The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
BuzzFeed, Inc. is an American Internet media and entertainment company with a focus on digital media. BuzzFeed was founded in 2006 by Jonah Peretti and John S. Johnson III, to focus on tracking viral content. Kenneth Lerer, co-founder and chairman of The Huffington Post, started as a co-founder and investor in BuzzFeed and is now the executive chairman. Known for online quizzes, "listicles", pop culture articles, the company has grown into a global media and technology company, providing coverage on a variety of topics including politics, DIY, business. In late 2011, BuzzFeed hired Ben Smith of Politico as editor-in-chief, to expand the site into serious journalism, long-form journalism, reportage. After years of investment in investigative journalism, by 2018 BuzzFeed News had won the National Magazine Award and the George Polk Award, been a finalist for the Pulitzer Prize and the Michael Kelly Award. Despite BuzzFeed's entrance into serious journalism, a 2014 Pew Research Center survey found that in the United States, BuzzFeed was viewed as an unreliable source by the majority of respondents, regardless of age or political affiliation.
BuzzFeed News has since moved to its own domain rather than exist as a section of the main BuzzFeed website. Prior to establishing BuzzFeed, Peretti was director of research and development and the OpenLab at Eyebeam, Johnson's New York City-based art and technology nonprofit, where he experimented with other viral media. In 2006, while working at the Huffington Post, Peretti started BuzzFeed as a side project, in partnership with his former supervisor John Johnson. In the beginning, BuzzFeed employed no writers or editors, just an "algorithm to cull stories from around the web that were showing stirrings of virality." The site launched an instant messaging client, BuzzBot, which sent users a link to popular content. The messages were sent based on algorithms which examined the links that were being disseminated, scouring through the feeds of hundreds of blogs that were aggregating them; the site began spotlighting the most popular links that BuzzBot found. Peretti hired curators to help describe the content, popular around the web.
In 2011, Peretti hired Politico's Ben Smith, who earlier had achieved much attention as a political blogger, to assemble a news operation in addition to the many aggregated "listicles". In 2016, BuzzFeed formally separated its news and entertainment content into BuzzFeed News and the newly formed BuzzFeed Entertainment Group, which includes BuzzFeed Motion Pictures; as of 2016, BuzzFeed had correspondents from 12 countries, foreign editions in Australia, France, India, Mexico and the United Kingdom. By the end of BuzzFeed employed around 1,700 employees worldwide, although it announced plans in November of that year to lay off around 100 employees in the US, 45 in the UK, 100 in France in June 2018. On January 23, 2019, BuzzFeed notified all employees via memo that there would be an upcoming 15% reduction in workforce affecting the international, web content, news divisions of the company; the layoffs would affect 200 employees. In 2011, BuzzFeed ran more than 100 Campaigns, resulting in triple revenue from 2010.
By February 2012, BuzzFeed raised $15.5 million the few months before through social-advertising campaigns. In October 2012, BuzzFeed started running ads for the Obama campaign; this led to a huge boost in their advertising revenue. In August 2014, BuzzFeed raised $50 million from the venture capital firm Andreessen Horowitz, more than doubling previous rounds of funding; the site was valued at around $850 million by Andreessen Horowitz. BuzzFeed generates its advertising revenue through native advertising that matches its editorial content, does not rely on banner ads. BuzzFeed uses its familiarity with social media to target conventional advertising through other channels, such as Facebook. In December 2014, growth equity firm General Atlantic acquired $50 million in secondary stock of the company. In August 2015, NBCUniversal made a $200 million equity investment in BuzzFeed. Along with plans to hire more journalists to build a more prominent "investigative" unit, BuzzFeed planned on hiring journalists around the world and plans to open outposts in India, Germany and Japan.
