Parrott Shuler: First female magistrate in Berkeley County, South Carolina Hannah R. Axelman: First female lawyer in Charleston County, South Carolina Margie Elizabeth Fuller Cannon: First female magistrate in Charleston County, South Carolina Barbara Usher Griffin: First female magistrate judge for Chester County, South Carolina Carolyn Smith Knight: First female magistrate in Florence County, South Carolina Jasmine Twitty: First female to become the youngest judge appointed in Easley, South Carolina Karen Sanchez Roper: First female resident judge in Pickens County, South Carolina List of first women lawyers and judges in the United States Timeline of women lawyers in the United States Women in law List of first minority male lawyers and judges in the United States List of first minority male lawyers and judges in South Carolina

Thomas J. McKay

Thomas McKay is an American philosopher Professor of Philosophy and Director of Graduate Studies at the Department of Philosophy of Syracuse University. He was chairman of the Department there from 1995-2002, he received his B. A. from Swarthmore College in 1969, his M. A. from University of Massachusetts Amherst in 1972, his Ph. D. from the University of Massachusetts, 1974, for a dissertation on "Essentialism and Quantified Modal Logic: Quine's Argument and Kripke's Semantics" His work has concerned the philosophy of logic and language. In 2006, Oxford University Press published his book, Plural Predicates a, in which he gives an account of a semantics for a plural logic. In particular he develops a Russellian account of plural definite descriptions, he is the author of the following textbooks: Modern Formal Logic, Reasons and Decisions and the following journal articles: "Essentialism in Quantified Modal Logic," Journal of Philosophical Logic 4, 423-438. "Counterfactuals with Disjunctive Antecedents," with Peter van Inwagen, Philosophical Studies 31, 353-356.

"The Principle of Predication," Journal of Philosophical Logic 7, 19-26. "Natural Kind Terms and Standards of Membership," with Cindy Stern and Philosophy 3, 27-34. "On Proper Names in Belief Ascriptions," Philosophical Studies 39, 287-303. "On Showing Invalidity," Canadian Journal of Philosophy 14, 97-100. "Critical Review of Michael Devitt's Designation, Noûs 18, 357-367. "Actions and De Re Beliefs," Canadian Journal of Philosophy 14, 631-635. "On Critical Thinking," American Philosophical Association Newsletter on Teaching Philosophy, Spring-Summer 1985, 19-20. "His Burning Pants," Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 27, 393-400. "Lowe and Baldwin on Modalities," Mind 95, 499-505. "he himself: Undiscovering an Anaphor," Linguistic Inquiry 22, 368-373. "Representing de re Beliefs," Linguistics and Philosophy 14, 711-739. "Analogy and Argument," Teaching Philosophy, 20, 49-60. "A reconsideration of an argument against compatibilism," Philosophical Topics, 24, 113-121. He wrote the encyclopedia chapters on "Modal Logic, Philosophical Issues," for the Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, "Propositional Attitude Reports," Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2000, 2005. and many book chapters and other presentations.

Professor McKay's homepage on the Syracuse University website

Bishop of Edmonton (London)

The Bishop of Edmonton is an episcopal title used by an area bishop of the Church of England Diocese of London in the Province of Canterbury, England. The title takes its name after an area in the North of the London Borough of Enfield; the bishops suffragan of Edmonton have been area bishops since the London area scheme was founded in 1979. The post of suffragan fell vacant following the retirement of Peter Wheatley, who began his ministry as suffragan bishop in March 1999 and retired at the end of 2014. On 9 July 2015, it was announced that Rob Wickham was to become the next area bishop from his consecration on 23 September of that year; the episcopal title of "Bishop of Edmonton" is one of three that are duplicated in the Anglican Communion. The other Bishop of Edmonton is a diocesan bishop in Canada. Crockford's Clerical Directory listings


