Chants d'Espagne, Op. 232, is a suite of three five pieces for the piano by Isaac Albéniz. Prélude and Sous le palmier were published in 1892, Córdoba and Seguidillas were added in the 1898 edition; this suite, the first three pieces, are referred to by their French names, but some recordings give the titles in Spanish. The Prélude is known under the titles Asturias, titles given to it when it was incorporated into an extended version of Albéniz's Suite española, two years after the composer's death, it is more famous today in one of its guitar arrangements. Many have attributed the first transcription for guitar to Francisco Tárrega who put it in its most recognizable key, E minor; the theme, or versions of it, is used in film music and popular music. Albéniz's biographer, Walter Aaron Clark, describes the piece as "pure Andalusian flamenco" with a main theme that mimics the guitar technique of alternating the thumb and fingers of the right hand, playing a pedal-note open string with the index finger and a bass melody with the thumb.
The theme itself suggests the rhythm of the bulería — a song from the flamenco repertoire. The ‘marcato’/'staccato’ markings suggest both guitar sounds and the footwork of a flamenco dancer; the piece sounds as though it is written in the Phrygian mode, typical of bulerías. The second section is a reminiscent of a copla — a sung verse following a specific form. Clark states that it is written in typical Albéniz form as it is "presented monophonically but doubled at the fifteenth for more fullness of sound; the music alters between a solo and accompaniment, typical of flamenco. The short middle section of the piece is written in the style of a malagueña — another flamenco style piece; the malagueña builds on them. The piece returns to its first theme; this piece too is based on the dances of Andalusia in spite of its Asian name. Opening with a dissonant clash of chords, the Phrygian mode is established quickly, it is reflective. The main theme is based on an octosyllabic copla. Sous le palmier known as Danse espagnole.
As the piece has two names, it has two feelings as it progresses. The gentle swaying of the palm trees coincides with the swaying of the Gypsy tango; when Ericourt describes how the rhythm should be played in these pieces, he writes, "First, the rhythm is to be steady, with beats throughout, but at the same time, give a supple and relaxed languid or voluptuous impression. The'marcato' indication at the beginning means exactness, rather than a rigidity of rhythm; the music must flow uninterruptedly." Ericourt emphasizes the importance of moderation in expression: "Any exaggeration, tonal or otherwise, could bring vulgarity to this composition."At measure 17, the music moves to the parallel minor, a move seen in other pieces by Albéniz. Clark describes the power the shift creates when he writes, " expresses a sadness that we can understand only if we recall the depression that underlay his outward sanguinity." This sadness is touched on sparingly in the biographical works on Albéniz. Córdoba celebrates one of Albéniz's favorite cities.
In the heart of Andalusia, the city of Córdoba is home to Spain's famous "great Mosque". The city is rich in history, both Christian and Moorish, Albéniz captures the mood and feel of both in Córdoba. Clark states that the name of the piece may have been inspired by Albéniz's namesake, St. Isaac of Córdoba, who died defending his faith in this southern Andalusian city; the piece begins with the sound of tolling church bells. The sound of a hymn in dorian mode plays in a faux bourdon style, rhythmically ambiguous so as to resemble liturgical singing; the first section ends in contrasting character, reminiscent of a gusla playing a serenade with a Moorish sound. The second section sounds of flamenco dancers and Spanish folk song rhythms as it mounts to a moving climax. There is a repeat of the first section and a brief coda. Ericourt states, "In view of the multifaceted nature of this piece, it would not be improper to consider this evocative composition a tone poem for the piano." The final piece of the collection is Seguidillas.
A seguidilla is a popular dance form composed from four to seven verses. The form is explained as, "based on strong flamenco rhythms, its seven "verses" are tied together by the similarity of the first three verses, the fact that the 4th and 5th verses begin in the same way as the first three, that the 6th is based on their endings. The seven verses are enclosed by a four-bar introduction, which set the rhythm, a 13-bar Coda which provides a brilliant ending." Exact rhythm is paramount in the performance of this piece to be true to the typical Spanish dance form. Chants d'Espagne demonstrates new harmonies that Albéniz had not shown previously. Clark writes, "The suite represents the furthest advance in Albéniz's Spanish style to date in its seriousness, harmonic richness, formal variety."It was after the composing this suite that Albéniz redirected his compositional energy toward musical drama and theatre. Walter Aaron Clark, Isaac Albéniz: A Guide to Research, Garland Publishing Inc. New York & London, 1998.
