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Raster graphics

In computer graphics, a raster graphics or bitmap image is a dot matrix data structure that represents a rectangular grid of pixels, viewable via a monitor, paper, or other display medium. Raster images are stored in image files with varying formats. A bitmap is a rectangular grid of pixels, with each pixel's color being specified by a number of bits. A bitmap might be created for storage in the display's video memory or as a device-independent bitmap file. A raster is technically characterized by the width and height of the image in pixels and by the number of bits per pixel; the printing and prepress industries know raster graphics as contones. The opposite to contones is "line work" implemented as vector graphics in digital systems. Vector images can be rasterized, raster images vectorized, by software. In both cases some information is lost, although vectorizing can restore some information back to machine readability, as happens in optical character recognition; the word "raster" has its origins in the Latin rastrum, derived from radere.

It originates from the raster scan of cathode ray tube video monitors, which paint the image line by line by magnetically or electrostatically steering a focused electron beam. By association, it can refer to a rectangular grid of pixels; the word rastrum is now used to refer to a device for drawing musical staff lines. Most modern computers have bitmapped displays, where each on-screen pixel directly corresponds to a small number of bits in memory; the screen is refreshed by scanning through pixels and coloring them according to each set of bits. The refresh procedure, being speed critical, is implemented by dedicated circuitry as a part of a graphics processing unit. An early scanned display with raster computer graphics was invented in the late 1960s by A. Michael Noll at Bell Labs, but its patent application filed February 5, 1970 was abandoned at the Supreme Court in 1977 over the issue of the patentability of computer software. Most computer images are stored in raster graphics formats or compressed variations, including GIF, JPEG, PNG, which are popular on the World Wide Web.

Three-dimensional voxel raster graphics are employed in video games and are used in medical imaging such as MRI scanners. GIS data is stored in a raster format to encode geographic data as the pixel values. Georeferencing information can be associated with pixels. Raster graphics are resolution dependent, meaning they cannot scale up to an arbitrary resolution without loss of apparent quality; this property contrasts with the capabilities of vector graphics, which scale up to the quality of the device rendering them. Raster graphics deal more than vector graphics with photographs and photo-realistic images, while vector graphics serve better for typesetting or for graphic design. Modern computer-monitors display about 72 to 130 pixels per inch, some modern consumer printers can resolve 2400 dots per inch or more. A resolution of 150 to 300 PPI works well for 4-color process printing. However, for printing technologies that perform color mixing through dithering rather than through overprinting, printer DPI and image PPI have a different meaning, this can be misleading.

Because, through the dithering process, the printer builds a single image pixel out of several printer dots to increase color depth, the printer's DPI setting must be set far higher than the desired PPI to ensure sufficient color depth without sacrificing image resolution. Thus, for instance, printing an image at 250 PPI may require a printer setting of 1200 DPI. Raster-based image editors, such as PaintShop Pro, Photoshop, Paint. NET, MS Paint, GIMP, revolve around editing pixels, unlike vector-based image editors, such as Xfig, CorelDRAW, Adobe Illustrator, or Inkscape, which revolve around editing lines and shapes; when an image is rendered in a raster-based image editor, the image is composed of millions of pixels. At its core, a raster image editor works by manipulating each individual pixel. Most pixel-based image editors work using the RGB color model, but some allow the use of other color models such as the CMYK color model. Comparison of raster graphics editors Dither Halftone Raster graphics editor Raster graphics file formats Raster image processor Raster scan Rasterisation Text semigraphics Vector graphics - a contrasting graphics method This article is based on material taken from the Free On-line Dictionary of Computing prior to 1 November 2008 and incorporated under the "relicensing" terms of the GFDL, version 1.3 or later

Sudis (stake)

The sudis is a Latin word meaning stake. It was the name given to stakes carried by Roman legionaries for employment as a field fortification, sometimes called vallus, it is but incorrectly, called a pilum murale meaning'wall spear'. The stakes were carried by Roman legionaries; each stake was made of hardwood oak, about 150–180 cm long and about 50–100 mm wide at the thickest point. Square in section, the shape tapers to a point at both ends; the central part is narrowed in a way that suggests the function of a handle, although this may not be its actual purpose. Examples that have been found are rough, it seems clear. However, the exact manner in which stakes were used is the subject of debate among experts, it is possible. Projecting from the ramparts at an angle, they would present a barrier to an attacker attempting to climb up. Alternatively, they could have been placed vertically at the top of the rampart as a fence. Experiments with reconstructions have been disappointing in that such barriers are not strong, as the symmetry of the stakes makes them easy to pull out of the ground.

