Garrod was the daughter of the physician Sir Archibald Garrod and was raised at her family home in Melton, Suffolk by a number of governesses. In 1913, she entered Newnham College, Cambridge where she was one of few women students. Garrod left Newnham with a second degree and undertook war work until she was demobilised in 1919. By this time she had lost three brothers and she went to Malta where her father was working and to occupy herself she took an interest in the local antiquities. It was Marett who inspired Garrod to be a prehistorian and she was able to spend two years with the leading French prehistorian Abbé Breuil. Breuil had already visited Gibraltar and he recommended that Garrod investigate Devils Tower Cave which was only 350 metres from Forbes Quarry where a Neanderthal skull had found previously. Devils Tower Cave had been discovered by Breuil on a visit to Gibraltar with William Willoughby Cole Verner. Garrod discovered the important Neanderthal skull now called Gibraltar 2 in this cave the early 1920s, between 1925 and 1926 she excavated in Gibraltar and in 1928 led an expedition through South Kurdistan that led to the excavation of Hazar Merd Cave and Zarzi cave.
A preliminary survey however found not only Natufian deposits but prehistoric art objects, as a consequence, decisions were taken in London that there would not be a quarry and Garrod was requested to undertake further investigations into three caves. Her work was a contribution to the understanding of the prehistoric sequence in the region. She coined the label for the late Epipalaeolithic Natufian culture following her excavations at Es Skhul. The chronological framework established by her excavations in the Levant remain crucial to the present understanding of that prehistoric period and she was based at the RAF Medmenham photographic interpretation unit as a section officer. Dorothy Garrod was the first female professor at Cambridge and it was not until 1947 that full membership for women was granted by Cambridge University. The archaeology writer Brian Fagan stated that Garrod had been a quiet, self-effacing chair and she was unaccustomed to the hierarchy and negotiation style of her senior academic colleagues.
He added that although her reforms within the department were important, Garrod was elected a Fellow of the British Academy in 1952. In 1965, she was awarded the CBE and she felt it was important that archaeologists travel and therefore left money to found the Dorothy Garrod Travel Fund. Ladies of the Field, Early Women Archaeologists and Their Search for Adventure, ISBN 978-1-55365-433-9 Davies and Ruth Charles Dorothy Garrod and the Progress of the Palaeolithic, Studies in the Prehistoric Archaeology of the Near East and Europe Oxford, Oxbow Books. Dorothy Garrod as the First Woman Professor at Cambridge University Antiquity 74, from small and alive to cripplingly shy, Dorothy Garrod as the first woman Professor at Cambridge
It extends from the earliest known use of stone tools, probably by Homo habilis initially,2.6 million years ago, to the end of the Pleistocene around 10,000 BP. The Paleolithic era is followed by the Mesolithic, the date of the Paleolithic–Mesolithic boundary may vary by locality as much as several thousand years. During the Paleolithic period, humans grouped together in small societies such as bands, the Paleolithic is characterized by the use of knapped stone tools, although at the time humans used wood and bone tools. Other organic commodities were adapted for use as tools, including leather and vegetable fibers, due to their nature, surviving artifacts of the Paleolithic era are known as paleoliths. About 50,000 years ago, there was a increase in the diversity of artifacts. For the first time in Africa, bone artifacts and the first art appear in the archaeological record, the first evidence of human fishing is noted, from artifacts in places such as Blombos cave in South Africa. The new technology generated an explosion of modern humans which is believed to have led to the extinction of the Neanderthals.
Humankind gradually evolved from members of the genus Homo—such as Homo habilis. The climate during the Paleolithic consisted of a set of glacial and interglacial periods in which the climate periodically fluctuated between warm and cool temperatures, by c. 50,000 – c. 40,000 BP, the first humans set foot in Australia. By c. 45,000 BP, humans lived at 61°N latitude in Europe, by c. 30,000 BP, Japan was reached, and by c. 27,000 BP humans were present in Siberia, above the Arctic Circle. At the end of the Upper Paleolithic, a group of humans crossed Beringia, the term Paleolithic was coined by archaeologist John Lubbock in 1865. It derives from Greek, παλαιός, old, and λίθος, stone, human evolution is the part of biological evolution concerning the emergence of anatomically modern humans as a distinct species. The Paleolithic Period coincides almost exactly with the Pleistocene epoch of geologic time and this epoch experienced important geographic and climatic changes that affected human societies.
