Arabic is a Central Semitic language that was first spoken in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. Arabic is the language of 1.7 billion Muslims. It is one of six languages of the United Nations. The modern written language is derived from the language of the Quran and it is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic, which is the language of 26 states. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the standards of Quranic Arabic. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-Quranic era, Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics. As a result, many European languages have borrowed many words from it. Many words of Arabic origin are found in ancient languages like Latin.
Balkan languages, including Greek, have acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has borrowed words from languages including Greek and Persian in medieval times. Arabic is a Central Semitic language, closely related to the Northwest Semitic languages, the Ancient South Arabian languages, the Semitic languages changed a great deal between Proto-Semitic and the establishment of the Central Semitic languages, particularly in grammar. Innovations of the Central Semitic languages—all maintained in Arabic—include, The conversion of the suffix-conjugated stative formation into a past tense, the conversion of the prefix-conjugated preterite-tense formation into a present tense. The elimination of other prefix-conjugated mood/aspect forms in favor of new moods formed by endings attached to the prefix-conjugation forms, the development of an internal passive. These features are evidence of descent from a hypothetical ancestor. In the southwest, various Central Semitic languages both belonging to and outside of the Ancient South Arabian family were spoken and it is believed that the ancestors of the Modern South Arabian languages were spoken in southern Arabia at this time.
To the north, in the oases of northern Hijaz and Taymanitic held some prestige as inscriptional languages, in Najd and parts of western Arabia, a language known to scholars as Thamudic C is attested
It ended when metal tools became widespread. The Neolithic is a progression of behavioral and cultural characteristics and changes, including the use of wild and domestic crops, the beginning of the Neolithic culture is considered to be in the Levant about 10, 200–8800 BC. It developed directly from the Epipaleolithic Natufian culture in the region, whose people pioneered the use of wild cereals, which evolved into true farming. The Natufian period was between 12,000 and 10,200 BC, and the so-called proto-Neolithic is now included in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic between 10,200 and 8800 BC. By 10, 200–8800 BC, farming communities arose in the Levant and spread to Asia Minor, North Africa, Mesopotamia is the site of the earliest developments of the Neolithic Revolution from around 10,000 BC. Early Neolithic farming was limited to a range of plants, both wild and domesticated, which included einkorn wheat and spelt, and the keeping of dogs, sheep. By about 6900–6400 BC, it included domesticated cattle and pigs, the establishment of permanently or seasonally inhabited settlements, not all of these cultural elements characteristic of the Neolithic appeared everywhere in the same order, the earliest farming societies in the Near East did not use pottery.
Early Japanese societies and other East Asian cultures used pottery before developing agriculture, unlike the Paleolithic, when more than one human species existed, only one human species reached the Neolithic. The term Neolithic derives from the Greek νέος néos, new and λίθος líthos, the term was invented by Sir John Lubbock in 1865 as a refinement of the three-age system. In the Middle East, cultures identified as Neolithic began appearing in the 10th millennium BC, early development occurred in the Levant and from there spread eastwards and westwards. Neolithic cultures are attested in southeastern Anatolia and northern Mesopotamia by around 8000 BC. The total excavated area is more than 1,200 square yards, the Neolithic 1 period began roughly 10,000 years ago in the Levant. A temple area in southeastern Turkey at Göbekli Tepe dated around 9500 BC may be regarded as the beginning of the period. This site was developed by nomadic tribes, evidenced by the lack of permanent housing in the vicinity.