Walter Aaron Clark, Isaac Albéniz: Portrait of a Romantic, Oxford University Press, New York 1999. Daniel Ericourt and Robert. P. Erickson, MasterClasses in Spanish Piano Music, Hi
Merle Robert Travis was an American country and western singer and guitarist born in Rosewood, Kentucky. His songs' lyrics discussed both the lives and the economic exploitation of American coal miners. Among his many well-known songs are "Sixteen Tons," "Re-Enlistment Blues," "I am a Pilgrim," and "Dark as a Dungeon." However, it is his unique guitar style, still called Travis Picking by guitarists, as well as his interpretations of the rich musical traditions of his native Muhlenberg County, for which he is best known today. "Travis Picking" is a syncopated style of guitar fingerpicking rooted in ragtime music in which alternating chords and bass notes are plucked by the thumb while melodies are plucked by the index finger. He was inducted into the Nashville Songwriters Hall of Fame in 1970 and elected to the Country Music Hall of Fame in 1977. Merle Travis was born and raised in Muhlenberg County, Kentucky, a place which would inspire many of Travis' original songs.. He became interested in the guitar early in life and played one made by his brother.
Travis saved his money to buy a guitar that he had window-shopped for some time. Merle's guitar playing style was developed out of a native tradition of fingerpicking in western Kentucky. Among its early practitioners was the black country blues guitarist Arnold Shultz. Shultz taught his style to several local musicians, including Kennedy Jones, who passed it on to other guitarists, notably Mose Rager, a part-time barber and coal miner, Ike Everly, the father of The Everly Brothers, their thumb and index fingerpicking method created a solo style that blended lead lines picked by the finger and rhythmic bass patterns picked or strummed by the thumbpick. This technique captivated many guitarists in the region and provided the main inspiration to young Travis. Travis acknowledged his debt to both Rager and Everly, appears with Rager on the DVD Legends of Country Guitar. At the age of 18, Travis performed "Tiger Rag" on a local radio amateur show in Evansville, leading to offers of work with local bands.
In 1937 Travis was hired by fiddler Clayton McMichen as guitarist in his Georgia Wildcats. He joined the Drifting Pioneers, a Chicago-area gospel quartet that moved to WLW radio in Cincinnati, the major country music station north of Nashville. Travis' style amazed everyone at WLW and he became a popular member of their barn dance radio show the "Boone County Jamboree" when it began in 1938, he performed on various weekday programs working with other WLW acts including Louis Marshall "Grandpa" Jones, the Delmore Brothers, Hank Penny and Joe Maphis, all of whom became lifelong friends. In 1943, he and Grandpa Jones recorded for Cincinnati used-record dealer Syd Nathan, who had founded a new label, King Records; because WLW barred their staff musicians from recording and Jones used the pseudonym The Sheppard Brothers. Their recording of "You'll Be Lonesome Too" was the first to be released by King Records, subsequently known for its country recordings by the Delmore Brothers and Stanley Brothers as well as R&B legends Hank Ballard, Wynonie Harris and most notably James Brown.
With World War II and the threat of being drafted, Travis enlisted in the US Marine Corps. His stint as a Marine was brief, he returned to Cincinnati; when the Drifting Pioneers left radio station WLW, leaving a half-hour hole in the schedule that needed filling, Grandpa Jones and the Delmore Brothers formed a gospel group called The Brown's Ferry Four. Performing a repertoire of traditional white and black gospel songs, with Merle singing bass, they became one of the most popular country gospel groups of the time, recording nearly four dozen sides for the King label between 1946 and 1952; the Brown's Ferry Four has been called "possibly the best white gospel group ever."During this period, Travis appeared in several soundies, an early form of music video intended for visual jukeboxes where customers could view as well as hear the popular performers of the day. His first soundie was "Night Train To Memphis" with the band Jimmy Wakely and his Oklahoma Cowboys and Girls, including Johnny Bond and Wesley Tuttle along with Colleen Summers.