During the preceding Pliocene, continents had continued to drift from possibly as far as 250 km from their present locations to positions only 70 km from their current location. South America became linked to North America through the Isthmus of Panama, most of Central America formed during the Pliocene to connect the continents of North and South America, allowing fauna from these continents to leave their native habitats and colonize new areas. Africas collision with Asia created the Mediterranean Sea, cutting off the remnants of the Tethys Ocean, climates during the Pliocene became cooler and drier, and seasonal, similar to modern climates. The formation of an Arctic ice cap around 3 million years ago is signaled by a shift in oxygen isotope ratios and ice-rafted cobbles in the North Atlantic. Mid-latitude glaciation probably began before the end of the epoch, the global cooling that occurred during the Pliocene may have spurred on the disappearance of forests and the spread of grasslands and savannas
Anjar, known as Haoush Mousa, is a town of Lebanon located in the Bekaa Valley. The population is 2,400, consisting almost entirely of Armenians, the total area is about twenty square kilometers. In the summer, the swells to 3,500. The towns establishment is attributed to the Umayyad caliph al-Walid I at the beginning of the 8th century as a palace-city. After being abandoned in years, Anjar was resettled in 1939 with several thousand Armenian refugees from the Musa Dagh area and its neighborhoods are named after the six villages of Musa Dagh, Haji Habibli, Vakif, Kheder Bek and Bitias. The Syrian Army chose Anjar as one of its military bases in the Beqaa Valley. The majority of Anjars Armenians are Armenian Apostolics who belong to the Armenian Apostolic Church, Armenian Apostolic Saint Paul Church is the second largest Armenian church in Lebanon. The Armenian Apostolic community has its own school, Haratch Calouste Gulbenkian Secondary School, the official opening of the school took place in 1941.
The administration of the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation contributed to the expansion of the school and our Lady of the Rosary Armenian Catholic Church in Anjar serves as church for the Armenian Catholics, who run the Armenian Catholic Sisters School. In the beginning, the school had two divisions, St. Hovsep for the students and Sisters of Immaculate Conception for the female students. In 1954, these departments were united,1973 saw the official opening of the Aghajanian Orphan House, already serving as an Armenian Catholic orphanage since 1968. The Armenian Evangelical Church of Anjar is in operation to serve Anjars small Armenian Evangelical community, the Protestant community school was established in 1948 by Sister Hedwig Aienshanslin as part of her missionary work in Anjar. In 1953, the school, which had become an intermediate school, was promoted into a secondary school. It has day classes as well as boarding facilities for students from other regions who stay there throughout the winter.
Formerly known as Gerrha, a built by Umayyad Caliph Al-Walid ibn Abdel Malek in the 8th century. The present-day name derives from Arabic Ayn Gerrha, or source of Gerrha, the ruins have been recognized as a World Heritage Site. Franco-Armenian relations Bacharach, Jere L. Marwanid Umayyad Building Activities, muqarnas, An Annual on the Visual Culture of the Islamic World. Official Website of Anjar Anjar, Archnet Digital Library, Website about Anjar Lebanon, the Cedars Land, Anjar Ya Libnan | Lebanon News | Spotlight on Anjar Photos of Anjar ruins
Al-Bireh, El Bire, Biré, El Bireh or Birra is a town in the Rashaya District, south-eastern portion of the Bekaa Governorate of the Republic of Lebanon. Al-Bireh is part of the Rashaya municipal district and it lies west of the road between Majdel Anjar and Rashaya. Its population is estimated to be 9000 and it is a small Muslim town with two mosques and two schools. The oldest part of the lies on top of Jabal Arbi Mountains while the newer parts lie in the Wadi al-Taym valley and is referred to as Izza. Neighboring towns include Rafid, Khirbet-Rouha, and Mdouckha, the town is located about 80 km from Beirut and 40 km from Damascus, Syria. From Al-Bireh, Jabal -Al-Sheikh can be seen with its majestic snow-capped peak, more than 60% of the town’s population have emigrated to Brazil, United States, France, Spain and Portugal. Residents of the town have left to the US as early as the 18th Century and have aggregated in cities like Dearborn, many others emigrated to São Paulo, Buenos Aires, Montreal and Calgary, Canada.
