Aarhus is the second-largest city in Denmark and the seat of Aarhus municipality. It is located on the east coast of the Jutland peninsula, in the centre of Denmark,187 kilometres northwest of Copenhagen and 289 kilometres north of Hamburg. The inner urban area contains 264,716 inhabitants and the population is 330,639. Aarhus is the city in the East Jutland metropolitan area. The history of Aarhus began as a fortified Viking settlement founded in the 8th century, the city was founded on the northern shores of a fjord at a natural harbour and the primary driver of growth was for centuries seaborne trade in agricultural products. Market town privileges were granted in 1441, but growth stagnated in the 17th century as the city suffered blockades, in the 19th century it was occupied twice by German troops during the Schleswig Wars but avoided destruction. As the industrial revolution took hold, the city grew to become the second-largest in the country by the 20th century, today Aarhus is at the cultural and economic core of the region and the largest centre for trade and industry in Jutland.
The city ranks as the 92nd largest city in the European Union and it is a top 100 conference city in the world. Aarhus is the industrial port of the country in terms of container handling. Major Danish companies have based their headquarters here and people commute for work and it is a centre for research and education in the Nordic countries and home to Aarhus University, Scandinavias largest university, including Aarhus University Hospital and INCUBA Science Park. Aarhus is notable for its musical history, in the 1950s many jazz clubs sprang up around the city, fuelled by the young population. By the 1960s, the music scene diversified into rock and other genres, in the 1970s and 1980s, Aarhus became the centre for Denmarks rock music fostering many iconic bands such as TV-2 and Gnags. Aarhus is home to the annual eight-day Aarhus International Jazz Festival, the SPoT Festival, in 2017 Aarhus are European Capital of Culture. In Valdemars Census Book the city was called Arus, and in Icelandic it was known as Aros and it is a compound of the two words ār, genitive of ā, and ōss.
The name originates from the location around the mouth of Aarhus Å. The spelling Aarhus is first found in 1406 and gradually became the norm in the 17th century, aarhus/Århus spelling With the Danish spelling reform of 1948, Aa was changed to Å. Some Danish cities resisted the new spelling of their names, notably Aalborg, Århus city council explicitly embraced the new spelling, as it was thought to enhance an image of progressiveness. In 2010, the city voted to change the name from Århus to Aarhus in order to strengthen the international profile of the city
ABBA were a Swedish pop group formed in Stockholm by Agnetha Fältskog, Björn Ulvaeus, Benny Andersson, and Anni-Frid Lyngstad. They became one of the most commercially successful acts in the history of popular music, topping the charts worldwide from 1974 to 1982. ABBA won the Eurovision Song Contest 1974 at The Dome in Brighton, UK, giving Sweden its first triumph in the contest, ABBAs record sales figure is uncertain and various estimates range from over 140 to over 500 million sold records. This makes them one of the music artists. They have a joint record eight consecutive number-one albums in the UK, the group enjoyed significant success in Hispanic American markets, and recorded a collection of their hit songs in Spanish. During the bands active years, Fältskog & Ulvaeus and Lyngstad & Andersson were married and these relationship changes were reflected in the groups music, with compositions featuring more introspective and dark lyrics in contrast to their usual pure-pop sound. After ABBA disbanded in December 1982, Andersson and Ulvaeus achieved success writing music for the stage, while Lyngstad and Fältskog pursued solo careers with mixed success.
Several films, notably Muriels Wedding and The Adventures of Priscilla, Queen of the Desert, further revived public interest in the group, in 1999, ABBAs music was adapted into the successful musical Mamma Mia. that toured worldwide. A film of the name, released in 2008, became the highest-grossing film in the United Kingdom that year. ABBA were honoured at the 50th anniversary celebration of the Eurovision Song Contest in 2005, the group was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2010. In 2015, their song Dancing Queen was inducted into the Recording Academys Grammy Hall of Fame, in 2016, the members of ABBA announced an upcoming project in 2017. Benny Andersson became a member of a popular Swedish pop-rock group, the Hep Stars, the Hep Stars were known as the Swedish Beatles. They set up Hep House, their equivalent of Apple Corps, Andersson had a fruitful songwriting collaboration with Lasse Berghagen, with whom he wrote his first Svensktoppen entry, Sagan om lilla Sofie, in 1968.
