A 19-inch rack is a standardized frame or enclosure for mounting multiple electronic equipment modules. Each module has a front panel, 19 inches wide; the 19-inch dimension includes the edges, or "ears", that protrude on each side which allow the module to be fastened to the rack frame with screws. Common uses include computer server, broadcast video, lighting and scientific lab equipment. Equipment designed to be placed in a rack is described as rack-mount, rack-mount instrument, a rack mounted system, a rack mount chassis, rack mountable, or simply shelf; the height of the electronic modules is standardized as multiples of 1.752 inches or one rack unit or U. The industry standard rack cabinet is 42U tall; the term relay rack appeared first in the world of telephony. By 1911, the term was being used in railroad signaling. There is little evidence; the 19-inch rack format with rack-units of 1.75 inches was established as a standard by AT&T around 1922 in order to reduce the space required for repeater and termination equipment for toll cables.
The earliest repeaters from 1914 were installed in ad-hoc fashion on shelves, in wooden boxes and cabinets. Once serial production started, they were built into custom-made one per repeater, but in light of the rapid growth of the toll network, the engineering department of AT&T undertook a systematic redesign, resulting in a family of modular factory-assembled panels all "designed to mount on vertical supports spaced 19½ inches between centers. The height of the different panels will vary... but... in all cases to be a whole multiple of 13⁄4 inches". By 1934, it was an established standard with holes tapped for 12-24 screws with alternating spacings of 1.25 inches and 0.5 inches The EIA standard was revised again in 1992 to comply with the 1988 public law 100-418, setting the standard U as 15.9 mm + 15.9 mm + 12.7 mm, making each "U" 44.50 millimetres. The 19-inch rack format has remained constant while the technology, mounted within it has changed and the set of fields to which racks are applied has expanded.
The 19-inch standard rack arrangement is used throughout the telecommunication, audio, video and other industries, though the Western Electric 23-inch standard, with holes on 1-inch centers, is still used in legacy ILEC/CLEC facilities. Nineteen-inch racks in two-post or four-post form hold most equipment in modern data centers, ISP facilities, professionally designed corporate server rooms, they allow for dense hardware configurations without occupying excessive floorspace or requiring shelving. Nineteen-inch racks are often used to house professional audio and video equipment, including amplifiers, effects units, headphone amplifiers, small scale audio mixers. A third common use for rack-mounted equipment is industrial power and automation hardware. A piece of equipment being installed has a front panel height 1⁄32 inch less than the allotted number of Us. Thus, a 1U rackmount computer is 1.721 inches tall. 2U would be 3.473 inches instead of 3.504 inches. This gap allows a bit of room above and below an installed piece of equipment so it may be removed without binding on the adjacent equipment.
The mounting holes were tapped with a particular screw thread. When rack rails are too thin to tap, rivnuts or other threaded inserts can be used, when the particular class of equipment to be mounted is known in advance, some of the holes can be omitted from the mounting rails. Threaded mounting holes in racks where the equipment is changed are problematic because the threads can be damaged or the mounting screws can break off. Tapping large numbers of holes that may never be used is expensive. Examples include telephone exchanges, network cabling panels, broadcast studios and some government and military applications; the tapped-hole rack was first replaced by clearance-hole racks. The holes are large enough to permit a bolt to be inserted through without binding, bolts are fastened in place using cage nuts. In the event of a nut being stripped out or a bolt breaking, the nut can be removed and replaced with a new one. Production of clearance-hole racks is less expensive because tapping the holes is eliminated and replaced with fewer, less expensive, cage nuts.