It planned on hiring staff for its UK bureau, its rapidly-expanding motion picture unit and its food-themed business, Tasty. In October 2016, BuzzFeed raised $200 million from Comcast's TV and movie arm NBCUniversal, at a valuation of $1.7 billion. Altogether and its NBCUniversal subsidiary own about a third of BuzzFeed. BuzzFeed has said. In 2019, despite earning nearly 300 million dollars during the past year, they have laid off 200 members of its staff. BuzzFeed's first acquisition was in 2012 when the company purchased Kingfish Labs, a startup founded by Rob Fishman focused on optimizing Facebook ads. On October 28, 2014, BuzzFeed announced its next acquisition; the Torando team was to become BuzzFeed's first data engineering team. BuzzFeed produces daily content, in which the work of staff reporters, syndicated cartoon artists, its community are featured. Popular formats on the website include lists and quizzes; the style of such content inspired the parody website ClickHole. While BuzzFeed was focused on such viral content, according to The New York Times, "it added more traditional content, building a track record for delivering breaking news and reported articles" in the years up to 2014.
In that year, BuzzFeed deleted over 4000 early posts, "apparen
Washington, D. C. formally the District of Columbia and referred to as Washington or D. C. is the capital of the United States. Founded after the American Revolution as the seat of government of the newly independent country, Washington was named after George Washington, first President of the United States and Founding Father; as the seat of the United States federal government and several international organizations, Washington is an important world political capital. The city is one of the most visited cities in the world, with more than 20 million tourists annually; the signing of the Residence Act on July 16, 1790, approved the creation of a capital district located along the Potomac River on the country's East Coast. The U. S. Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the U. S. Congress, the District is therefore not a part of any state; the states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, which included the pre-existing settlements of Georgetown and Alexandria.
The City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. In 1846, Congress returned the land ceded by Virginia. Washington had an estimated population of 702,455 as of July 2018, making it the 20th most populous city in the United States. Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the city's daytime population to more than one million during the workweek. Washington's metropolitan area, the country's sixth largest, had a 2017 estimated population of 6.2 million residents. All three branches of the U. S. federal government are centered in the District: Congress and the U. S. Supreme Court. Washington is home to many national monuments, museums situated on or around the National Mall; the city hosts 177 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of many international organizations, trade unions, non-profit, lobbying groups, professional associations, including the World Bank Group, the International Monetary Fund, the Organization of American States, AARP, the National Geographic Society, the Human Rights Campaign, the International Finance Corporation, the American Red Cross.
A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the District since 1973. However, Congress may overturn local laws. D. C. residents elect a non-voting, at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives, but the District has no representation in the Senate. The District receives three electoral votes in presidential elections as permitted by the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961. Various tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Piscataway people inhabited the lands around the Potomac River when Europeans first visited the area in the early 17th century. One group known as the Nacotchtank maintained settlements around the Anacostia River within the present-day District of Columbia. Conflicts with European colonists and neighboring tribes forced the relocation of the Piscataway people, some of whom established a new settlement in 1699 near Point of Rocks, Maryland. In his Federalist No. 43, published January 23, 1788, James Madison argued that the new federal government would need authority over a national capital to provide for its own maintenance and safety.
Five years earlier, a band of unpaid soldiers besieged Congress while its members were meeting in Philadelphia. Known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, the event emphasized the need for the national government not to rely on any state for its own security. Article One, Section Eight, of the Constitution permits the establishment of a "District as may, by cession of particular states, the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States". However, the Constitution does not specify a location for the capital. In what is now known as the Compromise of 1790, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson came to an agreement that the federal government would pay each state's remaining Revolutionary War debts in exchange for establishing the new national capital in the southern United States. On July 9, 1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River; the exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, who signed the bill into law on July 16.