It has been proposed that the stakes were lashed in pairs at intervals along a log or beam to form a Cheval de frise. This could be used, as a moveable barrier to bar a gateway. Alternatively, three stakes might be roped together into a defence resembling the Czech hedgehog — a sort of giant caltrop. Defences of this type, employed en masse, can be pushed aside only with difficulty and cannot be collapsed; the advantage of such suggested modes of use is that they are consistent with the symmetry of the stakes and account for the hand grip at the centre, required to bind the stakes together. In the Battle of Mount Algidus, Cincinnatus ordered his men to provide twelve valli each, used them to build a fortification around the Aequi, who were, at the time, surrounding another Roman army. ^ Peterson, Daniel. The Roman Legion Recreated in Colour Photographs. Windrow & Green. ISBN 1-872004-06-7

Project Jefferson

Project Jefferson was a covert U. S. Defense Intelligence Agency program designed to determine if the current anthrax vaccine was effective against genetically modified bacteria; the program's legal status under the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention is disputed. Project Jefferson began in 1997 and was designed to reproduce a strain of genetically modified anthrax isolated by Russian scientists during the 1990s; the goal was to determine whether or not the strain was resistant to the commercially available U. S. anthrax vaccine. The project was disclosed in a September 2001 article in The New York Times. Reporters Judith Miller, Stephen Engelberg and William J. Broad collaborated to write the article, it is presumed. The 2001 book, Germs: Biological Weapons and America's Secret War, the article are the only publicly available sources detailing Project Jefferson and its sister projects and Clear Vision. Project Jefferson was operated by the Defense Intelligence Agency and reviewed by lawyers at the Pentagon.

Those lawyers determined that Project Jefferson was in line with the BWC. Despite assertions from the Clinton and Bush administrations that the project, its sisters, were legal, several international legal scholars disagreed. Notable was the fact that the clandestine program was omitted from BWC confidence-building measure declarations; these measures were introduced to the BWC in 1986 and 1991 to strengthen the treaty, the U. S. had long been a proponent of their value and some asserted that these tests damaged American credibility. U. S. desire to keep such programs secret was, according to Bush administration officials, a "significant reason" that Bush rejected a draft agreement signed by 143 nations to strengthen the BWC. Miller, Engelberg and Broad, William J. Germs: Biological Weapons and America's Secret War and Schuster, 2002. Thor Duffin, The Jefferson Project, Steinwald Books, 2010


Painting is the practice of applying paint, color or other medium to a solid surface. The medium is applied to the base with a brush, but other implements, such as knives and airbrushes, can be used; the final work is called a painting. Painting is an important form in the visual arts, bringing in elements such as drawing, composition, narration, or abstraction. Paintings can be naturalistic and representational, abstract, symbolistic, emotive, or political in nature. A portion of the history of painting in both Eastern and Western art is dominated by religious art. Examples of this kind of painting range from artwork depicting mythological figures on pottery, to Biblical scenes Sistine Chapel ceiling, to scenes from the life of Buddha or other images of Eastern religious origin. In art, the term painting describes the result of the action; the support for paintings includes such surfaces as walls, canvas, glass, pottery, leaf and concrete, the painting may incorporate multiple other materials including sand, paper, gold leaf, as well as objects.

Color, made up of hue and value, dispersed over a surface is the essence of painting, just as pitch and rhythm are the essence of music. Color is subjective, but has observable psychological effects, although these can differ from one culture to the next. Black is associated with mourning in the West; some painters, theoreticians and scientists, including Goethe and Newton, have written their own color theory. Moreover, the use of language is only an abstraction for a color equivalent; the word "red", for example, can cover a wide range of variations from the pure red of the visible spectrum of light. There is not a formalized register of different colors in the way that there is agreement on different notes in music, such as F or C♯. For a painter, color is not divided into basic and derived colors. Painters deal with pigments, so "blue" for a painter can be any of the blues: phthalocyanine blue, Prussian blue, Cobalt blue, so on. Psychological and symbolical meanings of color are not speaking, means of painting.

