A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from musical form and musical style, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Academics have argued that categorizing music by genre is inaccurate and outdated. Music can be divided into different genres in many different ways; the artistic nature of music means that these classifications are subjective and controversial, some genres may overlap. There are varying academic definitions of the term genre itself. In his book Form in Tonal Music, Douglass M. Green distinguishes between form, he lists madrigal, canzona and dance as examples of genres from the Renaissance period. To further clarify the meaning of genre, Green writes, "Beethoven's Op. 61 and Mendelssohn's Op. 64 are identical in genre – both are violin concertos – but different in form. However, Mozart's Rondo for Piano, K. 511, the Agnus Dei from his Mass, K. 317 are quite different in genre but happen to be similar in form."
Some, like Peter van der Merwe, treat the terms genre and style as the same, saying that genre should be defined as pieces of music that share a certain style or "basic musical language." Others, such as Allan F. Moore, state that genre and style are two separate terms, that secondary characteristics such as subject matter can differentiate between genres. A music genre or subgenre may be defined by the musical techniques, the style, the cultural context, the content and spirit of the themes. Geographical origin is sometimes used to identify a music genre, though a single geographical category will include a wide variety of subgenres. Timothy Laurie argues that since the early 1980s, "genre has graduated from being a subset of popular music studies to being an ubiquitous framework for constituting and evaluating musical research objects". Among the criteria used to classify musical genres are the trichotomy of art and traditional musics. Alternatively, music can be divided on three variables: arousal and depth.
Arousal reflects the energy level of the music. These three variables help explain why many people like similar songs from different traditionally segregated genres. Musicologists have sometimes classified music according to a trichotomic distinction such as Philip Tagg's "axiomatic triangle consisting of'folk','art' and'popular' musics", he explains that each of these three is distinguishable from the others according to certain criteria. The term art music refers to classical traditions, including both contemporary and historical classical music forms. Art music exists in many parts of the world, it emphasizes formal styles that invite technical and detailed deconstruction and criticism, demand focused attention from the listener. In Western practice, art music is considered a written musical tradition, preserved in some form of music notation rather than being transmitted orally, by rote, or in recordings, as popular and traditional music are. Most western art music has been written down using the standard forms of music notation that evolved in Europe, beginning well before the Renaissance and reaching its maturity in the Romantic period.
The identity of a "work" or "piece" of art music is defined by the notated version rather than by a particular performance, is associated with the composer rather than the performer. This is so in the case of western classical music. Art music may include certain forms of jazz, though some feel that jazz is a form of popular music. Sacred Christian music forms an important part of the classical music tradition and repertoire, but can be considered to have an identity of its own; the term popular music refers to any musical style accessible to the general public and disseminated by the mass media. Musicologist and popular music specialist Philip Tagg defined the notion in the light of sociocultural and economical aspects: Popular music, unlike art music, is conceived for mass distribution to large and socioculturally heterogeneous groups of listeners and distributed in non-written form, only possible in an industrial monetary economy where it becomes a commodity and in capitalist societies, subject to the laws of'free' enterprise... it should ideally sell as much as possible.
Popular music is found on most commercial and public service radio stations, in most commercial music retailers and department stores, in movie and television soundtracks. It is noted on the Billboard charts and, in addition to singer-songwriters and composers, it involves music producers more than other genres do; the distinction between classical and popular music has sometimes been blurred in marginal areas such as minimalist music and light classics. Background music for films/movies draws on both traditions. In this respect, music is like fiction, which draws a distinction between literary fiction and popular fiction, not always precise. Country music known as country and western, hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s; the polka is a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particular
A jam band is a musical group whose live albums and concerts relate to a fan culture that began in the 1960s with the Grateful Dead, continued with The Allman Brothers Band, Phish which had lengthy jams at concerts. The performances of these bands feature extended musical improvisation over rhythmic grooves and chord patterns, long sets of music that can cross genre boundaries; the Grateful Dead continued to grow their fanbase in the second half of the 1980s. In the mid-1980s, the bands Phish, Edie Brickell & New Bohemians, Blues Traveler, Ozric Tentacles, Widespread Panic, Bela Fleck and the Flecktones, Spin Doctors, The String Cheese Incident, Col Bruce Hampton and Aquarium Rescue Unit began touring with jam band-style concerts. In the early 1990s and 2000s, a new generation of bands was spurred on by the Grateful Dead's touring and the increased exposure of The Black Crowes, My Morning Jacket, Dave Matthews Band, Widespread Panic and Aquarium Rescue Unit. Many of today's jam bands have brought varied genres into the scene.