Formed from land donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles on each side, totaling 100 square miles. Two pre-existing settlements were included in the territory: the port of Georgetown, founded in 1751, the city of Alexandria, founded in 1749. During 1791–92, Andrew Ellicott and several assistants, including a free African American astronomer named Benjamin Banneker, surveyed the borders of the federal district and placed boundary stones at every mile point. Many of the stones are still standing. A new federal city was constructed on the north bank of the Potomac, to the east of Georgetown. On September 9, 1791, the three commissioners overseeing the capital's construction named the city in honor of President Washington; the federal district was named Columbia, a poetic name for the United States in use at that time. Congress held its first session in Washington on November 17, 1800. Congress passed the District of Columbia Organic Act of 1801 that organized the District and placed the entire territory under the exclusive control of the federal
Rafael Edward Cruz is an American politician and attorney serving as the junior United States Senator for Texas since 2013. He was the runner-up for the Republican nomination for President of the United States in the 2016 election. Cruz holds degrees from Harvard Law School. From 1999 to 2003, he held various government positions, serving as Director of the Office of Policy Planning at the Federal Trade Commission, as an Associate Deputy Attorney General at the United States Department of Justice, as a Domestic Policy Advisor to George W. Bush during Bush's 2000 presidential campaign. Cruz served as Solicitor General of Texas from 2003 to 2008, having been appointed by Texas Attorney General and Governor Greg Abbott, he was the longest-serving solicitor general in Texas history and the first Hispanic American to serve in that capacity. From 2004 to 2009, Cruz was an adjunct professor at the University of Texas School of Law in Austin, where he taught U. S. Supreme Court litigation. In 2012, Cruz ran for and won the U.
S. Senate seat being vacated by fellow Republican Kay Bailey Hutchison, he is the first Hispanic American to serve as a U. S. Senator from Texas. In 2016, Cruz ran for President of the United States, winning Republican contests in 12 states before withdrawing from the race, he was reelected to the Senate in 2018, defeating Democratic challenger Beto O'Rourke by a slim margin of 50.9% to 48.3% in the most expensive Senate race in U. S. history. Along with Bob Menendez and Marco Rubio, Cruz is one of three current U. S. Senators of Cuban descent. Cruz was born Rafael Edward Cruz on December 22, 1970, at Foothills Medical Centre in Calgary, Alberta, to Eleanor Elizabeth Wilson and Rafael Cruz. Eleanor Wilson was born in Delaware, she is of three-quarters Irish and one-quarter Italian descent, earned an undergraduate degree in mathematics from Rice University in the 1950s. Cruz's father was raised in Cuba, he left in 1957 to attend the University of Texas at Austin and obtained political asylum in the U.
S. after his four-year student visa expired. He earned Canadian citizenship in 1973 and became a naturalized U. S. citizen in 2005. At the time of his birth, Ted Cruz's parents had lived in Calgary for three years and were working in the oil business as owners of a seismic-data processing firm for oil drilling. Cruz has said that he is the son of "two mathematicians/computer programmers." In 1974, Cruz's father moved to Texas. That year, Cruz's parents reconciled and relocated the family to Houston, they divorced in 1997. Cruz has two older half-sisters, Miriam Ceferina Cruz and Roxana Lourdes Cruz, from his father's first marriage. Miriam died in 2011. Cruz attended two private high schools: Faith West Academy, near Texas. During high school, Cruz participated in a Houston-based group known at the time as the Free Market Education Foundation, a program that taught high school students the philosophies of economists such as Milton Friedman and Frédéric Bastiat. Cruz graduated cum laude from Princeton University in 1992 with a Bachelor of Arts in public policy from the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs.
While at Princeton, he competed for the American Whig-Cliosophic Society's Debate Panel and won the top speaker award at both the 1992 U. S. National Debating Championship and the 1992 North American Debating Championship. In 1992, he was named U. S. National Speaker of the Year and, with his debate partner David Panton, Team of the Year by the American Parliamentary Debate Association. Cruz and Panton represented Harvard Law School at the 1995 World Debating Championship, losing in the semifinals to a team from Australia. Princeton's debate team named their annual novice championship after Cruz. Cruz's senior thesis at Princeton investigated the separation of powers. Cruz argued that the drafters of the Constitution intended to protect their constituents' rights, that the last two items in the Bill of Rights offer an explicit stop against an all-powerful state. After graduating from Princeton, Cruz attended Harvard Law School, graduating magna cum laude in 1995 with a Juris Doctor degree. While at Harvard Law, he was a primary editor of the Harvard Law Review, an executive editor of the Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy, a founding editor of the Harvard Latino Law Review.