At least seven stone circles, covering 25 acres, contain limestone pillars carved with animals, Stone tools were used by perhaps as many as hundreds of people to create the pillars, which might have supported roofs. Other early PPNA sites dating to around 9500–9000 BC have been found in Jericho, Gilgal in the Jordan Valley, the start of Neolithic 1 overlaps the Tahunian and Heavy Neolithic periods to some degree. The major advance of Neolithic 1 was true farming, in the proto-Neolithic Natufian cultures, wild cereals were harvested, and perhaps early seed selection and re-seeding occurred. The grain was ground into flour, emmer wheat was domesticated, and animals were herded and domesticated
The Beqaa Valley, transliterated as Bekaa, Biqâ and Becaa and known in Classical antiquity as Coele-Syria, is a fertile valley in eastern Lebanon. It is Lebanons most important farming region, industry flourishes in Beqaa, especially that related to agriculture. The Beqaa is located about 30 km east of Beirut, the valley is situated between Mount Lebanon to the west and Anti-Lebanon mountains to the east. It forms the northeasternmost extension of the Great Rift Valley, which stretches from Syria to the Red Sea, Beqaa Valley is 120 kilometres long and an average 16 kilometres wide on average. It has a Mediterranean climate of wet, often snowy winters and dry, the region receives limited rainfall, particularly in the north, because Mount Lebanon creates a rain shadow that blocks precipitation coming from the sea. The northern section has an annual rainfall of 230 millimetres ). Two rivers originate in the valley, the Orontes, which flows north into Syria and Turkey, and the Litani, which flows south and west to the Mediterranean Sea.
From the 1st century BC, when the region was part of the Roman Empire, today the valley makes up 40 percent of Lebanons arable land. The northern end of the valley, with its scarce rainfall and less fertile soils, is used primarily as grazing land by pastoral nomads, farther south, more fertile soils support crops of wheat, corn and vegetables, with vineyards and orchards centered on Zahlé. The valley produces hashish and cultivates opium poppies, which are exported as part of the drug trade. Since 1957 the Litani hydroelectricity project—a series of canals and a dam located at Lake Qaraoun in the end of the valley—has improved irrigation to farms in Beqaa Valley. Zahlé is the largest city and the capital of the Beqaa Governorate. It lies just north of the main Beirut–Damascus highway, which bisects the valley, the majority of Zahlés residents are Lebanese Christian, including those who are Melkite Greek Catholic, Maronite Catholic, and Greek Orthodox Christians. The town of Anjar, situated in the part of the valley, has a predominately Armenian Lebanese population and is famous for its 8th-century Arab ruins.
The majority of the inhabitants of the districts of Beqaa and Hermel, are Lebanese Shia, with the exception of the town of Deir el Ahmar. The Baalbeck and Hermel districts have a Christian and Sunni minority, the western and southern districts of the valley have a mixed population of Muslims and Druze. The town of Jib Janine with a population of about 9,000, is situated midway in the valley, Jib Janine is the governmental center of the region known as Western Beqaa, with municipal services like the emergency medical services, a fire department, and a courthouse. Other towns in the Western Beqaa district are Machghara, Kamed al Lawz, Qab Elias and these towns are all a mix of different Lebanese religious confessions
Maqne or Maakne is a town and municipality in Baalbek District, Baalbek-Hermel Governorate, Lebanon. Along with Qaa, Maqne I or Maakne I is a site of the Shepherd Neolithic industry. The surface site was discovered in 1957 by M. Billaux, findings were published by Fleisch in 1966. The site is located 1 kilometre south of the town, east of the road leads from Baalbek to Homs. The Shepherd Neolithic assemblage found resembled that collected from Qaa and was spread over an area of consolidated Neogene alluvial conglomerates. Lorraine Copeland commented that the industry could be found in no particular concentration around an area of the northern Beqaa valley. M. Billaux observed that the worked Shepherd Neolithic flints were of far superior quality than the brittle, unworkable flint conglomerates in the area and he suggested that these flints were imported onto the Beqaa plains from somewhere else. It was thirdly characterized by a lack of known typology, with occasional use of Levallois technique.
It was determined to be than the Mesolithic but without any usual forms from the Upper Paleolithic or pottery Neolithic. Henri Fleisch tentatively suggested the industry to be Epipaleolithic and suggested it may have used by nomadic shepherds. The Shepherd Neolithic has largely ignored and understudied following the outbreak of the Lebanese civil war. Tell Maqne or Tell Maakne is located in a cemetery 200 metres east of the road between El Ain and Baalbek. It is a mound of soil on top of a cliff that overlooks a ravine of the north Nahle that can be accessed by a road to the east of the village. The tell was found by Lorraine Copeland in the August 1966, various groups of pottery were found dispersed and broken up around the area. A collection of Early Bronze Age sherds was made that included chevrons, another type of pottery found was a thin and brown washed type considered similar to the Smeared Wash type found by Robert John Braidwood at Amuq. Fragments of inverted-rim platters were discovered with a reddish black burnish, other sherds were found with a vibrant red or orange burnish that had small, round handles.