The economy of the town relies on agriculture which thrived on the water springs found in Al-Bireh. The town is known for growing olives, almonds and vegetables, the severe emigration has reduced the agriculture activities over the past three decades. Six main families inhabit the town, namely the Elkadri, Jumaa, other families live in the village, however increased emigration has completely dispersed some families and no members are currently residents. Al-Bireh is the birthplace of multiple intellectuals and religious figures, the late Nazim Elkadri was born in Al-Bireh. The Mufti of Bekaa, Sheikh Raouf Elkadri was born in Al-Bireh, the mountain chain upon which Al-Bireh is located is rich with history. Caves dating back to pre-historic times can be all over the mountain. Ruins of other more modern civilizations are still very visible, the locals usually come across artifacts dating back to Phoenician, Byzantine and Canaanite eras. The town was occupied first by PLO forces in the late 1970s, before Israels invasion, the town suffered from Israeli warplane attacks.
In one incident, several houses were bombed and injuring scores of civilians, israel did not provide explanation as to why these were bombed. A Heavy Neolithic archaeological site of the Qaraoun culture was discovered by Auguste Bergy along a south to west track that lead from the road to a small spring, Bergy originally suggested it was a Chellean factory site before the Heavy Neolithic was defined by Henri Fleisch. Lorraine Copeland agreed that it was probably a factory, noting several prepared flakes, the material is now held in the archives of the Saint Joseph University
Iaat is a town and municipality located in the Beqaa Valley of Lebanon mostly famous for its Corinthian column. The column stands at 18 meters it is installed on a 4-step base, the location of the Pillar is 4 miles northwest of the Baalbek ruins, between the towns of Baalbek and Chlifa. At one point a plaque was installed on the side of the monument, however, it has been removed and no other history is known of the column. The column is believed in local legend to be related to St. Helena. George F. Taylor classified it among a group of Temples of the Beqaa Valley, whilst technically not being a temple, Taylor suggested that the column might have been placed where it is as a victory column to mark the site of a great ancient battle. He noted a cartouche on the cylinder of the column. Iaat, Localiban http, //www. lebanon. com/tourism/iaat. htm http, //www. cartage. org. lb/en/lebanon/Mouhafazat/Beqaa/Caza/Baalbeck/iaat. htm Iaat on middleeast. com
Beirut is the capital and largest city of Lebanon. No recent population census has been done but in 2007 estimates ranged from more than 1 million to slightly less than 2 million as part of Greater Beirut. Located on a peninsula at the midpoint of Lebanons Mediterranean coast, Beirut is the countrys largest and it is one of the oldest cities in the world, inhabited more than 5,000 years ago. The first historical mention of Beirut is found in the ancient Egyptian Tell el Amarna letters dating from the 15th century BC, the Beirut River runs south to north on the eastern edge of the city. Beirut is Lebanons seat of government and plays a role in the Lebanese economy, with most banks and corporations based in its Central District, Rue Verdun, Hamra. Following the destructive Lebanese Civil War, Beiruts cultural landscape underwent major reconstruction and graded for accountancy, banking/finance and law, Beirut is ranked as a Beta World City by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network.
In May 2015, Beirut was officially recognized as one of the New7Wonders Cities together with Vigan, Durban, Kuala Lumpur, and La Paz. Beirut I, or Minet el Hosn, was listed as Beyrouth ville by Louis Burkhalter and said to be on the beach near the Orent, the site was discovered by Lortet in 1894 and discussed by Godefroy Zumoffen in 1900. The flint industry from the site was described as Mousterian and is held by the Museum of Fine Arts of Lyon, Beirut II, or Umm el Khatib, was suggested by Burkhalter to have been south of Tarik el Jedideh, where P. E. Gigues discovered a Copper Age flint industry at around 100 metres above sea level, the site had been built on and destroyed by 1948. Beirut III, Furn esh Shebbak or Plateau Tabet, was suggested to have located on the left bank of the Beirut River. Burkhalter suggested that it was west of the Damascus road, although this determination has been criticized by Lorraine Copeland, P. E. Gigues discovered a series of Neolithic flint tools on the surface along with the remains of a structure suggested to be a hut circle.