His performance of "Why'd I Fall For Abner" with Carolina Cotton was chosen for inclusion in the 2007 PBS documentary Soundies. Several years he recorded a set of Snader Telescriptions, short music videos intended for local television stations needing "filler" programming, his performances included playful duets with his then-wife Judy Hayden as well as several songs from his 1947 album Folk Songs from the Hills. Travis landed bit parts and singing roles in several B westerns, he recorded for small labels there until 1946. Early hits like "Cincinnati Lou", "No Vacancy", "Divorce Me C. O. D. "Sweet Temptation", "So Round, So Firm, So Fully Packed", "Three Times Seven", all his own compositions, gave him national prominence, although they did not all showcase the guitar work that Travis was renowned for among his peers. His design for a solid body electric guitar, built for him by Paul Bigsby with a single row of tuners, is thought to have inspired longtime Travis pal Leo Fender's design of the famous Broadcaster in 1950.
The Travis-Bigsby guitar now resides in the Music Hall of Fame Museum. In 1946, asked to record an album of folk songs, Travis combined traditional songs with several o
The classical guitar is a member of the guitar family used in classical music. An acoustic wooden string instrument with strings made of gut or nylon, it is a precursor of the acoustic and electric guitars which use metal strings; the name guitar comes from Persian language. Tar is the name of an Iranian instrument that could be the primary form of guitar. Classical guitars are derived from the Spanish vihuela and gittern in the fifteenth and sixteenth century, which evolved into the seventeenth and eighteenth century Baroque guitar and the modern classical guitar in the mid nineteenth century. For a right-handed player, the traditional classical guitar has twelve frets clear of the body and is properly held on the left leg, so that the hand that plucks or strums the strings does so near the back of the sound hole; the modern steel string guitar, on the other hand has fourteen frets clear of the body and is played off the hip. The phrase "classical guitar" may refer to either of two concepts other than the instrument itself: the instrumental finger technique common to classical guitar—individual strings plucked with the fingernails or fingertips.
The instrument's classical music repertoireThe term modern classical guitar is sometimes used to distinguish the classical guitar from older forms of guitar, which are in their broadest sense called classical, or more early guitars. Examples of early guitars include the six-string early romantic guitar, the earlier baroque guitars with five courses; the materials and the methods of classical guitar construction may vary, but the typical shape is either modern classical guitar or that historic classical guitar similar to the early romantic guitars of France and Italy. Classical guitar strings once made of gut are now made of such polymers as nylon, with fine wire wound about the acoustically lower strings. A guitar family tree may be identified; the flamenco guitar derives from the modern classical, but has differences in material and sound. Today's modern classical guitar was established by the late designs of the 19th-century Spanish luthier, Antonio Torres Jurado; the classical guitar has a long history and one is able to distinguish various: instruments repertoire Both instrument and repertoire can be viewed from a combination of various perspectives: Historical Baroque guitar – 1600 to 1750 CE Early romantic guitars – 1750 to 1850 CE Modern classical guitarsGeographical Spanish guitars and French guitars, etc.
Cultural Baroque court music, 19th century opera and its influences, 19th century folk songs, Latin American music While "classical guitar" is today associated with the modern classical guitar design, there is an increasing interest in early guitars. The musicologist and author Graham Wade writes: Nowadays it is customary to play this repertoire on reproductions of instruments authentically modelled on concepts of musicological research with appropriate adjustments to techniques and overall interpretation, thus over recent decades we have become accustomed to specialist artists with expertise in the art of vihuela, Baroque guitar, 19th-century guitar, etc. Different types of guitars have different sound aesthetics, e.g. different colour-spectrum characteristics, different response, etc. These differences are due to differences in construction. There is a historical parallel between musical styles and the style of "sound aesthetic" of the musical instruments used, for example: Robert de Visée played a baroque guitar with a different sound aesthetic from the guitars used by Mauro Giuliani and Luigi Legnani – they used 19th century guitars.
These guitars in turn sound different from the Torres models used by Segovia that are suited for interpretations of romantic-modern works such as Moreno Torroba. When considering the guitar from a historical perspective, the musical instrument used is as important as the musical language and style of the particular period; as an example: It is impossible to play a informed de Visee or Corbetta on a modern classical guitar. The reason is that the baroque guitar used courses, which are two strings close together, that are plucked together; this gives baroque guitars an unmistakable sound characteristic and tonal texture, an integral part of an interpretation. Additionally the sound aesthetic of the baroque guitar is different from modern classical type guitars, as is shown below. Today's use of Torres and post-Torres type guitars for repertoire of all periods is sometimes critically viewed: Torres and post-Torres style modern guitars have a thick and strong tone suitable for modern-era repertoire.