Another group of pottery found was of a rough type, made with chaff-holes and large. Other pottery found indicated Roman and occupations, Maurice Tallon did not consider that the tumuli to be found on the nearby plains was prehistoric
The capital of Baalbek-Hermel Governorate, Baalbek has a population of approximately 82,608, mostly Shia Muslims, followed by Sunni Muslims and a minority of Christians. It is reckoned a stronghold of the Shia Hezbollah movement and it is home to the annual Baalbeck International Festival. Heliopolis is the latinisation of the Greek Hēlioúpolis, meaning Sun City in reference to the solar cult there and it is the earlier attested of the two names, appearing under the Seleucids and Ptolemies. Ammianus Marcellinus, does note that earlier Assyrian names of Levantine towns continued to be used alongside the official Greek ones imposed by the successors of Alexander, in Greek religion, Helios was both the sun in the sky and its personification as a god. It was sometimes described as Heliopolis in Syria or Coelesyria to distinguish it from its namesake in Egypt, in Catholicism, its titular see is distinguished as Heliopolis in Phoenicia, from its former Roman province Phoenice. The importance of the cult is attested in the name Biḳāʿ al-ʿAzīz borne by the plateau surrounding Baalbek, as it references an earlier solar deity and not men.
In Greek and Roman antiquity, it was known as Heliopolis and it still possesses some of the best-preserved Roman ruins in Lebanon, including one of the largest temples of the empire. The gods that were worshipped there were equivalents of the Canaanite deities Hadad, local influences are seen in the planning and layout of the temples, as they vary from the classic Roman design. The name BʿLBK is first attested in two early 5th-century Syriac manuscripts, a c. 411 translation of Eusebiuss Theophania and a c. 435 life of Rabbula and it was pronounced as Baʿlabakka or Baʿlabakku in Classical Arabic. In Modern Standard Arabic, its vowels are marked as Baʿlabak or Baʿlabekk or Bʿalbik, the half ring ⟨ ʿ ⟩ or apostrophe ⟨ ⟩ in these romanisations marks the words pharyngeal stop. The etymology of Baalbek has been debated indecisively since the 18th century, cook took it to mean Lord of the Beka and Donne as City of the Sun. Lendering asserts that it is probably a contraction of Baʿal Nebeq, steiner proposes a Semitic adaption of Lord Bacchus, from the classical temple complex.
The hilltop of Tell Baalbek, part of a valley to the east of the northern Beqaa Valley and it was well-watered both from a stream running from the Rās-el-ʿAin spring SE of the citadel and, during the spring, from numerous rills formed by meltwater from the Anti-Lebanons. Macrobius credited the foundation to a colony of Egyptian or Assyrian priests. The settlements religious and strategic importance was minor enough and its enviable position in a fertile valley, major watershed, and along the route from Tyre to Palmyra should have made it a wealthy and splendid site from an early age. During the Canaanite period, the temples were largely devoted to the Heliopolitan Triad, a male god, his consort. The site of the present Temple of Jupiter was probably the focus of worship, as its altar was located at the hills precise summit. Following Alexander the Greats conquest of Persia in the 330s BC and it was annexed by the Romans during their eastern wars
Yammoune is a lake, nature reserve and municipality situated 27 kilometres northwest of Baalbek in Baalbek District, Baalbek-Hermel Governorate, Lebanon. The village has a few hundred inhabitants, there are the ruins of a Phoenico-Greco-Roman temple in the village that are included in a grouping of Temples of the Beqaa Valley. It is said to be dedicated to Astarte or Venus, part of two enclosure walls and the temple foundations remain intact. Inscriptions, written in Latin were found at the temple site, Ancient Greek inscriptions were found. It is considered likely to be of Phoenician origin, ernest Renan visited the site and discovered sections of a frieze and parts of pediment attributed to the temple. A partly broken cockle shell with a figure of a goddess with outstretched arms was found recently during ploughing by a tractor. The ancient name of Yammoune is not known however some have suggested that it was once the location of a Festival of Adonis, the temple is situated on a hill, approximately 300 metres from the main spring in the area, the Naba al-Arbain.