Colors only add to the potential, derived context of meanings, because of this, the perception of a painting is subjective. The analogy with music is quite clear—sound in music is analogous to "light" in painting, "shades" to dynamics, "coloration" is to painting as the specific timbre of musical instruments is to music; these elements do not form a melody of themselves. Modern artists have extended the practice of painting to include, as one example, which began with Cubism and is not painting in the strict sense; some modern painters incorporate different materials such as metal, sand, straw, leaves or wood for their texture. Examples of this are the works of Anselm Kiefer. There is a growing community of artists who use computers to "paint" color onto a digital "canvas" using programs such as Adobe Photoshop, Corel Painter, many others; these images can be printed onto traditional canvas. Jean Metzinger's mosaic-like Divisionist technique had its parallel in literature. I make a kind of chromatic versification and for syllables I use strokes which, variable in quantity, cannot differ in dimension without modifying the rhythm of a pictorial phraseology destined to translate the diverse emotions aroused by nature.

Rhythm, for artists such as Piet Mondrian, is important in painting as it is in music. If one defines rhythm as "a pause incorporated into a sequence" there can be rhythm in paintings; these pauses allow creative force to intervene and add new creations—form, coloration. The distribution of form, or any kind of information is of crucial importance in the given work of art, it directly affects the aesthetic value of that work; this is because the aesthetic value is functionality dependent, i.e. the freedom of perception is perceived as beauty. Free flow of energy, in art as well as in other forms of "techne", directly contributes to the aesthetic value. Music was important to the birth of abstract art, since music is abstract by nature—it does not try to represent the exterior world, but expresses in an immediate way the inner feelings of the soul. Wassily Kandinsky used musical terms to identify his works. Kandinsky theorized that "music is the ultimate teacher," and subsequently embarked upon the first seven of his ten Compositions.

Hearing tones and chords as he painted, Kandinsky theorized that, yellow is the color of middle C on a brassy trumpet. In 1871 the young Kandinsky learned to play the cello. Kandinsky's stage design for a performance of Mussorgsky's Pictures at an Exhibition illustrates his "synaesthetic" concept of a universal correspondence o

Goldwater rule

The Goldwater rule is Section 7 in the American Psychiatric Association's Principles of Medical Ethics, which states that it is unethical for psychiatrists to give a professional opinion about public figures whom they have not examined in person, from whom they have not obtained consent to discuss their mental health in public statements. It is named after 1964 presidential candidate Barry Goldwater; the issue arose in 1964 when Fact published the article "The Unconscious of a Conservative: A Special Issue on the Mind of Barry Goldwater". The magazine polled psychiatrists about US Senator Barry Goldwater and whether he was fit to be president. Goldwater sued magazine editor Ralph Ginzburg and managing editor Warren Boroson, in Goldwater v. Ginzburg received damages totaling $75,000. Section 7, which appeared in the first edition of the American Psychiatric Association's Principles of Medical Ethics in 1973 and is still in effect as of 2018, says: On occasion psychiatrists are asked for an opinion about an individual, in the light of public attention or who has disclosed information about himself/herself through public media.

In such circumstances, a psychiatrist may share with the public his or her expertise about psychiatric issues in general. However, it is unethical for a psychiatrist to offer a professional opinion unless he or she has conducted an examination and has been granted proper authorization for such a statement; the APA Ethics Code of the American Psychological Association does not have a similar rule explicitly defined in its code of ethics. Instead, the APA suggests that various statements made in different parts of its Ethics Code would apply to cases of the diagnosis of a public figure. In 2016, in response to the New York Times article "Should Therapists Analyze Presidential Candidates?", American Psychological Association President Susan H. McDaniel published a letter in The New York Times in which she offered her opinion and interpretation of the current Ethics Code: Similar to the psychiatrists' Goldwater Rule, our code of ethics exhorts psychologists to "take precautions" that any statements they make to the media "are based on their professional knowledge, training or experience in accord with appropriate psychological literature and practice" and "do not indicate that a professional relationship has been established" with people in the public eye, including political candidates.