A jam band festival may include bands with electronic, folk rock, blues rock, jazz fusion, psychedelic rock, Southern rock, progressive rock, acid jazz, hip hop, hard rock, bluegrass sounds. The electronic trend has been led by such bands as The Disco Biscuits, Sound Tribe Sector 9, Lotus, EOTO, The New Deal, Dopapod. Bands like moe. Umphrey's McGee, Assembly of Dust, The Heavy Pets and The Breakfast have carried on the classic rock sound mixed with exploratory jams. Members of the Grateful Dead have continued touring in many different configurations as The Dead, Bob Weir & Ratdog, Phil Lesh and Friends, 7 Walkers and Dead & Company; the contemporary jam scene has grown to encompass bands from a great diversity of musical genres. While the seminal group the Grateful Dead are categorized as psychedelic rock, by the 1990s the term "jam band" was being used for groups playing a variety of rock-related genres, including blues, country music, folk music, funk. Today the term includes some groups outside rock, such as those playing world music, electronic music, progressive bluegrass, jazz fusion.
By the late 1990s, the types of jam bands had so grown. Although today the term may be used to describe nearly any cross-genre band, festival band, or improvisational band, the term retains an affinity to the fan culture inspired by the Grateful Dead and carried on by the likes of Phish; some artists such as The Derek Trucks Band are known for resisting the jam band label. A feature of the jam band scene is fan taping or digital recording of live concerts. While many other styles of music term fan taping as "illegal bootlegging", jam bands allow their fans to make tapes or recordings of their live shows. Fans trade recordings and collect recordings of different live shows because improvisational jam bands play their songs differently at each performance. By the 2000s, as internet downloading of MP3 music files became common, downloading of jam band songs became an extension of the cassette taping trend. Bands are distributing their shows online, sometimes within days or hours. In the 1980s, the Grateful Dead's fan base included a large core group which followed their tours from show to show.
These fans developed a sense of loyalty. In the 1990s, the band Phish began to attract this fan base; the term "jam band" was first used regarding Phish culture in the 1990s. In 1998 Dean Budnick wrote the first book devoted to the subject, entitled Jam Bands, he founded Jambands.com that year and he is credited with coining the term. However, in his second book on the subject, 2004's Jambands: A Complete Guide to the Players, Music & Scene, he explains that he only popularized it. Rolling Stone magazine asserted in a 2004 biography that Phish "was the living, noodling definition of the term" jam band, in that it became a "cultural phenomenon, followed across the country from summer shed to summer shed by thousands of new-generation hippies and hacky-sack enthusiasts, spawning a new wave of bands oriented around group improvisation and super-extended grooves." Another term for "jam band music" used in the 1990s was "Bay Rock". It was coined by the founder of Relix magazine, Les Kippel, as a reference to the 1960s San Francisco Bay Area music scene, which included the Grateful Dead, Jefferson Airplane and Moby Grape, among many others.
By the late 1990s, the types of jam bands had grown so that the term became quite broad, as exemplified by the definition written by Dean Budnick, which appeared in the program for the first annual Jammy Awards in 2000. Although in 2007 the term may have been used to describe nearly any cross-genre band, festival band, or improvisational band, the term retains an affinity to Grateful Dead-like bands such as Phish. Andy Gadiel, the initial webmaster of Jambands.com, who went on to found JamBase, states in Budnick's 2004 edition of Jambands that the music "...had a link that would not only unite bands themselves but a large community around them." By the late 1990s use of the term jam band became used retroactively in jam band circles for bands such as Cream who for decades were categorized as a "power-trio" and "psychedelic rock" and who when active were unrelated to the Grateful Dead---but whose live concerts featured several extended collective improvisations. In his October 2000 column on the subject for jambands.com, Dan Greenhaus attempted to explain the evolution of a jam band as such: "At this point, what you sing about, what instruments you play, how you tour and how old you are has become irrelevant.