However, they are considered to emphasize the fundamental too for earlier repertoire (Classical/Romantic: Carulli, Giuliani, Mertz....
Isaac Manuel Francisco Albéniz y Pascual was a Spanish virtuoso pianist and conductor. He is one of the foremost composers of the Post-Romantic era who had a significant influence on his contemporaries and younger composers, he is best known for his piano works based on Spanish folk music idioms. Transcriptions of many of his pieces, such as Asturias, Sevilla, Cadiz, Córdoba, Cataluña, the Tango in D, are important pieces for classical guitar, though he never composed for the guitar; the personal papers of Albéniz are preserved, among other institutions, in the Biblioteca de Catalunya. Born in Camprodon, province of Girona, to Ángel Albéniz and his wife, Dolors Pascual, Albéniz was a child prodigy who first performed at the age of four. At age seven, after taking lessons from Antoine François Marmontel, he passed the entrance examination for piano at the Conservatoire de Paris, but he was refused admission because he was believed to be too young. By the time he had reached 12, he had made many attempts to run away from home.
His concert career began at the age of nine when his father toured both Isaac and his sister, throughout northern Spain. A popular myth is, he found himself in Cuba to the United States, giving concerts in New York and San Francisco and travelled to Liverpool and Leipzig. By age 15, he had given concerts worldwide; this story is not false, Albéniz did travel the world as a performer. This can be attested by comparing Isaac's concert dates with his father's travel itinerary. In 1876, after a short stay at the Leipzig Conservatory, he went to study at the Royal Conservatory of Brussels after King Alfonso's personal secretary, Guillermo Morphy, obtained him a royal grant. Count Morphy thought of Albéniz, who would dedicate Sevilla to Morphy's wife when it premiered in Paris in January 1886. In 1880 Albéniz went to Budapest, Hungary, to study with Franz Liszt, only to find out that Liszt was in Weimar, Germany. In 1883 he met the teacher and composer Felip Pedrell, who inspired him to write Spanish music such as the Chants d'Espagne.
The first movement of that suite retitled after the composer's death as Asturias, is most famous today as part of the classical guitar repertoire though it was composed for piano. At the 1888 Barcelona Universal Exposition, the piano manufacturer Érard sponsored a series of 20 concerts featuring Albéniz's music; the apex of Albéniz's concert career is considered to be 1889 to 1892 when he had concert tours throughout Europe. During the 1890s Albéniz lived in Paris. For London he wrote some musical comedies which brought him to the attention of the wealthy Francis Money-Coutts, 5th Baron Latymer. Money-Coutts commissioned and provided him with librettos for the opera Henry Clifford and for a projected trilogy of Arthurian operas; the first of these, was thought to have been lost but has been reconstructed and performed. Albéniz never completed Lancelot, he never began Guinevere, the final part. In 1900 he returned to writing piano music. Between 1905 and 1908 he composed his final masterpiece, Iberia, a suite of twelve piano "impressions".
In 1883 the composer married his student Rosina Jordana. They had three children: Blanca and Alfonso. Two other children died in infancy, his great-granddaughter is former wife of Nicolas Sarkozy. Albéniz died from his kidney disease on 18 May 1909 at age 48 in Cambo-les-Bains, in Labourd, south-western France. Only a few weeks before his death, the government of France awarded Albéniz its highest honor, the Grand-Croix de la Légion d'honneur, he is buried at the Montjuïc Barcelona. Albéniz's early works were "salon style" music. Albéniz's first published composition, Marcha Militar, appeared in 1868. A number of works written before this are now lost, he continued composing in traditional styles ranging from Jean-Philippe Rameau, Johann Sebastian Bach, Ludwig van Beethoven, Frédéric Chopin and Franz Liszt until the mid-1880s. He wrote at least five zarzuelas, of which all but two are now lost; the best source on the works is Albéniz himself. He is quoted as commenting on his earlier period works as:There are among them a few things that are not worthless.