The next innovation in rack design has been the square-hole rack. Square-hole racks allow boltless mounting, such that the rack-mount equipment only needs to insert through and hook down into the lip of the square hole. Installation and removal of hardware in a square hole rack is easy and boltless, where the weight of the equipment and small retention clips are all, necessary to hold the equipment in place. Older equipment meant for round-hole or tapped-hole racks can still be used, with the use of cage nuts made for square-hole racks. Rack-mountable equipment is traditionally mounted by bolting or clipping its front panel to the rack. Within the IT industry, it is common for network/communications equipment to have multiple mounting positions, including table-top and wall mounting, so rack mountable equipment will feature L-brackets that must be screwed or bolted to the equipment prior to mounting in a 19-inch rack. With the prevalence of 23-
Halftone is the reprographic technique that simulates continuous-tone imagery through the use of dots, varying either in size or in spacing, thus generating a gradient-like effect. "Halftone" can be used to refer to the image, produced by this process. Where continuous-tone imagery contains an infinite range of colors or greys, the halftone process reduces visual reproductions to an image, printed with only one color of ink, in dots of differing size or spacing or both; this reproduction relies on a basic optical illusion: when the halftone dots are small, the human eye interprets the patterned areas as if they were smooth tones. At a microscopic level, developed black-and-white photographic film consists of only two colors, not an infinite range of continuous tones. For details, see Film grain. Just as color photography evolved with the addition of filters and film layers, color printing is made possible by repeating the halftone process for each subtractive color – most using what is called the "CMYK color model".
The semi-opaque property of ink allows halftone dots of different colors to create another optical effect, full-color imagery. William Fox Talbot is credited with the idea of halftone printing. In an 1852 patent he suggested using "photographic screens or veils" in connection with a photographic intaglio process. Several different kinds of screens were proposed during the following decades. One of the well known attempts was by Stephen H. Horgan while working for the New York Daily Graphic; the first printed photograph was an image of Steinway Hall in Manhattan published on December 2, 1873. The Graphic published "the first reproduction of a photograph with a full tonal range in a newspaper" on March 4, 1880 with a crude halftone screen; the first successful commercial method was patented by Frederic Ives of Philadelphia in 1881. Although he found a way of breaking up the image into dots of varying sizes, he did not make use of a screen. In 1882, the German Georg Meisenbach patented a halftone process in England.
His invention was based on the previous ideas of Swan. He used single lined screens, he was the first to achieve any commercial success with relief halftones. Shortly afterwards, this time in collaboration with Louis and Max Levy, improved the process further with the invention and commercial production of quality cross-lined screens; the relief halftone process proved immediately to be a success. The use of halftone blocks in popular journals became regular during the early 1890s; the development of halftone printing methods for lithography appears to have followed a independent path. In the 1860s, A. Hoen & Co. focused on methods allowing artists to manipulate the tones of hand-worked printing stones. By the 1880s, Hoen was working on halftone methods that could be used in conjunction with either hand-worked or photolithographic stones. Prior to digitised images, special photographic techniques were developed to break grayscale images down into discrete points; the earliest of these was "screening" where a course-woven fabric screen was suspended before the camera plate to be exposed, breaking the incoming light into a pattern of dots via a combination of interruption and diffraction effects.
The photographic plate could be developed using photo-etching techniques to create a printing plate. Other techniques used a "screen" consisting of horizontal bars, combined with a second exposure with a screen of vertically orientated bars. Another method again was to use a specially designed plate with horizontal lines pre-etched into the surface; the resolution of a halftone screen is measured in lines per inch. This is the number of lines of dots in one inch, measured parallel with the screen's angle. Known as the screen ruling, the resolution of a screen is written either with the suffix lpi or a hash mark; the higher the pixel resolution of a source file, the greater the detail that can be reproduced. However, such increase requires a corresponding increase in screen ruling or the output will suffer from posterization. Therefore, file resolution is matched to the output resolution; when different screens are combined, a number of distracting visual effects can occur, including the edges being overly emphasized, as well as a moiré pattern.
This problem can be reduced by rotating the screens in relation to each other. This screen angle is another common measurement used in printing, measured in degrees clockwise from a line running to the left. Halftoning is commonly used for printing color pictures; the general idea is the same, by varying the density of the four secondary printing colors, magenta and black, any particular shade can be reproduced. In this case there is an additional problem. In the simple case, one could create a halftone using the same techniques used for printing shades of grey, but in this case the different printing colors have to remain physically close to each other to fool the eye into thinking they are a single color. To do this the industry has standardized on a set of known angles, which result in the dots forming into small circles or rosettes; the dots cannot be seen by the naked eye, but can be discerned through a microscope or a magnifying glass. Though round dots are the most used, many dot types are available, each having its own characteristics.