Björn Ulvaeus began his career at 18, when he fronted The Hootenanny Singers. Ulvaeus started writing English-language songs for his group, and even had a solo career alongside. The Hootenanny Singers and The Hep Stars sometimes crossed paths while touring, in June 1966, Ulvaeus and Andersson decided to write a song together. Their first attempt was Isnt It Easy to Say, a song recorded by The Hep Stars. Stig Anderson was the manager of The Hootenanny Singers and founder of the Polar Music label and he saw potential in the collaboration, and encouraged them to write more
Rent is a rock musical with music and book by Jonathan Larson, loosely based on Giacomo Puccinis opera La Bohème. The musical was first seen in a production at New York Theatre Workshop in 1993. This same Off-Broadway theatre was the initial home following its official 1996 opening. The shows creator, Jonathan Larson, died suddenly of a dissection, believed to have been caused by undiagnosed Marfan syndrome. The show won a Pulitzer Prize, and the production was a hit, the musical moved to Broadways larger Nederlander Theatre on April 29,1996. On Broadway, Rent gained critical acclaim and won a Tony Award for Best Musical among other awards, the Broadway production closed on September 7,2008 after a 12-year run of 5,123 performances. On February 14,2016, the musical Wicked surpassed Rents number of performances with a 2pm matinee, the production grossed over $280 million. The success of the led to several national tours and numerous foreign productions. In 2005, it was adapted into a picture featuring most of the original cast members.
In 1989, Jonathan Larson, a 29-year-old composer, began collaborating with Aronson on this project, and he came up with the shows ultimate title. In 1991, he asked Aronson if he could use Aronsons original concept, Larson had ambitious expectations for Rent, his ultimate dream was to write a rock opera to bring musical theater to the MTV generation. Aronson and Larson made an agreement that if the show went to Broadway, Aronson would share in the proceeds, Jonathan Larson focused on composing Rent in the early 1990s, waiting tables at the Moondance Diner to support himself. Over the course of years, Larson wrote hundreds of songs and made drastic changes to the show. In the fall of 1992, Larson approached James Nicola, artistic director of New York Theatre Workshop, with a tape, Larson continued to work on Rent, gradually reworking its flaws and staging more workshop productions. Larson would not live to see Rents success, he died from an aortic aneurysm in the early morning of January 25,1996.
The first preview of Rent was canceled and instead, the show premiered as planned and quickly gained popularity fueled by enthusiastic reviews and the recent death of its composer. It proved extremely successful during its run, selling out all its shows at the 150-seat New York Theater Workshop. Due to such overwhelming popularity and a need for a larger theater, Larsons inspiration for Rents content came from several different sources
Eurovision Song Contest 1977
The Eurovision Song Contest 1977 was the 22nd edition of the annual Eurovision Song Contest, and was held in London, United Kingdom on 7 May 1977. The contest was won by Marie Myriam, representing France, with the song Loiseau et lenfant and this was Frances fifth victory, a record at the time. It was Frances second victory on English soil, as well as its most recent victory to date, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its founding by the Romans, who named it Londinium. Wembley Conference Centre, which opened in 1977, was the first purpose-built conference centre in the United Kingdom, the centre was chosen as host venue for the song contest, which was presented by Angela Rippon. The language rule was brought back in this contest, four years after it had dropped in 1973. However Germany and Belgium were allowed to sing in English, because they had chosen the songs they were going to perform before the rule was reintroduced. At one point before the contest Tunisia was going to participate, had Tunisia gone ahead they would have appeared fourth on stage.
