A given name is a part of a person's personal name. It identifies a person, differentiates that person from the other members of a group who have a common surname; the term given name refers to the fact that the name is bestowed upon a person to a child by their parents at or close to the time of birth. A Christian name, a first name, given at baptism, is now typically given by the parents at birth. In informal situations, given names are used in a familiar and friendly manner. In more formal situations, a person's surname is more used—unless a distinction needs to be made between people with the same surname; the idioms "on a first-name basis" and "being on first-name terms" refer to the familiarity inherent in addressing someone by their given name. By contrast, a surname, inherited, is shared with other members of one's immediate family. Regnal names and religious or monastic names are special given names bestowed upon someone receiving a crown or entering a religious order; such a person typically becomes known chiefly by that name.
The order given name – family name known as the Western order, is used throughout most European countries and in countries that have cultures predominantly influenced by European culture, including North and South America. The order family name – given name known as the Eastern order, is used in East Asia, as well as in Southern and North-Eastern parts of India, in Hungary; this order is common in Austria and Bavaria, in France, Belgium and Italy because of the influence of bureaucracy, which puts the family name before the given name. In China and Korea, part of the given name may be shared among all members of a given generation within a family and extended family or families, in order to differentiate those generations from other generations; the order given name – father's family name – mother's family name is used in Spanish-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. Today the order can be changed in Spain and Uruguay using given name – mother's family name – father's family name.
The order given name – mother's family name – father's family name is used in Portuguese-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. In many Western cultures, people have more than one given name. One of those, not the first in succession might be used as the name which that person goes by, such as in the cases of John Edgar Hoover and Mary Barbara Hamilton Cartland. A child's given name or names are chosen by the parents soon after birth. If a name is not assigned at birth, one may be given at a naming ceremony, with family and friends in attendance. In most jurisdictions, a child's name at birth is a matter of public record, inscribed on a birth certificate, or its equivalent. In western cultures, people retain the same given name throughout their lives. However, in some cases these names may be changed by repute. People may change their names when immigrating from one country to another with different naming conventions. In certain jurisdictions, a government-appointed registrar of births may refuse to register a name that may cause a child harm, considered offensive or which are deemed impractical.
In France, the agency can refer the case to a local judge. Some jurisdictions, such as Sweden, restrict the spelling of names. Parents may choose a name because of its meaning; this may be a personal or familial meaning, such as giving a child the name of an admired person, or it may be an example of nominative determinism, in which the parents give the child a name that they believe will be lucky or favourable for the child. Given names most derive from the following categories: Aspirational personal traits. For example, the name Clement means "merciful". English examples include Faith and August. Occupations, for example George means "earth-worker", i.e. "farmer". Circumstances of birth, for example Thomas meaning "twin" or the Latin name Quintus, traditionally given to the fifth male child. Objects, for example Peter means "rock" and Edgar means "rich spear". Physical characteristics, for example Calvin means "bald". Variations on another name to change the sex of the name or to translate from another language.
Surnames, for example Winston and Ross. Such names can honour other branches of a family, where the surname would not otherwise be passed down. Places, for example Brittany and Lorraine. Time of birth, for example day of the week, as in Kofi Annan, whose given name means "born on Friday", or the holiday on which one was born, for example, the name Natalie meaning "born on Christmas day" in Latin. Tuesday, May, or June. Combination of the above, for example the Armenian name Sirvart means "love rose". In many cultures, given names are reused to commemorate ancestors or those who are admired, resulting in a limited repertoire of names that sometimes vary by orthography; the most familiar example of this, to Western readers, is the use of Biblical and saints' names in most of the Christian countries (with Ethiopia, in which names were ideals or abstractions
Rașcov is one of the oldest communes of Transnistria. It is located in the northern part, between Camenca, it is composed of Iantarnoe and Rașcov. Rașcov village was founded in 1402 as a trading post on the Dniester river; some maintain that the name derives from the Romanian term for Lactarius deliciosus, a variety of mushroom. However, there are a number of settlements across Poland and Ukraine with the same name, casting doubt on this claim. Rashkov is a Bulgarian male surname. One of the oldest villages of Transnistria, it is known for having possessing a significant Polish population. From the 15th century, all of northern Transnistria was part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, to the Polish Crown in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth which encouraged the migration of peasants into the territory from neighboring populated areas. During the Middle Ages, the village hosted one of seven major fairs for the Dniester-Southern Bug area. Before becoming part of the Russian Empire in 1793 during the second partition of Poland, the largest groups living between the Dniester and the Bug rivers were Moldavian and Tatar peasants.
Raşcov was the residence for Rabbi Jacob Joseph of Polonne, a leading Jewish Hasidic tzaddik and one of the first of the disciples of the founder of Hasidic Judaism, the Baal Shem Tov. His book, Toldos Yaacov Yosef, was the first chassidic work published. In it repeats the phrase, "I have heard from my teacher", 249 times, he is one of the foremost sources for teachings from the Baal Shem Tov. Reb Yaacov Yosef was somewhat known for his abrupt temperament, yet his teachings on the Zaddik, the saint-mystic and holy leader, provide an example of attainment of the highest degree of spiritual solitude, while exemplifying the piety of a respected leader at the center of the community. Rabbi Jacob Joseph came to Raşcov as a result of his exile from Shargorod. Having been the rabbi of Shargorod for several years, Rabbi Jacob Joseph was expelled from his position in Shargorod on a Friday afternoon in 1748. In several of his responsa, which he wrote in Raşcov, he reveals the suffering which he had undergone.
He would leave Raşcov after being appointed rabbi in Nemirov, a center of Hasidism, where he practiced daily fasting for five years, until the Besht came upon him. The family continued to have a presence in the local Jewish community, as Rabbi Jacob Joseph's son was Rabbi Samson of Raszkow. Rașcov and the surrounding area is home to numerous historic monuments and architecture, among them the Polish Roman Catholic Saint Cajetan Church, considered a historical heritage, it has undergone extensive renovation. The church was built when this part of Transnistria was a part of the Crown of the Polish Kingdom, with generous contributions by the Moldavian prince Petru Rareş. Outside Rașcov is located the Rascov National Park, an extensive natural landscape preserve, an ecologically protected area. More the Transnistrian separatist authorities have edited an Atlas of Pridnestrovie, which refers to the area around Rașcov as the "Pridnestrovian Alps": Time and water have eroded the abrupt slopes near the village of Rashkov, having formed the limestone outliers, towering above the slopes.