Auguste Bergy discussed polished axes that were found at this site. The area was covered in red sand that represented Quaternary river terraces, the site was found by Jesuit Father Dillenseger and published by fellow Jesuits Godefroy Zumoffen, Raoul Describes and Auguste Bergy. Collections from the site were made by Bergy and another Jesuit, a large number of Middle Paleolithic flint tools were found on the surface and in side gullies that drain into the river. They included around 50 varied bifaces accredited to the Acheulean period, some with a lustrous sheen, Henri Fleisch found an Emireh point amongst material from the site, which has now disappeared beneath buildings. Levallois flints and bones and similar material were found amongst brecciated deposits. The area has now built on
Aadloun, Adloun or Adlun is a coastal town in South Lebanon,17 kilometres south of Sidon famous for its cultivation of watermelons. It is the site of a Phoenician necropolis and prehistoric caves where four archaeological sites have been discovered and dated to the Stone Age. The evidence of occupation of Abri Zumoffen has been dated as far back as 70,000 BCE with occupation of Bezez Cave dating back even further into the earlier Middle Paleolithic. Aadloun I or Abri Zumoffen is a low cave and terrace at the foot of a cliff near a beach and it was discovered and sounded by Godefroy Zumoffen in 1898,1900 and 1908 who found material thought to be either Acheulean or Mousterian. Dorothy Garrod suggested similarities existed to a final Acheulean industry of Tabun E, along with Diana Kirkbride, she re-opened excavations in 1958 with another season in 1963 and found a pre-Aurignacian blade industry in the deposits. D. A. Hooijer discussed the fauna of the site suggesting it included game animals, materials from the site are now in collections of the Saint Joseph University and the Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge.
Aadloun II, Bezez Cave or Mugharet el Bzaz is a cave on the east of the heading to Tyre set into a cliff at an altitude of approximately 17 metres above sea level. It was first sounded with little result in 1898 by Godefroy Zumoffen, materials from the excavations were to be held by Saint Joseph University and the American University of Beirut. The site is owned by the Directorate General of Antiquities and a gate was fixed over the mouth of the cave for protection, level C was called Acheuleo-Yarbrudian with materials found that resembled level E at Tabun Cave. Level B was called Levalloiso-Mousterian and compared with level D of Tabun, level C encompassed the Upper Paleolithic and onwards. Aadloun III is a site approximately 1 kilometre south of Aadloun with a Chalcolithic industry that was found by P. E. Gigues, Aadloun IV was found by P. E. Gigues on the terraces below the village near the caves that have been damaged by quarrying. Local farmers have recovered several fine Neolithic and Chalcolithic tools from this area that are held by Saint Joseph University, dr.
Gigues collection was held in Beirut by a relative who charged a fee for showing it after his retirement to Morocco. Lorraine Copeland made a collection of mostly Heavy Neolithic flints from the site in 1966, amongst the finds were massive trapezoidal axes, chisels, a chopper, points, a pick, rough scrapers, blades and hammerstones. The finds led Andrew Moore to suggest that Bezez cave was a site for such tools
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral and molluscs. Its major materials are the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate, about 10% of sedimentary rocks are limestones. The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes, most cave systems are through limestone bedrock. The first geologist to distinguish limestone from dolomite was Belsazar Hacquet in 1778, like most other sedimentary rocks, most limestone is composed of grains. Most grains in limestone are skeletal fragments of organisms such as coral or foraminifera. Other carbonate grains comprising limestones are ooids, peloids and these organisms secrete shells made of aragonite or calcite, and leave these shells behind when they die. Limestone often contains variable amounts of silica in the form of chert or siliceous skeletal fragment, some limestones do not consist of grains at all, and are formed completely by the chemical precipitation of calcite or aragonite, i. e. travertine.
