Vaccine are rudimentary single-note trumpets found in Haiti and, to a lesser extent, the Dominican Republic as well as Jamaica. They consist of a simple tube bamboo, with a mouthpiece at one end, they are thus referred to as banbou or bambú, as well as bois bourrique, fututo, or boom pipe. They are not to be confused with other Haitian handmade trumpets called konè or klewon, made of a yard-long white metal tube with a flared horn, called kata. Vaccine players are known as banboulyès. Haitian ethnographer Jean Bernard traces the vaksin back to indigenous precolonial peoples of Haiti; however both Thompson and Holloway draw links to the single-note Bakongo bamboo trumpets called disoso, themselves originated in Mbuti hocketing music. Gillis likens them to trumpets used in Bambara broto music along the Niger, Jamaican Kumina. Traditionally, vaccine are made of a length of bamboo, hollowed-out and dried, with a node membrane pierced and wrapped with leather or bicycle inner-tube rubber to form a mouthpiece at one end.
One or more segments are taken from lower in the bamboo trunk to fashion vaccines. Each one is cut shorter or longer in order to produce a higher or lower tone: bas banbou is long and gives a low-pitched sound, charlemagne banbou is short and is pitched high. McAlister explains that Afro-Hispaniolan lore involves asking the bamboo plant for its use and leaving a small payment in its place. Landies witnessed this process, which she described as follows: "the harvest of the bamboo was accompanied by an offering. Is harvested with the permission of Simbi, a Petwo Lwa who loves water, as bamboo in the Dominican Republic grows in moist land, e.g. along rivers"On occasion, iron or plastic pipes are substituted for the bamboo. A typical vaccine band is composed of three to five players marching abreast of each other. Players use a method called hocketing, whereby each individual blows a single tone rhythmically to create an ostinato motif together; these motifs are composed through a process of group improvisation.
To keep rhythm, vaccine players beat a rhythmic timeline, called kata with a long stick on the side of the tube, making the instrument both melodic and percussive. Within an ostinato, vaccine tones stack up in approximate third intervals to each other—creating tritones and arpeggiated diminished chords, but without a harmonic intent—with the two treble-most vaccines tuned a semitone apart. Landies reports other intervals between the lowest two voices. One of the vaccine serves as the tonal center of the motif. Most vaccines are a key component of rara orchestras. In his 1941 article, Courlander wrote that rara bands "seldom have drums and depend entirely on vaccines". Scholars report vaccines used as signal horns by parties of agricultural workers, stevedores as well as sometimes used in dances of the Congo cycle
The güiro is a Latin American percussion instrument consisting of an open-ended, hollow gourd with parallel notches cut in one side. It is played by rubbing a stick or tines along the notches to produce a ratchet sound; the güiro is used in Puerto Rican and other forms of Latin American music, plays a key role in the typical rhythm section of important genres like son and salsa. Playing the güiro requires both long and short sounds, made by scraping up and down in long or short strokes; the güiro, like the maracas, is played by a singer. It is related to the Cuban guayo and the Dominican güira, which are made of metal. Other instruments similar to the güiro are the Colombian guacharaca, the Brazilian reco-reco, the quijada and the frottoir. In the Arawakan language, a language of the indigenous people of Latin America and spread throughout the Caribbean spoken by groups such as the Taíno, güiro referred to fruit of the güira and an instrument made from fruit of the güira; the güiro is a hollowed-out gourd.
The calabash gourd is used. The güiro is made by carving parallel circular stripes along the shorter section of the elongated gourd. Today, many güiros are made of wood or fiberglass; the güiro was adapted from an instrument which might have originated in either South America or Africa. The Aztecs produced an early cousin to the güiro, called the omitzicahuastli, created from a small bone with serrated notches and was played in the same manner as the güiro; the Taíno people of the Caribbean have been credited with the origins of the güiro. The Taínos of Puerto Rico developed the güajey, a long gourd or animal bones with notches, was an antecedent of the modern day güiro; the güiro is believed to have origins in Africa and brought over to Latin American and the Caribbean by African slaves. Across Latin American and the Caribbean, the güiro can be found in a variety of traditional, folk dance music and used in dance ensembles and religious festivals. In the Yucatan Peninsula, the güiro is used in the mayapax and the jarana.