A record producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performer's music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album. A producer has varying roles during the recording process, they may gather musical ideas for the project, collaborate with the artists to select cover tunes or original songs by the artist/group, work with artists and help them to improve their songs, lyrics or arrangements. A producer may also: Select session musicians to play rhythm section accompaniment parts or solos Co-write Propose changes to the song arrangements Coach the singers and musicians in the studioThe producer supervises the entire process from preproduction, through to the sound recording and mixing stages, and, in some cases, all the way to the audio mastering stage; the producer may perform these roles themselves, or help select the engineer, provide suggestions to the engineer. The producer may pay session musicians and engineers and ensure that the entire project is completed within the record label's budget.
A record producer or music producer has a broad role in overseeing and managing the recording and production of a band or performer's music. A producer has many roles that may include, but are not limited to, gathering ideas for the project, composing the music for the project, selecting songs or session musicians, proposing changes to the song arrangements, coaching the artist and musicians in the studio, controlling the recording sessions, supervising the entire process through audio mixing and, in some cases, to the audio mastering stage. Producers often take on a wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for the budget, schedules and negotiations. Writer Chris Deville explains it, "Sometimes a producer functions like a creative consultant — someone who helps a band achieve a certain aesthetic, or who comes up with the perfect violin part to complement the vocal melody, or who insists that a chorus should be a bridge. Other times a producer will build a complete piece of music from the ground up and present the finished product to a vocalist, like Metro Boomin supplying Future with readymade beats or Jack Antonoff letting Taylor Swift add lyrics and melody to an otherwise-finished “Out Of The Woods.”The artist of an album may not be a record producer or music producer for his/her album.
While both contribute creatively, the official credit of "record producer" may depend on the record contract. Christina Aguilera, for example, did not receive record producer credits until many albums into her career. In the 2010s, the producer role is sometimes divided among up to three different individuals: executive producer, vocal producer and music producer. An executive producer oversees project finances, a vocal producers oversees the vocal production, a music producer oversees the creative process of recording and mixings; the music producer is often a competent arranger, musician or songwriter who can bring fresh ideas to a project. As well as making any songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the producer selects and/or collaborates with the mixing engineer, who takes the raw recorded tracks and edits and modifies them with hardware and software tools to create a stereo or surround sound "mix" of all the individual voices sounds and instruments, in turn given further adjustment by a mastering engineer for the various distribution media.
The producer oversees the recording engineer who concentrates on the technical aspects of recording. Noted producer Phil Ek described his role as "the person who creatively guides or directs the process of making a record", like a director would a movie. Indeed, in Bollywood music, the designation is music director; the music producer's job is to create and mold a piece of music. The scope of responsibility may be one or two songs or an artist's entire album – in which case the producer will develop an overall vision for the album and how the various songs may interrelate. At the beginning of record industry, the producer role was technically limited to record, in one shot, artists performing live; the immediate predecessors to record producers were the artists and repertoire executives of the late 1920s and 1930s who oversaw the "pop" product and led session orchestras. That was the case of Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Records and Bob Haring at Brunswick Records.
By the end of the 1930s, the first professional recording studios not owned by the major companies were established separating the roles of A&R man and producer, although it wouldn't be until the late 1940s when the term "producer" became used in the industry. The role of producers changed progressively over the 1960s due to technology; the development of multitrack recording caused a major change in the recording process. Before multitracking, all the elements of a song had to be performed simultaneously. All of these singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large studio where the performance was recorded. With multitrack recording, the "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment parts such as the bassline and rhythm guitar could be recorded first, the vocals and solos could be added using as many "takes" as necessary, it was no longer necessary to get all the players in the studio at the same time. A pop band could record their backing tracks one week, a horn section could be brought in a week to add horn shots and punches, a string section could be brought in a week after that.
Multitrack recording had another pro
Psychedelic rock is a diverse style of rock music inspired, influenced, or representative of psychedelic culture, centred around perception-altering hallucinogenic drugs. The music is intended to replicate and enhance the mind-altering experiences of psychedelic drugs, most notably LSD. Many psychedelic groups differ in style, the label is applied spuriously. Originating in the mid-1960s among British and American musicians, the sounds of psychedelic rock invokes three core effects of LSD: depersonalization and dynamization. Musically, the effects may be represented via novelty studio tricks, electronic or non-Western instrumentation, disjunctive song structures, extended instrumental segments; some of the earlier 1960s psychedelic rock musicians were based in folk and the blues, while others showcased an explicit Indian classical influence called "raga rock". In the 1960s, there existed two main variants of the genre: the whimsical British pop-psychedelia and the harder American West Coast acid rock.