They can be used to avoid the moiré effect. The preferred dot shape is dependent on the printing method or the printing plate. Round dots: most common, su
In digital imaging, a pixel, pel, or picture element is a physical point in a raster image, or the smallest addressable element in an all points addressable display device. Each pixel is a sample of an original image; the intensity of each pixel is variable. In color imaging systems, a color is represented by three or four component intensities such as red and blue, or cyan, magenta and black. In some contexts, pixel refers to a single scalar element of a multi-component representation, while in yet other contexts it may refer to the set of component intensities for a spatial position; the word pixel is a portmanteau of el. The word "pixel" was first published in 1965 by Frederic C. Billingsley of JPL, to describe the picture elements of video images from space probes to the Moon and Mars. Billingsley had learned the word from Keith E. McFarland, at the Link Division of General Precision in Palo Alto, who in turn said he did not know where it originated. McFarland said it was "in use at the time".
The word is a combination of pix, for picture, element. The word pix appeared in Variety magazine headlines in 1932, as an abbreviation for the word pictures, in reference to movies. By 1938, "pix" was being used in reference to still pictures by photojournalists; the concept of a "picture element" dates to the earliest days of television, for example as "Bildpunkt" in the 1888 German patent of Paul Nipkow. According to various etymologies, the earliest publication of the term picture element itself was in Wireless World magazine in 1927, though it had been used earlier in various U. S. patents filed as early as 1911. Some authors explain pixel as picture cell, as early as 1972. In graphics and in image and video processing, pel is used instead of pixel. For example, IBM used it in their Technical Reference for the original PC. Pixels, abbreviated as "px", are a unit of measurement used in graphic and web design, equivalent to 1⁄96 inch; this measurement is used to make sure a given element will display as the same size no matter what screen resolution views it.
Pixilation, spelled with a second i, is an unrelated filmmaking technique that dates to the beginnings of cinema, in which live actors are posed frame by frame and photographed to create stop-motion animation. An archaic British word meaning "possession by spirits", the term has been used to describe the animation process since the early 1950s. A pixel is thought of as the smallest single component of a digital image. However, the definition is context-sensitive. For example, there can be "printed pixels" in a page, or pixels carried by electronic signals, or represented by digital values, or pixels on a display device, or pixels in a digital camera; this list is not exhaustive and, depending on context, synonyms include pel, byte, bit and spot. Pixels can be used as a unit of measure such as: 2400 pixels per inch, 640 pixels per line, or spaced 10 pixels apart; the measures dots per inch and pixels per inch are sometimes used interchangeably, but have distinct meanings for printer devices, where dpi is a measure of the printer's density of dot placement.
For example, a high-quality photographic image may be printed with 600 ppi on a 1200 dpi inkjet printer. Higher dpi numbers, such as the 4800 dpi quoted by printer manufacturers since 2002, do not mean much in terms of achievable resolution; the more pixels used to represent an image, the closer the result can resemble the original. The number of pixels in an image is sometimes called the resolution, though resolution has a more specific definition. Pixel counts can be expressed as a single number, as in a "three-megapixel" digital camera, which has a nominal three million pixels, or as a pair of numbers, as in a "640 by 480 display", which has 640 pixels from side to side and 480 from top to bottom, therefore has a total number of 640×480 = 307,200 pixels or 0.3 megapixels. The pixels, or color samples, that form a digitized image may or may not be in one-to-one correspondence with screen pixels, depending on how a computer displays an image. In computing, an image composed of pixels is known as a raster image.