The music is a bit infantile, spirited. I believe that the people are right when they continue to be moved by Córdoba, Mallorca, by the copla of the Sevillanas, by the Serenata, Granada. In all of them I now note that there is less musical science, less of the grand idea, but more color, flavor of olives; that music of youth, with its little sins and absurdities that point out the sentimental affectation... appears to me like the carvings in the Alhambra, those peculiar arabesques that say nothing with their turns and shapes, but which are like the air, like the sun, like the blackbirds or like the nightingales of its gardens. They are more valuable than all else of Moorish Spain, which though we may not like it, is the true Spain. During the late 1880s, the strong influence of Spanish sty
Guitar picking is a group of hand and finger techniques a guitarist uses to set guitar strings in motion to produce audible notes. These techniques involve plucking, brushing, etc. Picking can be done with: A pick held in the hand Natural or artificial fingernails, fingertips or finger-mounted plectrums known as fingerpicks A plectrum held between thumb and one finger, supplemented by the free fingers—called hybrid picking. Using a single thumb pick with the bare fingers is similar to hybrid picking. Another mixed technique is to play different passages with a plectrum or fingerstyle, "palming" the plectrum when not in use; the pros of each guitar picking style are indirectly correlated to the cons of the other. A pick isn’t necessary, it is easier to play non-adjacent strings at the same time. It is easier to play polyphonically, with separate musical lines, or separate melody and bass, it is easy to play arpeggios. A simpler motion is required to play notes on non-adjacent strings, it is possible to play chords with no arpeggiation.
There is less need to use the fretting hand to damp notes in chords, since the guitarist can pluck just the required strings. A great variation in strokes is accommodating expressiveness in timbre. A wide variety of strums and rasgueados are possible. Fingerstyle is useful in any genre. Fingerstyle players use up to four surfaces to strike string independently. However, that does not equate to four plectrums, since plectrums can more strike strings on both up and downstrokes—which is much more difficult for fingers. Picks require no maintenance, it involves less multi-tasking. Picking back and forth with a pick is easier. Alternate picking is the most efficient technique. Tremolo effects may be easier to achieve; the guitarist picks the string with less contact. A pick can be louder compared to bare finger playing, it may be easier to maintain clarity when playing fast. Playing on heavier gauge strings can damage un-coated nails: fingerstyle is more suited to nylon strings or lighter gauge steel strings.
To achieve Tremolo effects, varied arpeggios, rapid, fluent scale passages, the player must practice alternation, that is, plucking strings with a different finger each time. Using p to indicate the thumb, i the index finger, m the middle finger and a the ring finger, common alternation patterns include: i-m-i-m Basic melody line on the treble strings. Has the appearance of "walking along the strings". I-m-a-i-m-a Tremolo pattern with a triplet feel p-a-m-i-p-a-m-i A tremolo or apreggio pattern.. P-m-p-m A way of playing a melody line on the lower strings. In some genres, such as folk or country, the player can "lock in" to a picking pattern for the whole song, or the whole performance, since these forms of music are based on maintaining a steady rhythm. However, in other genres—such as classical, flamenco or fingerstyle jazz—it becomes necessary to switch fluently between patterns. Tone production is important in any style. Classical guitar, for example, stresses. Tonal techniques include: Plucking distance from the bridge.
Guitarists control this to change the sound from "soft" plucking the string near its middle, to "hard" plucking the string near the bridge. Use of nail or not. In early music, musicians plucked strings with the fingertips. Today, many guitarists use fingernails. Complex, reliable playing with fingernails requires nails that are filed and shaped. ) Many guitarists have their playing nails reinforced with an acrylic coating. Playing parameters include Finger to use Angle of attack to hold the wrist and fingers at with respect to the strings Rest-stroke or apoyando—the finger that plucks a string rests on the next string—traditionally used in single melody lines—versus free-stroke or tirando, where the string is plucked "in passing" Harmonic effects by, for instance, hitting the top surface of the nail on an upstroke to produce a false harmonic Some of the many possible fingerstyle strums include A slow down stroke sweep with the thumb; this is a sforzando or emphatic way of playing a chord. Light "brushing" strokes with the fingers moving together at a near-perpendicular angle to the strings.
This works in either direction and can be alternated for a chord tremolo effect. Downstrokes with one finger make a change from the standard upstroke strum. A "pinch" with the thumb and fingers moving towards each other gives a crisp effect, it is helpful to articulate the topmost and bass note in the chord, as if plucking, before "following through". Rasgueado: Strumming done by bunching all the plucking hand fingers into a fist and flicking them out in quick succession to get four superimposed strums; the rasgueado or "rolling" strum is characteristic of flamenco. Turning p-a-m-i tremolo plucking into a series of downstrokes; this is a lighter version of the classic rasgueado. Classical guitar technique Flamenco guitar Bossa nova Ragtime guitar Travis picking Carter Family picking American primitive guitar Folk baroque New Age fingerstyle Percussive fingerstyle African fingerstyle guitar Slide and Slack-key guitar Fingerstyle jazz guitar Guitarists resolve the problem of playing notes on non adjacent string by practicing string skipping.