It lies next to the lake where it is considered ancient worshippers took pilgrimage from the temple at Afqa to purify themselves in the temple waters. Michael Alouf found a statue of Adonis in the temple, carrying an ear of corn in one hand and a quivver and he stored the statue at a museum he founded in the ruins of Baalbek. Alouf found a Roman road measuring 200 metres, located 2 kilometres southeast of the lake and he found another square building measuring approximately 12 square metres next to this road. The building was constructed of stones and an Ancient Greek inscription was found inside. He considered it an ancient guardhouse or watchtower for protection of travellers and he suggested that oracles were consulted at the temple in connection with Queen Zenobia, who legend tells, sent offerings to the goddess by placing them on the lake. If the offerings sunk to the floor of the lake, the goddess had accepted them, if the offerings floated, they had been rejected and gave a bad omen to Palmyra and the surrounding lands.
The village lies on the Yammoune Fault line, a geological fault responsible for several historical earthquakes in the area, a new section of the fault was discovered in 2010 by Ata Elias of the American University of Beirut. They studied samples from a trench in Marjahine that will allow them to improve dating on historical earthquakes, Lake Yammoune is home to Lebanons only endemic fish, Pseudophoxinus libani. In Phoenician Mythology, the goddess Astarte turned herself into a fish in Yammoune lake to escape from the vengeance of Adoniss wrathful brother Typhon. The lake is filled from a cavern to the west of the temple has only one outflow, through a big hole. The valley of Ouyoun Ergush leads from Yammoune towards Marjhine, a network of rock-cut irrigation channels and watercourses lead from Lake Yammoune to provide irrigation for the region of the Beqaa Valley around Baalbek
Lebanon, officially known as the Lebanese Republic, is a sovereign state in Western Asia. It is bordered by Syria to the north and east and Israel to the south, Lebanons location at the crossroads of the Mediterranean Basin and the Arabian hinterland facilitated its rich history and shaped a cultural identity of religious and ethnic diversity. At just 10,452 km2, it is the smallest recognized country on the entire mainland Asian continent, the earliest evidence of civilization in Lebanon dates back more than seven thousand years, predating recorded history. Lebanon was the home of the Canaanites/Phoenicians and their kingdoms, a culture that flourished for over a thousand years. In 64 BC, the region came under the rule of the Roman Empire, in the Mount Lebanon range a monastic tradition known as the Maronite Church was established. As the Arab Muslims conquered the region, the Maronites held onto their religion, however, a new religious group, the Druze, established themselves in Mount Lebanon as well, generating a religious divide that has lasted for centuries.
During the Crusades, the Maronites re-established contact with the Roman Catholic Church, the ties they established with the Latins have influenced the region into the modern era. The region eventually was ruled by the Ottoman Empire from 1516 to 1918, following the collapse of the empire after World War I, the five provinces that constitute modern Lebanon came under the French Mandate of Lebanon. The French expanded the borders of the Mount Lebanon Governorate, which was populated by Maronites and Druze. Lebanon gained independence in 1943, establishing confessionalism, a unique, foreign troops withdrew completely from Lebanon on 31 December 1946. Lebanon has been a member of the Organisation internationale de la francophonie since 1973, despite its small size, the country has developed a well-known culture and has been highly influential in the Arab world. Before the Lebanese Civil War, the experienced a period of relative calm and renowned prosperity, driven by tourism, commerce. At the end of the war, there were efforts to revive the economy.