The word raster originates from television scanning patterns, has been used to describe similar halftone printing and storage techniques. For convenience, pixels are arranged in a regular two-dimensional grid. By using this arrangement, many common operations can be implemented by uniformly applying the same operation to each pixel independently. Other arrangements of pixels are possible, with some sampling patterns changing the shape of each pixel across the image. For this reason, care must be taken when acquiring an image on one device and displaying it on another, or when converting image data from one pixel format to another. For example: LCD screens use a staggered grid, where the red and blue components are sampled at different locations. Subpixel rendering is a technology which takes advantage of these differences to improve the rendering of text on LCD screens; the vast
Printing is a process for reproducing text and images using a master form or template. The earliest non-paper products involving printing include cylinder seals and objects such as the Cyrus Cylinder and the Cylinders of Nabonidus; the earliest known form of printing as applied to paper was woodblock printing, which appeared in China before 220 AD. Developments in printing technology include the movable type invented by Bi Sheng around 1040 AD and the printing press invented by Johannes Gutenberg in the 15th century; the technology of printing played a key role in the development of the Renaissance and the scientific revolution, laid the material basis for the modern knowledge-based economy and the spread of learning to the masses. Woodblock printing is a technique for printing text, images or patterns, used throughout East Asia, it originated in China in antiquity as a method of printing on textiles and on paper. As a method of printing on cloth, the earliest surviving examples from China date to before 220 A.
D. The earliest surviving woodblock printed fragments are from China, they are of silk printed with flowers in three colours from the Han Dynasty. They are the earliest example of woodblock printing on paper and appeared in the mid-seventh century in China. By the ninth century, printing on paper had taken off, the first extant complete printed book containing its date is the Diamond Sutra of 868. By the tenth century, 400,000 copies of some sutras and pictures were printed, the Confucian classics were in print. A skilled printer could print up to 2,000 double-page sheets per day. Printing spread early to Korea and Japan, which used Chinese logograms, but the technique was used in Turpan and Vietnam using a number of other scripts; this technique spread to Persia and Russia. This technique was transmitted to Europe via the Islamic world, by around 1400 was being used on paper for old master prints and playing cards. However, Arabs never used this to print the Quran because of the limits imposed by Islamic doctrine.
Block printing, called tarsh in Arabic, developed in Arabic Egypt during the ninth and tenth centuries for prayers and amulets. There is some evidence to suggest that these print blocks made from non-wood materials tin, lead, or clay; the techniques employed are uncertain and they appear to have had little influence outside of the Muslim world. Though Europe adopted woodblock printing from the Muslim world for fabric, the technique of metal block printing remained unknown in Europe. Block printing went out of use in Islamic Central Asia after movable type printing was introduced from China. Block printing first came to Europe as a method for printing on cloth, where it was common by 1300. Images printed on cloth for religious purposes could elaborate; when paper became easily available, around 1400, the technique transferred quickly to small woodcut religious images and playing cards printed on paper. These prints produced in large numbers from about 1425 onward. Around the mid-fifteenth-century, block-books, woodcut books with both text and images carved in the same block, emerged as a cheaper alternative to manuscripts and books printed with movable type.
These were all short illustrated works, the bestsellers of the day, repeated in many different block-book versions: the Ars moriendi and the Biblia pauperum were the most common. There is still some controversy among scholars as to whether their introduction preceded or, the majority view, followed the introduction of movable type, with the range of estimated dates being between about 1440 and 1460. Movable type is the system of printing and typography using movable pieces of metal type, made by casting from matrices struck by letterpunches. Movable type allowed for much more flexible processes than block printing. Around 1040, the first known movable type system was created in China by Bi Sheng out of porcelain. Bi Sheng used clay type, which broke but Wang Zhen by 1298 had carved a more durable type from wood, he developed a complex system of revolving tables and number-association with written Chinese characters that made typesetting and printing more efficient. Still, the main method in use there remained woodblock printing, which "proved to be cheaper and more efficient for printing Chinese, with its thousands of characters".