When providing opinions of psychological characteristics, psychologists must conduct an examination "adequate to support statements or conclusions." In other words, our ethical code states that psychologists should not offer a diagnosis in the media of a living public figure they have not examined. In the fall of 2017, the American Medical Association's Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs wrote new guidelines into the AMA Code of Medical Ethics, stating that physicians should refrain "from making clinical diagnoses about individuals they have not had the opportunity to examine." In 2016 and 2017, a number of psychiatrists and clinical psychologists faced criticism for violating the Goldwater rule, as they claimed that Donald Trump displayed "an assortment of personality problems, including grandiosity, a lack of empathy, and'malignant narcissism'", that he has a "dangerous mental illness", despite having never examined him. John Gartner, a practicing psychologist, the leader of the group Duty to Warn, stated in April 2017 that: "We have an ethical responsibility to warn the public about Donald Trump's dangerous mental illness."The American Psychoanalytic Association, a different organization from the APA, sent a letter on June 6, 2017, that highlighted differences between the APA and APsaA ethical guidelines, stating that "The American Psychiatric Association's ethical stance on the Goldwater Rule applies to its members only.

APsaA does not consider political commentary by its individual members an ethical matter." In July 2017, the website Stat published an article by Sharon Begley, labeled "exclusive" and titled "Psychiatry Group Tells Members They Can Defy'Goldwater Rule' and Comment on Trump's Mental Health". The article, with a photograph of Barry Goldwater as the headline image, stated that "A leading psychiatry group has told its members they should not feel bound by a longstanding rule against commenting publicly on the mental state of public figures", first sourcing the statement to the July 6 American Psychoanalytic Association letter, but claiming that it "represents the first significant crack in the profession's decades-old united front aimed at preventing experts from discussing the psychiatric aspects of politicians' behavior". Yahoo News reporter Michael Walsh criticized the Stat article, saying it was "misleading" by stating that the letter "represents the first significant crack": The American Psychiatric Association retains the Goldwater rule, the APsaA never had the rule and was not changing.

Though the APsaA has no Goldwater rule for its members and allows its members to give individual opinions about specific political figures, its Executive Councilors unanimously endorsed a policy that "the APsaA as an organizatio

Nymphaea thermarum

Nymphaea thermarum is the world's smallest water lily. The pads of N. thermarum can measure only 1 cm across, less than 10% the width of the next smallest species in the genus Nymphaea. By comparison, the largest water lily has pads. All wild plants were lost due to destruction of its native habitat, but it was saved from extinction when it was grown from seed at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew in 2009. In January 2014, a surviving water lily was stolen from the Royal Botanic Gardens. Nymphaea thermarum was discovered in 1987 by German botanist Eberhard Fischer; the specific epithet, refers to the hot spring and temperature that provided its native habitat. There are no common names for the plant, though Kew Gardens is informally calling it "pygmy Rwandan water lily". Nymphaea thermarum forms rosettes 20 to 30 cm wide, with bright green lily pads growing on short petioles; the small flowers are white with yellow stamens, with the flowers held upright a few cm above the plant. They can self-pollinate, after blooming the flower stalk bends so the fruit contacts the mud.

The sepals are hairy, as large as the flower's petals. The plant is a tropical day bloomer displaying protogynous flowering patterns, opening early in the morning on the first day with female floral functioning, closing in early afternoon, opening on the second day with male functionality, it is in the Nymphaea subgenus Brachyceras, though the leaves are more typical of the subgenus Nymphaea. It does not form tubers. Seeds are large for plants in subgenus Brachyceras; the plant's native habitat was damp mud formed by the overflow of a freshwater hot spring in Mashyuza, Rwanda. It became extinct in the wild about 2008; the farmers cut off the flow of the spring, which dried up the tiny area—just a few square metres—that was the lily's entire habitat. Before the plants became extinct, Fischer sent some specimens to Bonn Botanic Gardens when he saw that their habitat was so fragile; the plants were kept alive at the gardens, but botanists could not solve the problem of propagating them from seed. Nymphaea species germinate deep under water.

N. thermarum seeds are different. Botanists were unable to germinate any N. thermarum seeds until Carlos Magdalena, at Kew, discovered a solution—only after he was down to his last 20 seeds. By placing the seeds and seedlings into pots of loam surrounded by water of the same level in a 25 °C environment, eight began to flourish and mature within weeks and in November 2009, the waterlilies flowered for the first time. During this time, a rat had eaten one of the last two surviving plants in Germany. With the germination problem solved, Magdalena says that the tiny plants are easy to grow, giving it potential to be grown as a houseplant. Pygmy Rwandan waterlily media from ARKive The world's tiniest waterlily doesn't grow in water! by Carlos Magdalena Fischer, Eberhard. "Taxonomic results of the BRYOTROP-Expedition to Zaire and Rwanda". Tropical Bryology. 8: 13–37. International Plant Names Index