Secondary calcite may be deposited by supersaturated meteoric waters and this produces speleothems, such as stalagmites and stalactites. Another form taken by calcite is oolitic limestone, which can be recognized by its granular appearance, the primary source of the calcite in limestone is most commonly marine organisms. Some of these organisms can construct mounds of rock known as reefs, below about 3,000 meters, water pressure and temperature conditions cause the dissolution of calcite to increase nonlinearly, so limestone typically does not form in deeper waters. Limestones may form in lacustrine and evaporite depositional environments, calcite can be dissolved or precipitated by groundwater, depending on several factors, including the water temperature, pH, and dissolved ion concentrations. Calcite exhibits a characteristic called retrograde solubility, in which it becomes less soluble in water as the temperature increases. Impurities will cause limestones to exhibit different colors, especially with weathered surfaces, Limestone may be crystalline, granular, or massive, depending on the method of formation.
Crystals of calcite, dolomite or barite may line small cavities in the rock, when conditions are right for precipitation, calcite forms mineral coatings that cement the existing rock grains together, or it can fill fractures. Travertine is a banded, compact variety of limestone formed along streams, particularly there are waterfalls. Calcium carbonate is deposited where evaporation of the leaves a solution supersaturated with the chemical constituents of calcite. Tufa, a porous or cellular variety of travertine, is found near waterfalls, coquina is a poorly consolidated limestone composed of pieces of coral or shells. During regional metamorphism that occurs during the building process, limestone recrystallizes into marble
The capital of Baalbek-Hermel Governorate, Baalbek has a population of approximately 82,608, mostly Shia Muslims, followed by Sunni Muslims and a minority of Christians. It is reckoned a stronghold of the Shia Hezbollah movement and it is home to the annual Baalbeck International Festival. Heliopolis is the latinisation of the Greek Hēlioúpolis, meaning Sun City in reference to the solar cult there and it is the earlier attested of the two names, appearing under the Seleucids and Ptolemies. Ammianus Marcellinus, does note that earlier Assyrian names of Levantine towns continued to be used alongside the official Greek ones imposed by the successors of Alexander, in Greek religion, Helios was both the sun in the sky and its personification as a god. It was sometimes described as Heliopolis in Syria or Coelesyria to distinguish it from its namesake in Egypt, in Catholicism, its titular see is distinguished as Heliopolis in Phoenicia, from its former Roman province Phoenice. The importance of the cult is attested in the name Biḳāʿ al-ʿAzīz borne by the plateau surrounding Baalbek, as it references an earlier solar deity and not men.
In Greek and Roman antiquity, it was known as Heliopolis and it still possesses some of the best-preserved Roman ruins in Lebanon, including one of the largest temples of the empire. The gods that were worshipped there were equivalents of the Canaanite deities Hadad, local influences are seen in the planning and layout of the temples, as they vary from the classic Roman design. The name BʿLBK is first attested in two early 5th-century Syriac manuscripts, a c. 411 translation of Eusebiuss Theophania and a c. 435 life of Rabbula and it was pronounced as Baʿlabakka or Baʿlabakku in Classical Arabic. In Modern Standard Arabic, its vowels are marked as Baʿlabak or Baʿlabekk or Bʿalbik, the half ring ⟨ ʿ ⟩ or apostrophe ⟨ ⟩ in these romanisations marks the words pharyngeal stop. The etymology of Baalbek has been debated indecisively since the 18th century, cook took it to mean Lord of the Beka and Donne as City of the Sun. Lendering asserts that it is probably a contraction of Baʿal Nebeq, steiner proposes a Semitic adaption of Lord Bacchus, from the classical temple complex.
The hilltop of Tell Baalbek, part of a valley to the east of the northern Beqaa Valley and it was well-watered both from a stream running from the Rās-el-ʿAin spring SE of the citadel and, during the spring, from numerous rills formed by meltwater from the Anti-Lebanons. Macrobius credited the foundation to a colony of Egyptian or Assyrian priests. The settlements religious and strategic importance was minor enough and its enviable position in a fertile valley, major watershed, and along the route from Tyre to Palmyra should have made it a wealthy and splendid site from an early age. During the Canaanite period, the temples were largely devoted to the Heliopolitan Triad, a male god, his consort. The site of the present Temple of Jupiter was probably the focus of worship, as its altar was located at the hills precise summit. Following Alexander the Greats conquest of Persia in the 330s BC and it was annexed by the Romans during their eastern wars