While "acid rock" is sometimes deployed interchangeably with the term "psychedelic rock", it refers more to the heavier and more extreme ends of the genre. The peak years of psychedelic rock were between 1966 and 1969, with milestone events including the 1967 Summer of Love and the 1969 Woodstock Rock Festival, becoming an international musical movement associated with a widespread counterculture before beginning a decline as changing attitudes, the loss of some key individuals and a back-to-basics movement, led surviving performers to move into new musical areas; the genre bridged the transition from early blues and folk-based rock to progressive rock and hard rock, as a result contributed to the development of sub-genres such as heavy metal. Since the late 1970s it has been revived in various forms of neo-psychedelia; as a musical style, psychedelic rock attempted to replicate the effects of and enhance the mind-altering experiences of hallucinogenic drugs, incorporating new electronic sound effects and recording effects, extended solos, improvisation.
Common features include: electric guitars used with feedback, wah wah and fuzzbox effects units. The term "psychedelic" was coined in 1956 by psychiatrist Humphry Osmond first as an alternative descriptor for hallucinogenic drugs in the context of psychedelic psychotherapy; as the countercultural scene developed in San Francisco, the terms acid rock and psychedelic rock were used in 1966 to describe the new drug-influenced music and were being used by 1967. The terms psychedelic rock and acid rock are used interchangeably, but acid rock may be distinguished as a more extreme variation, heavier, relied on long jams, focused more directly on LSD, made greater use of distortion. In the popular music of the early 1960s, it was common for producers and engineers to experiment with musical form, unnatural reverb, other sound effects; some of the best known examples are Phil Spector's Wall of Sound production formula and Joe Meek's use of homemade electronics for acts like the Tornados. XTC's Andy Partridge interprets the music of psychedelic groups as a "grown-up" version of children's novelty records, believing that many acts were trying to emulate those records that they grew up with.
There was no transition to be made. You go from things like'Flying Purple People Eater' to'I Am the Walrus', they go hand-in-hand." Music critic Richie Unterberger says that attempts to "pin down" the first psychedelic record are therefore "nearly as elusive as trying to name the first rock & roll record". Some of the "far-fetched claims" include the instrumental "Telstar" and the Dave Clark Five's "massively reverb-laden" "Any Way You Want It"; the first mention of LSD on a rock record was the Gamblers' 1960 surf instrumental "LSD 25". A 1962 single by The Ventures, "The 2000 Pound Bee", issued forth the buzz of a distorted, "fuzztone" guitar, the quest into "the possibilities of heavy, transistorised distortion" and other effects, like improved reverb and echo began in earnest on London's fertile rock'n' roll scene. By 1964 fuzztone could be heard on singles by P. J. Proby, the Beatles had employed feedback in "I Feel Fine", their 6th consecutive No. 1 hit in the UK. American folk singer Bob Dylan was a massive influence on mid 1960s rock music.
He led directly to the creation of folk rock and the psychedelic rock musicians that followed, his lyrics were a touchstone for the psychedelic songwriters of the late 1960s. Virtuoso sitarist Ravi Shankar had begun in 1956 a mission to bring Indian classical music to the West, inspiring jazz and folk musicians.
Jerome John Garcia was an American singer-songwriter and guitarist, best known for his work as the lead guitarist and as a vocalist with the band Grateful Dead, which came to prominence during the counterculture era in the 1960s. Although he disavowed the role, Garcia was viewed by many as the leader or "spokesman" of the group. One of its founders, Garcia performed with the Grateful Dead for their entire 30-year career. Garcia founded and participated in a variety of side projects, including the Saunders–Garcia Band, the Jerry Garcia Band, Old & In the Way, the Garcia/Grisman acoustic duo, Legion of Mary, the New Riders of the Purple Sage, he released several solo albums, contributed to a number of albums by other artists over the years as a session musician. He was well known for his distinctive guitar playing, was ranked 13th in Rolling Stone's "100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time" cover story in 2003. Garcia was renowned for his musical and technical ability his ability to play a variety of instruments, his ability to sustain long improvisations with The Grateful Dead.