In spite of troubles, Lebanon has the highest Human Development Index and GDP per capita in the Arab world. The name of Mount Lebanon originates from the Phoenician root lbn meaning white, occurrences of the name have been found in different Middle Bronze Age texts from the library of Ebla, and three of the twelve tablets of the Epic of Gilgamesh. The name is recorded in Ancient Egyptian as Rmnn, where R stood for Canaanite L, the name occurs nearly 70 times in the Hebrew Bible, as לְבָנוֹן. The borders of contemporary Lebanon are a product of the Treaty of Sèvres of 1920 and its territory was the core of the Bronze Age Phoenician city-states. After the 7th-century Muslim conquest of the Levant, it was part of the Rashidun, Abbasid Seljuk, with the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, Greater Lebanon fell under French mandate in 1920, and gained independence under president Bechara El Khoury in 1943
Ain Aata, Ain Ata, Ain Ata or Ayn Aata is a village and municipality situated southwest of Rashaya,99 kilometres south-east of Beirut, in the Rashaya District of the Beqaa Governorate in Lebanon. The name is thought to mean gift spring, there is a remarkably cold spring in the area. Eusebius in his work Onomasticon, placed it 9 miles from Dora, beth-Anath has been translated to mean temple of Anat, a canaanite goddess linked to a Sumerian predecessor called Ninhursag. Recent epigraphic surveys have confirmed the ruins of a Roman temple and columns of a ruined temple complex in the woods near the village were recorded by William McClure Thomson, who thought them to have once been called Kubrikha. He remarked that the neighborhood is crowded with ancient but deserted sites
Archaeology of Lebanon
Archaeology of Lebanon reveals thousands of years of history ranging from the Lower Palaeolithic, Jewish, Muslim, Christian and Crusades history. Lebanon features several important Paleolithic sites associated with Neanderthals and these include Adloun, Chekka Jdidé, El-Masloukh, Ksar Akil, Nahr Ibrahim and Naame. Jbail is a archaeological site, known as ancient Byblos, a Phoenician seaport, where the tomb of Ahiram. An ancient Phoenician inscription on the dates to between the 13th and 10th centuries BCE. Byblos, as well as sites in Baalbek, Sidon. Middle paleolithic industries suggested include Amudian, early Yabrudian, Micro-Levalloisian or Micro-Mousterian, Levalloisian and Levalloiso-Mousterian, radio-carbon dating exists for Ksar Akil and Ras El Kelb. R. Neuville and Dorothy Garrod divided the Upper Paleolithic of Lebanon into six stages based on stratified sites in the surrounding area, stage one has Emirian and transitional varieties, stage two was possibly evidenced at Ksar Akil. Stages three and four have been termed Lower and Upper Antelian after the Antelias cave, stage five is Atlitian, possibly developed from stage four.
Stage six is identified as Kebaran, of which there are varieties of assemblage based on locality. Several early Neolithic sites were found by Diana Kirkbride in the Beqaa Valley in 1964, the Neolithic of Lebanon was divided up into three stages by Maurice Dunand based on the stratified levels of Byblos. Various other Neolithic industries have found in Lebanon such as Trihedral Neolithic. Henri Fleisch discovered and termed the Shepherd Neolithic flint industry from the Bekaa Valley in Lebanon and he dated this industry to the Epipaleolithic or Pre-Pottery Neolithic as it is evidently not Paleolithic, Mesolithic or even Pottery Neolithic. One particularly vigorous culture identified at over forty sites by Jesuit archaeologists in Lebanon is called the Qaraoun culture. This culture existed at the dawn of agriculture without pottery and produced Heavy Neolithic flint tools such as axes and picks to work with lumber and their type site is Qaraoun II, located close to the El Wauroun Dam, Mount Hermon and Aaiha.
The Chalcolithic was divided into two periods by Jacques Cauvin based on stratified levels at Byblos, Énéolithique Ancien and Énéolithique Récent, the division is marked largely by differences in pottery more than flints with a few notable exceptions such as fan-scrapers. There are a number of tells in the Beqaa Valley. Another major survey of Lebanese tells was carried out between 1965 and 1966 with 88 tells recorded along with numerous surface sites by Lorraine Copeland, van Liere, G. L. Harding, H. Balfet, Olga Tufnell, Brian Gregor and Ziyad Beydoun. Lebanon contains a range of ruins and remains of Ancient Greek