Yugoslavia withdrew, and did not return until 1981, the Belgian act Dream Express had created some controversy in the press with reports that the three female members would wear transparent tops, this did not materialise for the actual event. The British conductor Ronnie Hazlehurst used an umbrella and wore a hat during the UK entry. Each performance had a conductor who maestro the orchestra, several artists returned to the 1977 Contest. Beatrix Neundlinger and Günter Grosslercher from the group Schmetterlinge both represented Austria in 1972 as part of the band The Milestones, irelands participant The Swarbriggs returned after their previous appearance back in 1975. Ilanit from Israel returned after previously representing the nation in 1973, michèle Torr, Luxembourgs 1966 entrant participated for Monaco. And finally Fernando Tordo and Paulo de Carvalho returned once more after they previously represented the nation as solo acts back in 1973 and 1974 respectively, ^ Contains some words in English.
Each national broadcaster sent a commentator to the contest, in order to provide coverage of the contest in their own native language
It has its roots in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll, itself heavily influenced by blues and blues and country music. Rock music drew strongly on a number of genres such as electric blues and folk. Musically, rock has centered on the guitar, usually as part of a rock group with electric bass guitar. Typically, rock is song-based music usually with a 4/4 time signature using a verse-chorus form, like pop music, lyrics often stress romantic love but address a wide variety of other themes that are frequently social or political in emphasis. Punk was an influence into the 1980s on the subsequent development of subgenres, including new wave, post-punk. From the 1990s alternative rock began to rock music and break through into the mainstream in the form of grunge, Britpop. Similarly, 1970s punk culture spawned the visually distinctive goth and emo subcultures and this trio of instruments has often been complemented by the inclusion of other instruments, particularly keyboards such as the piano, Hammond organ and synthesizers.
The basic rock instrumentation was adapted from the blues band instrumentation. A group of musicians performing rock music is termed a rock band or rock group, Rock music is traditionally built on a foundation of simple unsyncopated rhythms in a 4/4 meter, with a repetitive snare drum back beat on beats two and four. Melodies are often derived from older musical modes, including the Dorian and Mixolydian, harmonies range from the common triad to parallel fourths and fifths and dissonant harmonic progressions. Critics have stressed the eclecticism and stylistic diversity of rock, because of its complex history and tendency to borrow from other musical and cultural forms, it has been argued that it is impossible to bind rock music to a rigidly delineated musical definition. These themes were inherited from a variety of sources, including the Tin Pan Alley pop tradition, folk music and rhythm, as a result, it has been seen as articulating the concerns of this group in both style and lyrics. Christgau, writing in 1972, said in spite of some exceptions and roll usually implies an identification of male sexuality, according to Simon Frith rock was something more than pop, something more than rock and roll.
Rock musicians combined an emphasis on skill and technique with the concept of art as artistic expression, original. The foundations of music are in rock and roll, which originated in the United States during the late 1940s and early 1950s. Its immediate origins lay in a melding of various musical genres of the time, including rhythm and blues and gospel music, with country. In 1951, Ohio disc jockey Alan Freed began playing rhythm and blues music for a multi-racial audience, debate surrounds which record should be considered the first rock and roll record. Other artists with rock and roll hits included Chuck Berry, Bo Diddley, Fats Domino, Little Richard, Jerry Lee Lewis
Eurovision Song Contest 1967
The Eurovision Song Contest 1967 was the 12th edition of Eurovision Song Contest. It took place on 8 April 1967 in Vienna, Austria following Udo Jürgens win at the 1966 contest. The presenter became confused whilst the voting was taking place, and declared the United Kingdoms entry to be the winner before the last country, shaw intensely disliked the composition, though her attitude towards the song somewhat mellowed in years, even releasing a new version in 2007. The contest long remained the only time Austria had hosted the event, the 1967 Eurovision Song Contest was held in Vienna, the capital of Austria. The venue for the contest was the Hofburg Palace, which was the winter residence the Habsburg dynasty. It currently serves as the residence of the President of Austria. The stage setup was a bit unusual this year. There were two revolving mirrored walls on both ends of the stage and started revolving at the start of song and stopped revolving at the end of each song. The hostess, Erika Vaal ended the program by congratulating the winning song, denmark chose not to participate and left the contest at this point, to return in 1978.