Garcia believed that improvisation took stress away from his playing and allowed him to make spur of the moment decisions that he would not have made intentionally. In an interview with Rolling Stone, Garcia noted that "my own preferences are for improvisation, for making it up as I go along; the idea of picking, of eliminating possibilities by deciding, that’s difficult for me". Garcia's improvisation techniques were lauded for their ability to span genres, as well as his ability to employ modal guitar playing, he was a proponent of using the Mixolydian mode, a scale which utilised a flattened 7th note. He used various exotic scales and chromatic playing to add exotic flavours to Grateful Dead work on 1975's Blues for Allah Later in life, Garcia was sometimes ill because of his diabetes, in 1986, he went into a diabetic coma that nearly cost him his life. Although his overall health improved somewhat after that, he continued to struggle with obesity and longstanding heroin and cocaine addictions.
He was staying in a California drug rehabilitation facility when he died of a heart attack in August 1995 at the age of 53. Garcia's ancestors on his father's side were from Galicia in northwest Spain, his mother's ancestors were Swedish. He was born in the Excelsior District of San Francisco, California, on August 1, 1942, to Jose Ramon "Joe" Garcia and Ruth Marie "Bobbie" Garcia, herself born in San Francisco, his parents named him after composer Jerome Kern. Jerome John was their second child, preceded by Clifford Ramon "Tiff", born in 1937. Shortly before Clifford's birth, their father and a partner leased a building in downtown San Francisco and turned it into a bar in response to Jose being blackballed from a musicians' union for moonlighting. Garcia was influenced by music at an early age, his father was his mother enjoyed playing the piano. His father's extended family—who had emigrated from Spain in 1919—would sing during reunions. At age four, while the family was vacationing in the Santa Cruz Mountains, two-thirds of Garcia's right middle finger was accidentally cut off.
Garcia and his brother Tiff were chopping wood. Jerry steadied a piece of wood with his finger, but Tiff miscalculated and the axe severed most of Jerry's middle finger. After his mother wrapped his hand in a towel, Garcia's father drove him over 30 miles to the nearest hospital. A few weeks Garcia — who had not looked at his finger since the accident — was surprised to discover most of it missing when the bandage he was wearing came off during a bath. Garcia confided that he used it to his advantage in his youth, showing it off to other children in his neighborhood. Less than a year after he lost most of his finger, his father died. Vacationing with his family near Arcata in Northern California in 1947, Garcia's father went fly fishing in the Trinity River, part of the Six Rivers National Forest. Not long after entering the river, Garcia's father slipped on a rock, lost his balance and was swept away by the river's rapids, he drowned. Although Garcia claimed he saw his father fall into the river, Dennis McNally, author of the book A Long Strange Trip: The Inside Story of the Grateful Dead, argues Garcia formed the memory after hearing others repeat the story.
Blair Jackson, who wrote Garcia: An American Life, lends weight to McNally's claim. Jackson's evidence was that a local newspaper article describing Jose's death failed to mention Jerry was present when he died. Following the accident, Garcia's mother took over her husband's bar, buying out his partner for full ownership; as a result, Ruth Garcia began working full-time, sending Jerry and his brother to live nearby with her parents and William Clifford. During the five-year period in which he lived with his grandparents, Garcia enjoyed a large amount of autonomy and attended Monroe Elementary School. At the school, Garcia was encouraged in his artistic abilities by his third grade teacher: through her, he discovered that "being a creative person was a viable possibility in life." According to Garcia, it was around this time that he was opened up to country and to bluegrass by his grandmother, whom he recalled enjoyed listening to the Grand Ole Opry. His elder brother, however, staunchly believed the contrary, insisting that Garcia was "fantasizing all... she'd been to Opry, b
Bill Wyman is an English musician, record producer and singer. He was the bass guitarist for the English rock and roll band the Rolling Stones from 1962 until 1993. Since 1997 he has recorded and toured with his own band, Bill Wyman's Rhythm Kings, he has worked producing records and films, has scored music for film in movies and television. Wyman has kept a journal since he was a child after World War II; as an author, he has written seven books. Wyman is a photographer, his works have been displayed in galleries around the world, he became an amateur archaeologist and enjoys metal detecting he designed and marketed a patented "Bill Wyman signature metal detector", which he has used to find relics in the English countryside dating back to the era of the Roman Empire. Wyman was born William George Perks Jr. in Lewisham Hospital in Lewisham, South London, the son of Molly and William Perks, a bricklayer. One of five children, Wyman spent most of his early life living in a terraced house in one of the roughest streets in Penge, southeast London.