In Cuba, the güiro is used in the genre danzón. In Puerto Rico, the güiro associated with the music of the jíbaro and is used in the musical genres of the plena, the seis, the danza. In the Caribbean coast, the güiro was used in traditional, folk dance cumbia music and is still used in modern cumbia music. In Panama, the güiro can be found in folk dances such as cumbia; the güiro is used in classical music both to add Latin American flavor, purely for its instrumental qualities. Examples of compositions including a güiro are Uirapuru by Heitor Villa-Lobos, Latin-American Symphonette by Morton Gould and The Rite of Spring by Stravinsky. Güira Guayo Guacharaca Reco-reco Scratcher Latin American music Picture and description of a güiro made by the Taínos Video demonstrating how to play the güiro by Bobby Sanabria affiliated with Jazz at Lincoln Center
Music of the Bahamas
The music of the Bahamas is associated with junkanoo, a celebration which occurs on Boxing Day and again on New Year's Day. Parades and other celebrations mark the ceremony. Groups like The Baha Men, Ronnie Butler and Kirkland Bodie have gained massive popularity in Japan, the United States and other places. Other popular Bahamian artists include Stileet and Stevie S. Calypso is a style of Afro-Caribbean music which originated in Trinidad and Tobago; this form of music has spread through many parts including The Bahamas. Soca is a form of dance music which originated from many calypso music in Tobago, it combined the melodic lilting sound of calypso with insistent percussion and local chutney music. Soca music has evolved in the last 20 years by musicians from various Anglophone Caribbean countries including Trinidad, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Grenada, Saint Lucia and Barbuda, United States Virgin Islands, The Bahamas, Saint Kitts and Nevis and Belize; the word Junkanoo is said to be derived from a Ghanaian leader, John Connu, or from the Qujo supreme deity and ancestral spirits.
The junkanoo was practiced in North Carolina and remnants still exist in Belize. It is most well known, from Nassau and Freeport. Since the 1950s the influence of American culture has increased through TV and radio broadcasts from Florida stations, other Caribbean styles have made inroads: calypso and soca, from Jamaica, Cuba and other islands. Tourism has had an impact, bringing in Japanese and North Americans with their attendant forms of cultural expression. In this milieu more traditional Bahamas performers such as Joseph Spence, have still enjoyed successful careers playing junkanoo, Christian hymns and the ant'ems of the local sponge fishermen, which include "Sloop John B" made famous by The Beach Boys. Junkane. In 1973, the year the Bahamas achieved independence from the United Kingdom, black professionals of the middle and upper classes began to dominate junkanoo celebrations. Costuming and competitions became more complex and commonplace, soon became a tourist draw. Aside from being a type of drum, goombay is a percussion music made famous by Alphonso'Blind Blake' Higgs, who played to tourists arriving at Nassau International Airport for several years.
Rake-and-scrape music is a unique type of instrumental music made by bending a saw and scraping with a small object, most a screwdriver. Rake-and-scrape's popularity has been declining in recent years, but performers like Lassie Do and the Boys continue to keep the tradition alive. Christian rhyming spirituals and the ant'ems of sponge fishermen are now dead traditions, decimated by the arrival of pop music, a 1930s sponge blight and other causes. E. Clement Bethel's master's thesis on traditional Bahamian music was adapted for the stage by his daughter, Nicolette Bethel and Philip A. Burrows. Music of The Bahamas was first performed at the Edinburgh Festival Fringe in 1991, was revived in 2002 for fresh Bahamian audiences. A recording of that show is available for sale from Ringplay Productions. Rake and scrape music is played traditionally with Concertinas, Goombay drums, a Handsaw. Rake and scrape is believed to have originated on the island of Cat Island but evidence suggest that it was emerging in many places simultaneously.
