Rashtrakuta dynasty

Rashtrakuta was a royal dynasty ruling large parts of the Indian subcontinent between the sixth and 10th centuries. The earliest known Rashtrakuta inscription is a 7th-century copper plate grant detailing their rule from Manapura, a city in Central or West India. Other ruling Rashtrakuta clans from the same period mentioned in inscriptions were the kings of Achalapur and the rulers of Kannauj. Several controversies exist regarding the origin of these early Rashtrakutas, their native homeland and their language; the Elichpur clan was a feudatory of the Badami Chalukyas, during the rule of Dantidurga, it overthrew Chalukya Kirtivarman II and went on to build an empire with the Gulbarga region in modern Karnataka as its base. This clan came to be known as the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta, rising to power in South India in 753 AD. At the same time the Pala dynasty of Bengal and the Prathihara dynasty of Malwa were gaining force in eastern and northwestern India respectively. An Arabic text, Silsilat al-Tawarikh, called the Rashtrakutas one of the four principal empires of the world.

This period, between the eighth and the 10th centuries, saw a tripartite struggle for the resources of the rich Gangetic plains, each of these three empires annexing the seat of power at Kannauj for short periods of time. At their peak the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta ruled a vast empire stretching from the Ganges River and Yamuna River doab in the north to Kanyakumari in the south, a fruitful time of political expansion, architectural achievements and famous literary contributions; the early kings of this dynasty were influenced by Hinduism and the kings by Jainism. During their rule, Jain mathematicians and scholars contributed important works in Kannada and Sanskrit. Amoghavarsha I, the most famous king of this dynasty wrote Kavirajamarga, a landmark literary work in the Kannada language. Architecture reached a milestone in the Dravidian style, the finest example of, seen in the Kailasanath Temple at Ellora in modern Maharashtra. Other important contributions are the Kashivishvanatha temple and the Jain Narayana temple at Pattadakal in modern Karnataka, both of which are UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

The origin of the Rashtrakuta dynasty has been a controversial topic of Indian history. These issues pertain to the origin of the earliest ancestors of the Rashtrakutas during the time of Emperor Ashoka in the 2nd century BCE, the connection between the several Rashtrakuta dynasties that ruled small kingdoms in northern and central India and the Deccan between the 6th and 7th centuries; the relationship of these medieval Rashtrakutas to the most famous dynasty, the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta, who ruled between the 8th and 10th centuries has been debated. The sources for Rashtrakuta history include medieval inscriptions, ancient literature in the Pali language, contemporaneous literature in Sanskrit and Kannada and the notes of the Arab travellers. Theories about the dynastic lineage, the native region and the ancestral home have been proposed, based on information gleaned from inscriptions, royal emblems, the ancient clan names such as "Rashtrika", the names of princes and princesses of the dynasty, clues from relics such as coins.

Scholars debate over which ethnic/linguistic groups can claim the early Rashtrakutas. Possibilities include the north western ethnic groups of India, the Kannadiga, the Maratha, or the tribes from the Punjab region. Scholars however concur that the rulers of the imperial dynasty in the 8th to 10th century made the Kannada language as important as Sanskrit. Rashtrakuta inscriptions use both Kannada and Sanskrit, the rulers encouraged literature in both languages; the earliest existing Kannada literary writings are credited to their court poets and royalty. Though these Rashtrakutas were Kannadigas, they were conversant in a northern Deccan language as well; the heart of the Rashtrakuta empire included nearly all of Karnataka and parts of Andhra Pradesh, an area which the Rashtrakutas ruled for over two centuries. The Samangadh copper plate grant confirms that the feudatory King Dantidurga, who ruled from Achalapura in Berar, defeated the great Karnatic army of Kirtivarman II of Badami in 753 and took control of the northern regions of the Chalukya empire.