He describes his childhood as "scarred by poverty". He attended Beckenham and Penge County Grammar School from 1947 to Easter 1953, leaving before the GCE exams after his father found him a job working for a bookmaker and insisted that he take it. Wyman took piano lessons from age 10 to 13. A year after his marriage on 24 October 1959 to Diane Cory, an 18-year-old bank clerk, he bought a Burns electric guitar for £52 on hire-purchase, but was not satisfied by his progress, he switched to bass guitar after hearing one at a Barron Knights concert. He created a fretless electric bass guitar by filing down or removing the frets on a second hand UK-built Dallas Tuxedo bass and played this in a south London band, the Cliftons, in 1961, he used the stage name Lee Wyman, taking the surname of a friend with whom he had done national service in the Royal Air Force from 1955 to 1957. He changed his surname to Wyman in August 1964; when drummer Tony Chapman told him that a rhythm and blues band called the Rolling Stones needed a bass player, he auditioned and was hired on 7 December 1962 as a successor to Dick Taylor.
The band was impressed by his amplifiers. Wyman was the oldest member of the group. In addition to playing bass, Wyman provided backing vocals on early records, through 1967, in concert as well, he sang lead on the track "In Another Land", on the Their Satanic Majesties Request album and a single. The song is one of two Wyman compositions released by the Rolling Stones; the title "Downtown Suzie" was chosen by their erstwhile manager Allen Klein without consulting Wyman or the band. The original title was "Sweet Lisle Lucy", named after Lisle Street, a street in the red light district in Soho, London. Wyman has kept a journal throughout his life, beginning when he was a child, used it in writing his 1990 autobiography Stone Alone and his 2002 book Rolling with the Stones. In Stone Alone, Wyman claims to have composed the riff of "Jumpin' Jack Flash" with Brian Jones and drummer Charlie Watts. Wyman mentions that " Satisfaction" was released as a single only after a 3–2 vote within the band: Wyman and Jones voted for and Keith Richards against, feeling it not sufficiently commercial.
In the 1970s and early 1980s he made three solo albums, none commercially successful but all well received by critics. In July 1981 his " Je Suis un Rock Star" became a top-20 hit in many countries. Wyman played on The London Howlin' Wolf Sessions, released 1971, with Howlin' Wolf, Eric Clapton, Charlie Watts and Stevie Winwood, on the album Jamming with Edward, released in 1972, with Ry Cooder, Nicky Hopkins and Watts. In 1981 Wyman composed the soundtrack album Green Ice for the Ryan O'Neal/Omar Sharif film of the same name. In the mid-1980s he composed music for two films by Italian director Dario Argento: Phenomena and Terror at the Opera. In 1985, he was approached by producers working on a movie based on the Vietnam War, who asked him to provide the theme tune, he completed a demo cover version of the 1969 song "Spirit in the Sky" and sent it off to them for review. The producers' feedback was positive, but they soon ran out of money and had to scrap the project; the demo tape was lost, but on an audio CD included with Bill Wyman's Scrapbook in 2013, he says that "somebody out there must have heard it because four months – in the June of that year – Doctor and the Medics appeared with the release of their version of that song which went to number one for three weeks.
A coincidence perhaps? Still, such is life."He made a cameo appearance in the 1987 film Eat the Rich. He played on a few albums of the group Tucky Buzzard. Wyman was close to Brian Jones, he and Jones hung out together when Jones was distancing himself from the band. Wyman was distraught when he heard the news of Jones' death, being one of two members besides Watts to attend Jones' funeral in July 1969. Wyman was friends with guitarist Mick Taylor. Like the other Rolling Stones, he has worked with Taylor since Taylor's departure from the band in 1974. After the Rolling Stones' 1989–90 Steel Wheels/Urban Jungle Tours, Wyman left the group; the Rolling Stones have continued to tour with Darryl Jones on bass. On 24 October 2012, the Stones announced that Wyman and Mick Taylor were expected to join th
Sir Michael Philip Jagger is an English singer, songwriter and film producer who gained fame as the lead singer and one of the founder members of the Rolling Stones. Jagger's career has spanned over five decades, he has been described as "one of the most popular and influential frontmen in the history of rock & roll", his distinctive voice and energetic live performances, along with Keith Richards' guitar style have been the trademark of the Rolling Stones throughout the band's career. Jagger gained press notoriety for his admitted drug use and romantic involvements, was portrayed as a countercultural figure. Jagger grew up in Dartford, Kent, he studied at the London School of Economics before abandoning his academic career to join the Rolling Stones. Jagger has written most of the Rolling Stones' songs together with Richards, they continue to collaborate musically. In the late 1960s, Jagger began acting in films, to a mixed reception, he began a solo career in 1985, releasing his first album, She's the Boss, joined the electric supergroup SuperHeavy in 2009.