The earliest reference to usage of the accordion by Bahamians is in 1886 in an Article in the Nassau Guardian. The term rake and scrape became the norm in 1969 by Charles Carter although he claims the people of Cat Island were calling it that when he visited the Island. Membranophones: The Goombay drum is main rhythmic component in rake-n-scrape, it is referred to a goatskin drum, as the skin of a goat was stretched over a wooden barrel. It is decorated by complex geometric designs in bright colors; the drum is always heated over fire to retain its tone. In 1971, when manufacturers started shipping products in metal barrels, Bahamians switched the drum to metal changing the tone of the drum. Idiophones: The main component that makes Rake-N-Scrape unique is the use of the Carpenter's Saw; this instrument is scraped with a butter knife. Bent against the body of the player and flexed, various timbral effects are obtained. In more modern music, the saw is replaced with a guiro. Aerophones: The accordion is the component that adds the round form which enables dancers to dance the ring dance.
This is of European descent. In more modern bands, it is replaced by electronic keyboard. List of Bahamian musicians Kaliss, Jeff. "Junkanoo and Sloop John B.". 2000. In Broughton and Ellingham, Mark with McConnachie and Duane, World Music, Vol. 2: Latin & North America, India and Pacific, pp 317–324. Rough Guides Ltd, Penguin Books. ISBN 1-85828-636-0 Rommen, Timothy. "Come Back Home: Regional Travels, Global Encounters, Local Nostalgias in Bahamian Popular Musics." Project Muse: Latin American Music Review, Vol 30, Number 2, Fall/Winter 2009. University of Texas Press, 159-183. Ingraham, Veronica. 2007. “The Bahamas” in An Encyclopedic History: Music in Latin America and the Caribbean, vol. 2, Performing the Caribbean Experience, Ed. By Malena Kuss. Texas: University of Texas Press, 359-376. Http://www.bahamasentertainers.com/ The Bahamas: Islands of song and produced by Oete Reiniger, with introductory essays by Gail Saunders and Kayla Olubumni Lockhart Edwards. I CD, Smithsonian Folkways SF 40405. Audio clips: traditional music o
Maraca, sometimes called rumba shaker, chac-chac, various other names, is a rattle which appears in many genres of Caribbean and Latin music. It is shaken by a handle, played as part of a pair. Maracas known as tamaracas, were rattles of divination, an oracle of the Brazilian Tupinamba Indians, found with other Indian tribes, on the Orinoco and in Florida. Rattles made from gourds are being shaken by the natural grip, while the round calabash fruits are fitted to a handle. Human hair is sometimes fastened on the top, a slit is cut in it to represent a mouth, through which their shamans made it utter its responses. A few pebbles are inserted to make it rattle, it is crowned with the red feathers of the Goaraz; every man had his maraca. It was used at their dances, to heal the sick. Andean curanderos use maracas in their healing rites. Modern maraca balls are made of leather, wood, or plastic
"La Dessalinienne" is the national anthem of Haiti. It was composed by Nicolas Geffrard. "La Dessalinienne" was named in honor of Haiti's revolutionary leader and first ruler Jean-Jacques Dessalines. To commemorate the 100th anniversary of the Haitian Revolution, a competition was held for a national anthem in 1903; the poetic words of Justin Lhérisson and martial composition of Nicolas Geffrard won over the judges, which led to its official adoption as national anthem in 1904. The 1903 premiere of the anthem was sung by Auguste de Pradines known as Kandjo. There is a Haitian Creole version, created by Raymond A. Moise. Ansy Dérose, a Haitian singer, helped popularize it. Although it became accepted, the 1987 Haitian Constitution makes no mention of this particular version. Quand nos Aïeux brisèrent leurs entraves Flag of Haiti Haïti Chérie Music of Haiti La Dessalinienne
The güira is a metal scraper from the Dominican Republic used as a percussion instrument in cumbia and merengue, to a lesser extent, other genres such as bachata. It is made of a metal sheet and played with a stiff brush, thus being similar to the Cuban guayo and the güiro. Güira, guayo and güiro all have a function akin to that of the maracas or the trap-kit's hi-hat, namely providing a complementary beat. Performers on the güira are referred to as güireros and in merengue típico ensembles they co-lead percussion sections along with tambora-playing tamboreros, due to the significance of their African-derived interlocking rhythms in providing a basic musical foundation for the dance; the güira is most found in merengue típico where it serves as one of multiple percussion instruments, most interlocking with the rhythm of the tambora, a small horizontally mounted rustic drum played with one stick and one bare hand. Mastering its usual'correct' playing techniques has been dubbed challenging. Güireros may use a variety of playing techniques to play various rhythms, however nearly all playing is done with one hand only holding the instrument from its large rounded handle, while it is scraped with the other hand holding the brush, which may be made for this purpose, but in practice is a metal-tined afro pick hair styling comb, although some players may use a cane- or plastic-toothed scraper.