To achieve speed, plectrum pickers methods of mixing up and down strokes. Flatpicking is a technique for playing a guitar using a guitar pick held between two or three fingers to strike the strings; the term f
Flamenco, in its strictest sense, is a professionalized art-form based on the various folkloric music traditions of southern Spain in the autonomous communities of Andalusia and Murcia. In a wider sense, it refers to these musical traditions and more modern musical styles which have themselves been influenced by and become blurred with the development of flamenco over the past two centuries, it includes cante, baile, jaleo and pitos. The oldest record of flamenco dates to 1774 in the book Las Cartas Marruecas by José Cadalso. Flamenco has been associated with the Romani people in Spain; the origin of flamenco is a subject of disagreement. The Diccionario de la lengua española attributes the creation of the style to the Spanish Romani. Of the hypotheses regarding its origin, the most widespread states that flamenco was developed through the cross-cultural interchange between native Andalusians, Castilians and Sephardi Jews that occurred in Andalusia; the early 20th century poet and dramatist Federico García Lorca wrote that the presence of flamenco in Andalusia predates the arrival of Romani people to the region.
Flamenco has become popular all over the world and is taught in many non-Hispanic countries the United States and Japan. In Japan, there are more flamenco academies. On November 16, 2010, UNESCO declared flamenco one of the Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity. There are many suggestions for the origin of the word flamenco as a musical term but no solid evidence for any of them; the word was not recorded as a musical and dance term until the late 18th century. One theory, proposed by Andalusian historian and nationalist Blas Infante in his 1933 book Orígenes de lo Flamenco y Secreto del Cante Jondo suggested that the word flamenco comes in fact from the Hispano-Arabic term fellah mengu, meaning "expelled peasant"; this term referred to the many Andalusians of the Islamic faith, the Moriscos who remained, in order to avoid religious persecution, joined with the Roma newcomers. Another theory is that the Spanish word flamenco could have been a derivative of the Spanish word flama, meaning "fire" or "flame".
The word flamenco may have come to be used for fiery behaviour, which could have come to be applied to the Gitano players and performers. Palos are flamenco styles, classified by criteria such as rhythmic pattern, chord progression, stanzaic form and geographic origin. There are over 50 different palos, some are sung unaccompanied while others have guitar or other accompaniment; some forms are danced. Some are reserved for men and others for women while some may be performed by either, though these traditional distinctions are breaking down: the Farruca, for example, once a male dance, is now performed by women too. There are many ways to categorize Palos but they traditionally fall into three classes: the most serious is known as cante jondo, while lighter, frivolous forms are called cante chico. Forms that do not fit either category are classed as cante intermedio; these are the best known palos: Alegrías Bulerías Bulerías por soleá Caracoles Cartageneras Fandango Fandango de Huelva Fandango Malagueño Farruca Granaínas Guajiras Malagueñas Martinete Mineras Peteneras Rondeñas Saeta Seguiriyas Soleá Tangos Tanguillos Tarantos Tientos Villancicos A typical flamenco recital with voice and guitar accompaniment, comprises a series of pieces in different palos.
Each song of a set of verses, which are punctuated by guitar interludes called falsetas. The guitarist provides a short introduction which sets the tonality, compás and tempo of the cante. In some palos, these falsetas are played with certain structures too. Flamenco uses the Flamenco mode, in addition to the major and minor scales used in modern Western music; the Phrygian mode occurs in palos such as soleá, most bulerías, siguiriyas and tientos. A typical chord sequence called the "Andalusian cadence" may be viewed as in a modified Phrygian: in E the sequence is Am–G–F–E. According to Manolo Sanlúcar E is here the tonic, F has the harmonic function of dominant while Am and G assume the functions of subdominant and mediant respectively. Guitarists tend to use only two basic inversions or "chord shapes" for the tonic chord, the open 1st inversion E and the open 3rd inversion A, though they transpose these by using a capo. Modern guitarists such as Ramón Montoya, have introduced other positions: Montoya himself started to use other chords for the tonic in the modern Dorian sections of several palos.