Copper movable type printing originated in China at the beginning of the 12th century. It was used in large-scale printing of paper money issued by the Northern Song dynasty. Movable type spread to Korea during the Goryeo dynasty. Around 1230, Koreans invented a metal type movable printing using bronze; the Jikji, published in 1377, is the earliest known metal printed book. Type-casting was adapted from the method of casting coins; the character was cut in beech wood, pressed into a soft clay to form a mould, bronze poured into the mould, the type was polished. The Korean form of metal movable type was described by the French scholar Henri-Jean Martin as "extremely similar to Gutenberg's". Eastern metal movable type was spread to Europe between the late 14th century and the early 15th century. Around 1450, Johannes Gutenberg introduced the first movable type printing system in Europe, he advanced innovations in casting type based on a matrix and hand mould, adaptations to the screw-press, the use of an oil-based ink, the creation of a softer and more absorbent paper.
Gutenberg was the first to create his type pieces from an alloy of lead, antimony and bismuth – the same components still used today. Johannes Gutenberg started work on his printing press around 1436, in partnership with Andreas Dritzeh
In computer graphics and digital imaging, image scaling refers to the resizing of a digital image. In video technology, the magnification of digital material is known as upscaling or resolution enhancement; when scaling a vector graphic image, the graphic primitives that make up the image can be scaled using geometric transformations, with no loss of image quality. When scaling a raster graphics image, a new image with a higher or lower number of pixels must be generated. In the case of decreasing the pixel number this results in a visible quality loss. From the standpoint of digital signal processing, the scaling of raster graphics is a two-dimensional example of sample-rate conversion, the conversion of a discrete signal from a sampling rate to another. Image scaling can be interpreted as a form of image resampling or image reconstruction from the view of the Nyquist sampling theorem. According to the theorem, downsampling to a smaller image from a higher-resolution original can only be carried out after applying a suitable 2D anti-aliasing filter to prevent aliasing artifacts.
The image is reduced to the information. In the case of up sampling, a reconstruction filter takes the place of the anti-aliasing filter. A more sophisticated approach to upscaling treats the problem as an inverse problem, solving the question of generating a plausible image, when scaled down, would look like the input image. A variety of techniques have been applied for this, including optimization techniques with regularization terms and the use of machine learning from examples. An image size can be changed in several ways. Nearest-neighbor interpolationOne of the simpler ways of increasing image size is nearest-neighbor interpolation, replacing every pixel with the nearest pixel in the output, for upscaling this means multiple pixels of the same color, this can preserve sharp details in pixel art, but introduce jaggedness in smooth images.'Nearest' in nearest-neighbor doesn't have to be the mathematical nearest. One common implementation is to always round towards zero, rounding this way produces fewer artifacts and is faster to calculate.
Bilinear and bicubic algorithmsBilinear interpolation works by interpolating pixel color values, introducing a continuous transition into the output where the original material has discrete transitions. Although this is desirable for continuous-tone images, this algorithm reduces contrast in a way that may be undesirable for line art. Bicubic interpolation yields better results, with only a small increase in computational complexity. Sinc and Lanczos resamplingSinc resampling in theory provides the best possible reconstruction for a bandlimited signal. In practice, the assumptions behind sinc resampling are not met by real-world digital images. Lanczos resampling, an approximation to the sinc method, yields better results. Bicubic interpolation can be regarded as a computationally efficient approximation to Lanczos resampling. Box samplingOne weakness of bilinear and related algorithms is that they sample a specific number of pixels; when down scaling below a certain threshold, such as more than twice for all bi-sampling algorithms, the algorithms will sample non-adjacent pixels, which results in both losing data, causes rough results.
The trivial solution to this issue is box sampling, to consider the target pixel a box on the original image, sample all pixels inside the box. This ensures; the major weakness of this algorithm is. MipmapAnother solution to the downscale problem of bi-sampling scaling are mipmaps. A mipmap is a prescaled set of downscale copies; when downscaling the nearest larger mipmap is used as the origin, to ensure no scaling below the useful threshold of bilinear scaling is used. This algorithm is fast, easy to optimize, it is standard in many frameworks such as OpenGL. The cost is using more image memory one third more in the standard implementation. Fourier-transform methodsSimple interpolation based on Fourier transform pads the frequency domain with zero components. Besides the good conservation of details, notable is the ringing and the circular bleeding of content from the left border to right border. Edge-directed interpolationEdge-directed interpolation algorithms aim to preserve edges in the image after scaling, unlike other algorithms, which can introduce staircase artifacts.