The reason was that the new director for the TV entertainment department at DR thought that the money could be spent in a better way, the United Kingdoms win was their first. Television presenter and musician, Rolf Harris provided the commentary for BBC Television viewers, switzerland received zero votes for the second time. Portugal was represented by Eduardo Nascimento who was the first black singer in the history of Eurovision Song Contest. Rumours claimed that Portuguese prime minister Salazar had chosen this particular singer to show the rest of Europe that he wasnt racist, each performance had a conductor who maestro the orchestra. Three artists returned in this years contest, the table below shows the order in which votes were cast during the 1967 contest along with the spokesperson who was responsible for announcing the votes for their respective country. Each national broadcaster sent a commentator to the contest, in order to provide coverage of the contest in their own native language.
Details of the commentators and the station for which they represented are included in the table below
GfK Entertainment Charts
The GfK Entertainment Charts are the official music charts in Germany and are gathered and published by GfK Entertainment GmbH on behalf of Bundesverband Musikindustrie. Following a lawsuit in March 2014 by Media Control AG, Media Control® GfK International had to change its name, dissemination of the charts is conducted by various media outlets, some of which include VIVA music channel, and the Swiss charts website. Other entities that present the charts are MusicLoad and MIX1, furthermore, GfK Entertainment runs a dedicated website providing chart-related news and access to most of the charts. Charts have been published in Germany since 1959, in a magazine called Der Musikmarkt, since 1959, the growing desire to have a well-developed music program has made Bundesverband Musikindustrie work together with charts providers to improve the way the charts are determined. For this purpose, different research institutes were tested, out of which Media Control, the first official charts were made available in the magazine Der Musikmarkt in September 1977.
Initially, there used to be 50 positions only, which in January 1980, was extended to 75 slots, since 1989, however, GfK Entertainment has adapted the international standards providing 100 positions, now called Offizielle Top 100 Charts. In 2001, the Top-100 singles charts was modified to reflect the sales of the singles, Media Control developed Music Video charts in 2001, which later, in 2004, was renamed as DVD charts. While music-videos have their own charts, in 2001, GfK Entertainment made it possible for the music-video singles to have the ability to enter the Top-100 singles chart. Similarly, in 2002, it was available for music-video albums to chart on the Top-100 album chart. If not, the DVD album could qualify for the DVD chart only, in the same vein, if an audio CD contains at least 50% of video recording, then, it could qualify to chart on the DVD chart. In 2003, Media Control joined forces with GfK, thus the name officially being changed to Media Control GfK International GmbH. In 2004, Germany became one of the first music markets wherein sales charts were reflected by online digital downloads, digital-only releases came into existence on 13 July 2007, for online downloads only, which altered the way the sales figures were conducted up to that point.
Consequently, chart positions would no longer be affected by the number of music downloads as before. Thus, the albums would not necessarily be the ones ending up in the number-one position on the charts. In March 2014, GfK announced that the official chart providers name in Germany will change from Media Control GfK International GmbH to GfK Entertainment, there are currently 3,000 outlets that report their sales on weekly bases in Germany. The weekly sales data is transmitted to GfK Entertainment via communication network channel and this is the list of categories, for each of which charts are provided by GfK Entertainment
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic, is a country on the Iberian Peninsula in Southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost country of mainland Europe, to the west and south it is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and to the east and north by Spain. The Portugal–Spain border is 1,214 kilometres long and considered the longest uninterrupted border within the European Union, the republic includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, both autonomous regions with their own regional governments. The territory of modern Portugal has been settled, invaded. The Pre-Celts, Celts and the Romans were followed by the invasions of the Visigothic, in 711 the Iberian Peninsula was invaded by the Moors, making Portugal part of Muslim Al Andalus. Portugal was born as result of the Christian Reconquista, and in 1139, Afonso Henriques was proclaimed King of Portugal, in the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal established the first global empire, becoming one of the worlds major economic and military powers.