He helped his father-in-law, Pallava King Nandivarman regain Kanchi from the Chalukyas and defeated the Gurjaras of Malwa, the rulers of Kalinga and Srisailam. Dantidurga's successor Krishna I brought major portions of present-day Karnataka and Konkan under his control. During the rule of Dhruva Dharavarsha who took control in 780, the kingdom expanded into an empire that encompassed all of the territory between the Kaveri River and Central India, he led successful expeditions to Kannauj, the seat of northern Indian power where he defeated the Gurjara Pratiharas and the Palas of Bengal, gaining him fame and vast booty but not more territory. He brought the Eastern Chalukyas and Gangas of Talakad under his control. According to Altekar and Sen, the Rashtrakutas became a pan-India power during his rule; the ascent of Dhruva Dharavarsha's third son, Govinda III, to the throne heralded an era of success like never before. There is uncertainty about the location of the early capital of the Rashtrakutas at this time.

During his rule there was a three way conflict between the Rashtrakutas, the Palas and the Pratiharas for control over the Gangetic plains. Describing his v


Parastrapotherium is an extinct genus of South American land mammal that existed from the Late Oligocene to the Early Miocene. The genus includes some of the largest and smallest known astrapotherian, but at present no recognized description can adequately characterize it; the genus was first described by Ameghino 1895. He distinguished it from the Santacrucian Astrapotherium based on the greater number of upper and lower molars. Although researchers disagreed and concluded that Ameghino based his conclusion on fragmentary materials, they agreed to distinguish the genus from other groups of astrapotherians; the following species have been recognised: P. cingulatum Ameghino 1894 P. ephebicum Ameghino 1894 P. holmbergi Ameghino 1894 P. lemoinei Ameghino 1894 P. trouessarti Ameghino 1894 Fossils of Parastrapotherium have been found in: OligoceneSarmiento Formation, ArgentinaDeseadanDeseado Formation, Argentina Sarmiento Formation, ArgentinaMioceneCerro Bandera Formation, Argentina Sarmiento Formation, Argentina

Sta. NiƱa

Sta. Niña is a 2012 Filipino drama film directed by Emmanuel Quindo Palo; the film is Palo's first directorial venture. The film tells the story of Paulino who unexpectedly unearths the remains of his 2-year-old daughter in a lahar-filled quarry, it was one of the official entries for the New Breed Full Length Feature Category in Cinemalaya 2012. Years after volcanic mud flow covered a town in Pampanga and his co workers dig up the coffin of his daughter; the remains of two-year-old Marikit did not show any signs of decay. Many consider this a miracle and people troop to Pol's home to be healed by Marikit; as people are getting healed purportedly by the dead child, Pol insists that his child is worthy of being called a saint. Thus begins his crusade to get his daughter beatified. Unearthing her body digs up unresolved issues in many persons' lives. In the end, an event will make us ask if there was healing, a cleansing of sins and a chance to move on. Coco Martin as Paulino'Pol' Mungcal Alessandra de Rossi as Madeleine'Madel' Mabanglo Mungcal Anita Linda as Benigna'Bining' Mungcal Angel Aquino as Sister Josefa Irma Adlawan as Cora Mabanglo Nanding Josef as Fr.

Mallari Joe Gruta as Gov. Servando Magat Lui Manansala as Mrs. Carmen Magat Leo Martinez as Obispo Rie Batingana as Melchor/Zora Bea Garcia as Gia Pangan Patricia Ismael as Malou Dax Alejandro as Abel Allan Guanlao as Ben Jobert Luzares as Sonny Adrian Sebastian as Joel Kristine Pearl Lagman as Gemma Mary Joyce Lopez as Joy 36th Gawad Urian Awards Pinakamahusay na Pangalawang Aktres: Alessandra de Rossi2013 Golden Screen Awards Best Actress in a Supporting Role: Anita Linda2013 1st ASEAN International Film Festival and Awards Best Picture for Drama Best Director: Emmanuel Quindo Palo Best Actress: Alessandra de Rossi Best Supporting Actress: Anita Linda2012 17th International Film Festival of Kerala The Golden Crow Pheasant Award for Best Feature Film aka Suvarna Chakoram2012 Cinemalaya Philippine Independent Film Festival Best Supporting Actress: Anita Linda Sta. Niña on IMDb