Montoya created a new palo as a solo for guitar, the rondeña in C♯ with scordatura. Guitarists have further extended the repertoire of tonalities, chord positions and scordatura. There are palos in major mode; the minor mode is restricted to the Farruca, the milongas, some styles of tangos, bulerías, etc. In general traditional palos in major and
Helmut Friedrich Lachenmann is a German composer of contemporary classical music. His work has been associated with "instrumental musique concrète". Lachenmann was born in Stuttgart and after the end of the Second World War started singing in his local church choir. Showing an early aptitude for music, he was composing in his teens, he studied piano with Jürgen Uhde and composition and theory with Johann Nepomuk David at the Musikhochschule Stuttgart from 1955 to 1958 and was the first private student of the Italian composer Luigi Nono in Venice from 1958 to 1960. He worked at the electronic music studio at the University of Ghent in 1965, composing his only published tape piece Szenario during that period, but thereafter focused exclusively on purely instrumental music; the brutality of his music led Francisco Estévez to compare his work to the paintings of Francis Bacon. Lachenmann has referred to his compositions as musique concrète instrumentale, implying a musical language that embraces the entire sound-world made accessible through unconventional playing techniques.
According to the composer, this is music in which the sound events are chosen and organized so that the manner in which they are generated is at least as important as the resultant acoustic qualities themselves. Those qualities, such as timbre, etc. do not produce sounds for their own sake, but describe or denote the concrete situation: listening, you hear the conditions under which a sound- or noise-action is carried out, you hear what materials and energies are involved and what resistance is encountered. His music is therefore derived from the most basic of sounds, which through processes of amplification serve as the basis for extended works, his scores place enormous demands on performers, due to the plethora of techniques that he has invented for wind and string instruments. His more important works include his opera Das Mädchen mit den Schwefelhölzern, the orchestral pieces Schwankungen am Rand, Accanto and NUN, the ensemble works Mouvement and "...zwei Gefühle...", Musik mit Leonardo and three string quartets, as well as other orchestral and chamber works and six piano pieces.
He has lectured at Darmstadt since 1978. From 1976 to 1981 he taught composition at the Musikhochschule Hannover, from 1981 to 1999 the Musikhochschule Stuttgart. See: List of music students by teacher: K to M#Helmut Lachenmann, he is noted for his articles and lectures, many of which appear in Musik als existentielle Erfahrung. Lachenmann has received many distinguished awards such as the Bach Prize of the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg in 1972, the Ernst von Siemens Music Prize in 1997 and the 2010 BBVA Foundation Frontiers of Knowledge Award in the Contemporary Music Category, he is married to Japanese pianist Yukiko Sugawara. The list below is sourced from Lachenmann's publisher. Fünf Variationen über ein Thema von Franz Schubert for piano Rondo for two pianos Souvenir for 41 instruments Due Giri, two studies for orchestra Tripelsextett for 18 instruments Fünf Strophen for 9 instruments Echo Andante for piano Angelion for 16 instruments Wiegenmusik for piano Introversion I for 18 instruments Introversion II for 8 instruments Scenario for tape Streichtrio I for violin and cello Intérieur I for one percussionist Notturno for small orchestra and solo cello Trio fluido for clarinet and percussion Consolations I for 12 voices and percussion temA for flute and cello Consolations II for 16 voices Air, music for large orchestra with percussion solo Pression for cello Dal niente for clarinet Guero, piano study Kontrakadenz for large orchestra Montage for clarinet and piano Klangschatten – mein Saitenspiel for three Konzertflügel and string ensemble Gran Torso, music for string quartet Fassade for large orchestra Schwankungen am Rand, for sheet metal and strings Zwei Studien for violin Accanto, music for solo clarinet and orchestra Les Consolations for choir and orchestra Salut für Caudwell, music for two guitarists Tanzsuite mit Deutschlandlied, music for orchestra and string quartet Ein Kinderspiel, seven little pieces for piano Harmonica, music for large orchestra and solo tuba Mouvement for ensemble Ausklang for piano and orchestra Dritte Stimme zu J.
S. Bachs zweistimmiger Invention d-moll BWV775 for three instruments Staub for orchestra Toccatina, violin study Allegro sostenuto, music for clarinet and piano Tableau for orchestra Reigen seliger Geister, string quartet "...zwei Gefühle...", Musik mit Leonardo for speaker and ensemble Das Mädchen mit den Schwefelhölzern Musik mit Bildern