DoDonPachi is a vertically scrolling manic shooter arcade game developed by Cave and published by Atlus in 1997. It was the second game developed by Cave, the sixth on Cave's first-generation arcade hardware; as with its predecessor DonPachi, the title is both a Japanese term for expressing the sound of gunfire, a term that relates to bees. The sequel to this game is DoDonPachi II, made by a different developer; the original developer released its own sequel, DoDonPachi DaiOuJou. Compared to DonPachi, DoDonPachi is known for introducing new gameplay elements while improving or changing existing ones; the overall background of the game, unlike following sequels, remains more or less centered around a supposed invasion by a mysterious race of mechanized aliens, which the player is called to face throughout its run. However, more sinister and shocking secrets lie beneath the surface, accessible only to those brave and skilled enough to clear the entire game. FightersThe player takes on the role of a squadron fighter facing a race of mechanized aliens that appeared and started causing havoc.

There are three different ships to choose between, each ship can be played in Laser or Shot mode. Type A: A red fighter, which fires a narrow stream of shots. Type B: A green helicopter, which fires its main guns forward, but has side guns that rotate in the direction of movement. Type C: A blue fighter, which fires a wide, three-way spread of shots. WeaponsEach aircraft has a main forward-firing gun used by tapping the two shot buttons, the style of, determined by the type of fighter chosen; each ship has two small floating guns which it deploys at the start of the game. The placement of the guns is different on each craft. If the fire button is held down, the floating guns combine in front of the ship to produce a vertical beam, which provides more firepower than standard fire; this makes the ship move more slowly. An aura is generated around the player's ship. If the laser is fired at close proximity to an enemy, the laser delivers more damage to the enemy; the ship has a limited number of bombs.

There are two types of bombs that can be used at any time the player could use, there is no penalty for picking a particular bomb to use, aside from the point reductions that using a bomb might give said player. These bombs are triggered based on whether the player is using standard fire or laser fire when the bomb button is pressed: While firing standard shots, bombs produce a large explosion which damages or destroys all enemies on-screen, makes all enemy projectiles disappear for the entire duration of the explosion. While firing the laser, the ship unleashes a high-powered beam instead, which does more damage at the cost of range. Enemy projectiles in the beam's range will be destroyed. At the beginning of the game, the player has 3 bomb slots, the slot count increases by 1 every time the player loses a life. Power-Up ModesEach ship can be played with a Shot or Laser boost, making the chosen mode of firing more powerful. Laser Mode increases the effectiveness of the laser weapon, allowing the laser to penetrate through multiple enemies.

It gives the player a shield against minor bombarding enemies while firing the beam. When the player loses a life, the chosen weapon's power is decreased by one, the other weapon's power is decreased to the lowest level. Collectible ItemsThere are three types of power-up items in the game, identified by different letters: P: Makes the player's guns stronger and laser thicker. B: Adds one bomb to the player's supply; the player can hold a maximum of three bombs at the start. At the end of a stage, the player's bomb supply is restored, to the limit it is at. MP: Appears after the player has lost all their lives. Collecting this powers up the player's weapons to full strength. Bee: There are 13 golden bees scattered throughout the stage, which are exposed by firing the head of lasers over the area; the value of each collected bee increases throughout each stage, provided the player does not lose a life, beginning with 100 200, 400, 800, 1,000, 2 000, 4 000, 8,000, 10,000, 20,000, 40,000, 80,000, 100,000.

When the player loses a life, the next collected bee drops back to 100 points. Star: Gives 100 points when picked up; when a mid-boss or end boss is destroyed, each of its bullets is converted into a star. Giant star: Gives 10,000 points when picked up. In a multi-part boss, destroying a non-critical component causes a giant star to appear. Pentagon: Gives 300 points when picked up. Pentagons are only found on the ground. MAXIMUM bonusNew to DoDonPachi is the addition of "MAXIMUM mode"; this mode is triggered. During MAXIMUM mode, the player's score increases by at least 220 points per 1/60th second, except during boss fights; the score multiplier begins with 2, increases by 1 for every successive bomb collected in MAXIMUM mode. Whenever a bomb is used or the player loses a life, MAXIMUM mode ends until bomb overstocking occurs again, which will cause the multiplier to resume at the last multiplier value; the multiplier is carried over to successive stages. Get Poin