Relationships with the Stones' members Richards, deteriorated during the 1980s, but Jagger has always found more success with the band than with his solo and side projects. In 1989, Jagger was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, in 2004 into the UK Music Hall of Fame with the Rolling Stones; as member of the Stones, as solo artist, he reached number one on the UK and US singles charts with 13 singles, the Top 10 with 32 singles and the Top 40 with 70 singles. In 2003, he was knighted for his services to popular music. Jagger has been married once, has had several other relationships. Jagger has eight children with five women, he has five grandchildren, became a great-grandfather on 19 May 2014, when his granddaughter Assisi gave birth to daughter Ezra Key. Jagger's net worth has been estimated at $360 million. Michael Philip Jagger was born into a middle-class family in Kent, his father, Basil Fanshawe "Joe" Jagger, grandfather, David Ernest Jagger, were both teachers. His mother, Eva Ensley Mary, born in Sydney, Australia, of English descent, was a hairdresser and an active member of the Conservative Party.
Jagger's younger brother, Chris, is a musician. The two have performed together. Although brought up to follow his father's career path, Jagger "was always a singer" as he stated in According to the Rolling Stones. "I always sang as a child. I was one of those kids; some kids sing in choirs. I was in the church choir and I loved listening to singers on the radio–the BBC or Radio Luxembourg–or watching them on TV and in the movies."In September 1950, Keith Richards and Jagger were classmates at Wentworth Primary School, Dartford. In 1954, Jagger passed the eleven-plus and went to Dartford Grammar School, which now has the Mick Jagger Centre, named after its most famous alumnus, installed within the school's site. Jagger and Richards lost contact with each other when they went to different schools, but after a chance encounter on platform two at Dartford railway station in July 1960, resumed their friendship and discovered their shared love of rhythm and blues, which for Jagger had begun with Little Richard.
Jagger left school in 1961 after passing three A-levels. With Richards, he moved into a flat in Edith Grove, London, with guitarist Brian Jones. While Richards and Jones planned to start their own rhythm and blues group, Blues Incorporated, Jagger continued to study business on a government grant as an undergraduate student at the London School of Economics, had considered becoming either a journalist or a politician, comparing the latter to a pop star. Brian Jones, using the name Elmo Lewis, began working at the Ealing Club — where a "loosely knit version" of Blues Incorporated began with Richards. Jagger began to jam with the group becoming featured singer. Soon, Richards and Jagger began to practise on their own, laying the foundation for what would become The Rolling Stones. In their earliest days, the Rolling Stones played for no money in the interval of Alexis Korner's gigs at a basement club opposite Ealing Broadway tube station. At the time, the group had little equipment and needed to borrow Korner's gear to play.
The group's first appearance, under the name the Rollin' Stones, was at the Marquee Club, a jazz club, in London on 12 July 1962. They would change their name to "the Rolling Stones" as it seemed more formal. Victor Bockris states that the band members included Jagger, Keith Richards, Brian Jones, Ian Stewart on piano, Dick Taylor on bass and Tony Chapman on drums. However, Richards states in his memoir Life that "The drummer that night was Mick Avory−not Tony Chapman, as history has mysteriously handed it down..." By autumn 1963, Jagger had left the London School of Economics in favour of his promising musical career with the Rolling Stones. The group continued to play songs by American rhythm and blues artists such as Chuck Berry and Bo Diddley, but with the strong encouragement of manager Andrew Loog Oldham and Richards soon began to write their own songs; this core songwriting partnership took some time to develop. For the Rolling Stones, the duo would write "The Last Time", the group's third No. 1 single in the UK (their first two UK No. 1