Portugal monopolized the trade during this time, and the Portuguese Empire expanded with military campaigns led in Asia. After the 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy, the democratic but unstable Portuguese First Republic was established, democracy was restored after the Portuguese Colonial War and the Carnation Revolution in 1974. Shortly after, independence was granted to almost all its overseas territories, Portugal has left a profound cultural and architectural influence across the globe and a legacy of over 250 million Portuguese speakers today. Portugal is a country with a high-income advanced economy and a high living standard. It is the 5th most peaceful country in the world, maintaining a unitary semi-presidential republican form of government and it has the 18th highest Social Progress in the world, putting it ahead of other Western European countries like France and Italy. Portugal is a pioneer when it comes to drug decriminalization, as the nation decriminalized the possession of all drugs for use in 2001.
The early history of Portugal is shared with the rest of the Iberian Peninsula located in South Western Europe, the name of Portugal derives from the joined Romano-Celtic name Portus Cale. Other influences include some 5th-century vestiges of Alan settlements, which were found in Alenquer, the region of present-day Portugal was inhabited by Neanderthals and by Homo sapiens, who roamed the border-less region of the northern Iberian peninsula. These were subsistence societies that, although they did not establish prosperous settlements, neolithic Portugal experimented with domestication of herding animals, the raising of some cereal crops and fluvial or marine fishing. Chief among these tribes were the Calaicians or Gallaeci of Northern Portugal, the Lusitanians of central Portugal, the Celtici of Alentejo, a few small, semi-permanent, commercial coastal settlements were founded in the Algarve region by Phoenicians-Carthaginians. Romans first invaded the Iberian Peninsula in 219 BC, during the last days of Julius Caesar, almost the entire peninsula had been annexed to the Roman Republic.
The Carthaginians, Romes adversary in the Punic Wars, were expelled from their coastal colonies and it suffered a severe setback in 150 BC, when a rebellion began in the north
Holstebro is the main town in Holstebro Municipality, Denmark. The town, bisected by the Storåen, has a population of 34,873, the town arose at a ford by the creek, and a bridge was erected. The name probably derives from holdested ved broen, Holstebro was first mentioned in a letter from Bishop Thyge of Ribe in 1274. A large fire in 1552 destroyed many of the old buildings. The town is a trading and cultural center in western Jutland, industries include the manufacture of processed food and machinery, wood and furniture and chemicals. Holstebro has a network of pedestrian walkways in the town centre either side of the River Storå. This area has a varied shopping environment, enhanced by outdoor sculptures and picturesque buildings, including the town church, the first sculpture purchased by Holstebro Municipality was Alberto Giacomettis sculpture Woman on the Cart purchased in 1966. Holstebro has a rich and varied cultural life, between 1997 and 2009 it hosted the internationally recognized ballet company Peter Schaufuss Ballet and the town still hosts the performance art theatre Odin Teatret.
Several museums, including the Holstebro Art Museum with its collection of Danish and international art. The town holds an annual festival, the Holstebro Festive Week. The Holstebro Hall, rebuilt in 1966, houses a music theatre, more than 100 cultural events occur here every year, and the hall is visited by more than 100,000 people annually. The Jutland Dragoon Regiment, which can trace its history back to 1679 in the times of King Christian V, has made Holstebro its home since 1953, the regiment is Holstebros largest place of work with more than 1,800 employees. Holstebro is served by Holstebro railway station and it is located on the Vejle-Holstebro and Esbjerg-Struer railway lines and offers direct InterCity services to Copenhagen and Struer and regional train services to Fredericia and Skjern. Team Tvis Holstebro were founded in 1990 and play handball, representing Holstelbro in the mens Danish Handball League, the womens team has won the Womens European Handball Federation cup twice, in 2012–2013 and 2014–2015 and were runners up in 2010–2011.
The mens handball team won the Danish Handball Cup in 2008 and have finished third in the league three times, most recently in 2008. They achieved third place in the mens 2012–13 EHF Cup, both teams play at Gråkjær Arena, a 3,250 capacity hall which can be used for concerts. The arena is located to the north of the town centre, Holstebro Idrætspark, located to the north-east of the town centre, is a multi-use sports complex. A stadium on the site is home to Holstebro BK, the football club who play in the 4th tier of Danish football