Referring to Cruz's time as a student at Harvard Law, Professor Alan Dershowitz said, "Cruz was off-the-charts brilliant". At Harvard Law, Cruz was a John M. Olin Fellow in Economics. Cruz serves on the Board of Advisors of the Texas Review of Politics. Cruz served as a law clerk to J. Michael Luttig of the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit in 1995 and to William Rehnquist, Chief Justice of the United States, in 1996, he was the first Hispanic to clerk for a Chief Justice of the United States. After Cruz finished his clerkships, he took a position with Cooper, Carvin & Rosenthal, now known as Cooper & Kirk, PLLC, from 1997 to 1998. At the firm, Cruz worked on matters relating to the National Rifle Association and helped prepare testimony for the impeachment proceedings against President Bill Clinton. In 1998, Cruz was one of the attorneys who represented Representative John Boehner during his litigation against Representative Jim McDermott over the alleged leak of an illegal recording of a phone conversation whose participants included Boehner.
Cruz joined the George W. Bush presidential campaign in 1999 as a domes
James S. Robbins
James S. Robbins is an American commentary writer for USA Today and Senior Fellow for National Security Affairs on the American Foreign Policy Council, he is the award-winning former Senior Editorial Writer for Foreign Affairs at the Washington Times, an author, political commentator and professor, with an expertise in national security, foreign and military affairs. He served as special assistant in the Office of the Secretary of Defense, his books include The Real Custer: from Boy General to Tragic Hero, Native Americans: Patriotism and the New American Identity, This Time We Win: Revisiting the Tet Offensive and Last in Their Class: Custer and the Goats of West Point. He is a political commentator and contributing editor for National Review Online. Robbins was born in 1962, he earned master's degrees in political science from the University of Cincinnati. He received a Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy and Ph. D. from The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University in Medford, Massachusetts.
Robbins taught at The Fletcher School, Boston University, Marine Corps University, National Defense University, other schools. Robbins served in the federal government for ten years, including as special assistant to the Undersecretary of Defense for Policy in the Office of the Secretary of Defense. In 2001, Robbins was a professor of International Relations at the National Defense University. In 2007, Robbins was appointed Director of the Intelligence Community Center at Trinity Washington University. In 2008, he was selected as Program Chair of the Master of Arts in International Security Studies at Trinity Washington. In 2009, Robbins was appointed Senior Editorial Writer for Foreign Affairs at the Washington Times, where he worked until November 2012. From April to August 2013, Robbins served as Deputy Editor of Rare, a conservative web site, part of the Cox Media Group. In 2013 Robbins is a US News contributor as well. In addition to writing three books, he has written frequent articles for the National Review, the Washington Times, a variety of other publications, including The Wall Street Journal, USA Today, The Baltimore Sun, The Boston Herald.
He is a frequent commentator on national and international radio. Robbins is Senior Fellow in National Security Affairs at the American Foreign Policy Council, he serves on the Advisory Board of the National Civil War Museum. The Real Custer: from Boy General to Tragic Hero. Regnery History. 2014. ISBN 9781621572367. OCLC 881162657. Native Americans: Patriotism and the New American Identity. Encounter Books. 2013. ISBN 9781594036101. OCLC 744288922; this Time We Win: Revisiting the Tet Offensive. Encounter Books. 2010. ISBN 9781594032295. OCLC 473655738. Last in Their Class: Custer and the Goats of West Point. Encounter Books. 2006. ISBN 1594031428. OCLC 62895798. “Afghanistan: Back To Basics,” in The Journal of International Security Affairs no. 15, Fall 2008, pp. 79–88. “Custer: The Goat at West Point and at War,” in Custer and His Times: Book Five, John P. Hart, LaGrange Park, IL: Little Big Horn Associates. “Dangerous Deterrence,” in Taking on Tehran: Strategies for Confronting the Islamic Republic, Ilan Berman, Washington: Rowman & Littlefield.