A güira consists of an open-ended tube with many sound-producing nodules protruding its outer playing surface. The body of the güira is some type of thin sheet steel. One commercial variant called a torpedo is enclosed with tapered ends and is supplied with mineral or glass beads or metal shot inside to double as a shaker. Given its unwieldy shape and the additional weight of tapered ends and shaker fill, using a güira as a shaker may be impractical. Regardless of how it is used, its traditional main function is to propel the tempo, not only to add its uniquely swishy metallic timbre's sabor. Another key aspect of the güira is how much the playing surface is "dampened"; this aspect influences how staccato or "dry" its sound will be, advanced players may modulate muting while playing for additional timbral variation. While the player holds the güira with one hand while using the scraper with their dominant hand, the güira is brushed on the downbeat with a preceding "and-a" in its characteristic galloping figure.
Modern cumbia sometimes features a güira instead of the traditional guiro. Typical rhythmic patterns for cumbia include the golpe. Dances featuring the güira range from the fast-paced merengue típico or cibaeño, perico ripiao or merengue derecho to the slower pambiche or merengue pambichao, with tempos of 88-180 bpm. While its use in the more-romantic bachata styles is applied at various medium to fast tempos, modern güira has been used in a wide variety of dance styles, as its versatility and ability to "cut through" a dense sonic mix and thereby maintain a consistent dance tempo is similar to that of how hi-hat or shakers like maracas are employed. According to Francisco Javier Durán García, New York City based instrument maker, the traditional art of güira making involves a tree stump, nail, metal tube, wood block; the instrument is hand fashioned from sheet metal into a long cylindrical tube along with repeatedly-dimpled tubular surface. The Dominican güira is similar in usage to the Puerto Rican/Cuban güiro though of distinct timbre.
Whereas the güiro is a hollowed-out gourd, thus producing a more wooden tone, the metal construction of the güira gives it a characteristic metallic timbre. The güira as part of the merengue típico is emblematic of Dominican heritage, it is estimated to be the most widespread instrument in the country. When Rafael Trujillo came to power in 1930 he made the music the national emblem
Port-au-Prince International Jazz Festival
The Port-au-Prince International Jazz Festival known as PAPJAZZ, is a large annual jazz festival held in Haiti, that features many well-known international jazz musicians, emphasizes its insistence on true jazz, avoiding other forms of popular music. The event is held at various venues for eight nights, it is one of the largest festivals in the world, yielding thousands of visitors per year. The first year was 2007. In 2013 it featured Branford Marsalis as a headliner, with their first show in the coastal town of Jacmel; that year featured two dozen other jazz musicians from countries such as Mexico, Brazil and Cameroon. According to Billboard, "The festival seeks to promote jazz in Haiti, increase understanding between the Haitian and American cultures, encourage tourism." List of music festivals List of jazz festivals Official Website