“Insurgent Seizure of an Urban Area: Grozny, 1996,” in Countering Terrorism and Insurgency in the 21st Century: International Perspectives, Volume III, James J. F. Forest, McGraw Hill. “Battlefronts in the War of Ideas,” in Countering Terrorism and Insurgency in the 21st Century: International Perspectives, Volume I, James J. F. Forest, McGraw Hill. “Iraq,” in Flashpoints in the War on Terrorism, Derek Reveron, New York: Routledge Publishers. “Contemporary Operational-Level War Fighting” – a review of Nicholas E. Reynolds, Basrah and Beyond: The U. S. Marine Corps in the Second Iraq War, Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 2005, in the Naval War College Review, Spring 2006, Vol. 59, No. 2, pp. 157–161. “Soft Targets: Hard Choices,” in Homeland Security: Protecting America’s Targets, James J. F. Forest, Westport, CT: Praeger Security International. "Al-Qaeda Versus Democracy," Journal of International Security Affairs No. 9. “Terrorism, the Media, Homeland Security,” in Homeland Security: Controlling the New Security Environment, Howard and Forest, Guilford, CT: McGraw Hill Publishers.
“Defeating Networked Terrorism,” in Defeating Terrorism: Shaping the New Security Environment and Sawyer, Guilford, CT: McGraw Hill Publishers. “Central Command: Tip of the Spear” in America’s Viceroys: The Military and U. S. Foreign Policy, Derek Reveron, New York: Palgrave Macmillan Publishers. “Bin Laden’s War,” in Terrorism and Counterterrorism: Understanding the New Security Environment and Sawyer, Guilford, CT: McGraw Hill Publishers. Robbins is the recipient of the 2010 Maryland-Delaware-D. C. Press Association first place award for editorial writing. In 2011, he was awarded the Washington Times Excellence in Achievement award. In 2007, he was awarded the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Joint Meritorious Civilian Service Award. In 2001, he was awarded the U. S. Department of State, Secretary’s Open Forum Distinguished Public Service Award. Washington Times, Author archive. National Review, Author archive. USA Today, Author archive. Robbins discusses Last in Their Class: Custer and the Goats of West Point at the Pritzker Military Museum & Library Appearances on C-SPAN
The Atlanta Journal-Constitution
The Atlanta Journal-Constitution is the only major daily newspaper in the metropolitan area of Atlanta, United States. It is the flagship publication of Cox Enterprises; the Atlanta Journal-Constitution is the result of the merger between The Atlanta Journal and The Atlanta Constitution. The two staffs were combined in 1982. Separate publication of the morning Constitution and afternoon Journal ended in 2001 in favor of a single morning paper under the Journal-Constitution name; the AJC has its headquarters in the Atlanta suburb of Georgia. It is co-owned with television flagship WSB-TV and six radio stations, which are located separately in midtown Atlanta. Past issues of the newspaper are archived in the United States Library of Congress; the Atlanta Journal was established in 1883. Founder E. F. Hoge sold the paper to Atlanta lawyer Hoke Smith in 1887. After the Journal supported Presidential candidate Grover Cleveland in the 1892 election, Smith was named as Secretary of the Interior by the victorious Cleveland.
Pulitzer Prize-winning novelist Margaret Mitchell worked for the Journal from 1922 to 1926. Important for the development of her 1936 Gone With the Wind were the series of profiles of prominent Georgia Civil War generals she wrote for The Atlanta Journal's Sunday magazine, the research for which, scholars believe, led her to her work on the novel. In 1922, the Journal founded one of the first radio broadcasting stations in the South, WSB; the radio station and the newspaper were sold in 1939 to James Middleton Cox, founder of what would become Cox Enterprises. The Journal carried the motto "Covers Dixie like the Dew". In 1868, Carey Wentworth Styles, along with his joint venture partners James Anderson and William Hemphill purchased a small newspaper, the Atlanta Daily Opinion which they re-named; the Constitution, as it was known, was first published on June 16, 1868. Its name changed to The Atlanta Constitution in October 1869. Hemphill became the business manager, a position that he retained until 1901.
When Styles was unable to liquidate his holdings in an Albany newspaper, he could not pay for his purchase of the Constitution. He was forced to surrender his interest in the paper to Anderson and Hemphill, who each owned one half. In 1870 Anderson sold his one half interest in the paper to Col. E. Y. Clarke. In active competition with other Atlanta newspapers, Hemphill hired special trains to deliver newspapers to the Macon marketplace; the newspaper became such a force that by 1871 it had overwhelmed the Daily Intelligencer, the only Atlanta paper to survive the American Civil War. In August 1875 its name changed to The Atlanta Daily Constitution for two weeks to The Constitution again for about a year. In 1876 Captain Evan Howell purchased the 50 percent interest in the paper from E. Y. Clarke, became its editor-in-chief; that same year, Joel Chandler Harris began writing for the paper. He soon created the character of Uncle Remus, a black storyteller, as a way of recounting stories from African-American culture.
The Howell family would own full interest in the paper from 1902 until 1950. In October 1876 the newspaper was renamed as The Daily Constitution, before settling on the name The Atlanta Constitution in September 1881. During the 1880s, editor Henry W. Grady was a spokesman for the "New South", encouraging industrial development as well as the founding of Georgia Tech in Atlanta. Evan Howell's family would come to own The Atlanta Constitution from 1902 to 1950; the Constitution established one of the first radio broadcasting stations, WGM, which began operating on March 17, 1922, two days after the debut of the Journal's WSB. However, WGM ceased operations after just over a year, its equipment was donated to what was known as Georgia School of Technology, which used it to help launch WBBF in January 1924. In late 1947, the Constitution established radio station WCON. Subsequently, it received approval to begin operating an FM station, WCON-FM 98.5 mHz, a TV station, WCON-TV, on channel 2. But the 1950 merger with the Journal required major adjustments.
Contemporary Federal Communications Commission "duopoly" regulations disallowed owning more than one AM, FM or TV station in a given market, the Atlanta Journal owned WSB AM 750 and WSB-FM 104.5, as well as WSB-TV on channel 8. In order to comply with the duopoly restrictions, WCON and the original WSB-FM were shut down; the WCON-TV construction permit was canceled, WSB-TV was allowed to move from channel 8 to channel 2. In addition, in order to standardize with its sister stations, WCON-FM's call letters were changed to WSB-FM. Ralph McGill, editor for the Constitution in the 1940s, was one of the few southern newspaper editors to support the American Civil Rights Movement. Other noteworthy editors of The Atlanta Constitution include J. Reginald Murphy. "Reg" Murphy gained notoriety after being kidnapped in 1974. Murphy moved to the West Coast and served as editor of the San Francisco Examiner. From the 1970s until his death in 1994, Lewis Grizzard was a popular humor columnist for the Constitution.
He portrayed Southern "redneck" culture with a mixture of respect. The Constitution won numerous Pulitzer Prizes. In 1931 it won a Pulitzer Prize for Public Service for exposing corruption at the local level. In 1959, The Constitution won a Pulitzer Prize for Editorial Writing for Ralph McGill's editorial "A Church, A School....". In 1967 it was awarded another Pulitzer Prize for Eugene Patterson's editorials. In 1960, Jack Nelson won the Pulitzer Prize for local reporting, by exposing abuses at Milledgeville Stat
Grover Glenn Norquist is an American political advocate, founder and president of Americans for Tax Reform, an organization that opposes all tax increases. A Republican, he is the primary promoter of the "Taxpayer Protection Pledge", a pledge signed by lawmakers who agree to oppose increases in marginal income tax rates for individuals and businesses, as well as net reductions or eliminations of deductions and credits without a matching reduced tax rate. Prior to the November 2012 election, the pledge was signed by 95% of all Republican members of Congress and all but one of the candidates running for the 2012 Republican presidential nomination. Norquist grew up in Massachusetts, he is the son of Carol and Warren Elliott Norquist, is of Swedish ancestry. His brother, David Norquist has served in senior posts in Republican administrations at both the United States Department of Defense and the United States Department of Homeland Security. Norquist became involved with politics at an early age when he volunteered for the 1968 Nixon campaign, assisting with get out the vote efforts.
He graduated from Weston High School and enrolled at Harvard University in 1974, where he earned his A. B. and M. B. A. degrees. At college, Norquist was an editor at the Harvard Crimson and helped to publish the libertarian-leaning Harvard Chronicle, he was a member of the Hasty Pudding Theatricals. Norquist has said: "When I became 21, I decided that nobody learned anything about politics after the age of 21." He attended the Leadership Institute in Arlington, Virginia, an organization that teaches conservative Americans how to influence public policy through activism and leadership. Early in his career, Norquist was executive director of both the National Taxpayers Union and the national College Republicans, holding both positions until 1983, he served as Economist and Chief Speechwriter at the U. S. Chamber of Commerce from 1983 to 1984. Norquist traveled to several war zones to help support anti-Soviet guerrilla armies in the second half of the 1980s, he worked with a support network for Oliver North's efforts with the Nicaraguan Contras and other insurgencies, in addition to promoting U.
S. support for groups including Mozambique's RENAMO and Jonas Savimbi's UNITA in Angola and helping to organize anti-Soviet forces in Laos. In 1985, he went to a conference in South Africa sponsored by South African businesses called the "Youth for Freedom Conference", which sought to bring American and South African conservatives together to end the anti-apartheid movement. Norquist represented the France-Albert Rene government of The Seychelles as a lobbyist from 1995 until 1999. Norquist's efforts were the subject of Tucker Carlson's 1997 article in The New Republic, "What I sold at the revolution." Norquist is best known for founding Americans for Tax Reform in 1985, which he says was done at the request of then-President Ronald Reagan. Referring to Norquist's activities as head of ATR, Steve Kroft, in a 60 Minutes episode that aired on November 20, 2011, claimed that "Norquist has been responsible, more than anyone else, for rewriting the dogma of the Republican Party."The primary policy goal of Americans for Tax Reform is to reduce government revenues as a percentage of the GDP.
ATR states that it "opposes all tax increases as a matter of principle." Americans for Tax Reform has supported Taxpayer Bill of Rights legislation and transparency initiatives, while opposing cap-and-trade legislation and efforts to regulate health care. In 1993, Norquist launched his Wednesday Meeting series at ATR headquarters to help fight President Clinton's healthcare plan; the meeting became one of the most significant institutions in American conservative political organizing. The meetings have been called "a must-attend event for Republican operatives fortunate enough to get an invitation", "the Grand Central station of the conservative movement." Medvetz argues that the meetings have been significant in "establishing relations of... exchange" among conservative subgroups and "sustaining a moral community of conservative activists."As a nonprofit organization, Americans for Tax Reform is not required to disclose the identity of its contributors. Critics, such as Sen. Alan Simpson, have asked Norquist to disclose his contributors.
According to CBS News, "a significant portion appears to come from wealthy individuals and corporate interests." Prior to the November 2012 election, 238 of 242 House Republicans and 41 out of 47 Senate Republicans had signed ATR's "Taxpayer Protection Pledge", in which the pledger promises to "oppose any and all efforts to increase the marginal income tax rate for individuals and business. According to journalist Alex Seitz-Wald, losses in the election by Norquist supporters and the "fiscal cliff" have emboldened and made more vocal critics of Norquist. In November 2011, Senate Majority leader Harry Reid blamed Norquist's influence for the Joint Select Committee on Deficit Reduction's lack of progress, claiming that Congressional Republicans "are being led like puppets by Grover Norquist. They're giving speeches that we should compromise on our deficit, but never do they compromise on Grover Norquist, he is their leader." Since Norquist's pledge binds