Examples of algorithms for this task include New Edge-Directed Interpolation, Edge-Guided Image Interpolation, Iterative Curvature-Based Interpolation, Directional Cubic Convolution Interpolation. A 2013 analysis found that DCCI had the best scores in SSIM on a series of test images. HqxFor magnifying computer graphics with low resolution and/or few colors, better results can be achieved by hqx or other pixel-art scaling algorithms; these maintain high level of detail. VectorizationVector extraction, or vectorization, offer another approach. Vectorization first creates a resolution-independent vector representation of the graphic to be scaled; the resolution-independent version is rendered as a raster image at the desired resolution. This technique is used by Adobe Illustrator, Live Trace, Inkscape. Scalable Vector Graphics are well suited to simple geometric images, while photographs do not fare well with vectorization due to their complexity. Deep convolutional neural networksThis method uses machine learning for more detailed images such as photographs and complex artwork.
Computer to film
Computer to film is a print workflow involving printing from a computer straight to film through an imagesetter. Designs are created in Adobe Illustrator or CorelDRAW, however they can be produced in AutoCAD, Inkscape and many other vector based CAD, design and desktop publishing software packages. For multi-coloured printing, the image is broken up into multiple layers representing each of the spot colors or the CMYK process colors, this may be split manually by the designer or separated by software in the imagesetter itself; each color is made into its own piece of film and plate, there can be 12 or more colors used in a single production run, however 1-6 colors are typical. From the imagesetter, the film is taken to the plate maker, where the film is laid on top of photopolymer plate material. A vacuum is drawn to ensure tight contact between the plate and film and the plate exposed with UV Light; the plate is washed in a solvent solution water, where the unexposed areas wash away leaving a relief.
It's dried and given a second and final exposure without the film for durability. The plate can be fitted onto an offset, rotary or flexographic printing press ready to print the product. A printing plate can produce 100,000 impressions or more before showing signs of wear, after which a new plate can be made from the original film. With advances in the technology of heat stabilization of polyester film, new-generation laser printer films provide excellent image registration and sharpness for multi-colour jobs. Computer to film is being replaced by the more advanced computer to plate technology. Compared to CTP, the cost of maintaining and running a CTF system is much cheaper though it requires an additional step in the plate-making process
A film recorder is a graphical output device for transferring digital images to photographic film. In a typical film recorder, an image is passed from a host computer to a mechanism to expose film through a variety of methods by direct photography of a high-resolution cathode ray tube display; the exposed film can be developed using conventional developing techniques, displayed with a slide or motion picture projector. The use of film recorders predates the current use of digital projectors, which eliminate the time and cost involved in the intermediate step of transferring computer images to a separate display medium, instead directly displaying the image signal from a computer. All film recorders work in the same manner; the image is fed from a host computer as a raster stream over a digital interface. A film recorder exposes film through various mechanisms. For color image recording on a CRT film recorder, the red and blue channels are sequentially displayed on a single gray scale CRT, exposed to the same piece of film as a multiple exposure through a filter of the appropriate color.
This approach yields better resolution and color quality than possible with a tri-phosphor color CRT. The three filters are mounted on a motor-driven wheel; the filter wheel, as well as the camera's shutter and film motion mechanism are controlled by the recorder's electronics and/or the driving software. CRT film recorders are further divided into digital types; the analog film recorder uses the native video signal from the computer, while the digital type uses a separate display board in the computer to produce a digital signal for a vector display in the recorder. Digital CRT recorders provide a higher resolution at a higher cost compared to analog recorders due to the additional specialized hardware. Typical resolutions for digital recorders were quoted as 2K and 4K, referring to 2048×1366 and 4096×2732 pixels while analog recorders provided a resolution of 640×428 pixels in comparison. Higher-quality LVT film recorders use a focused beam of light to write the image directly onto a film loaded spinning drum, one pixel at a time.
In one example, the light valve was a liquid-crystal shutter, the light beam was steered with a lens, text was printed using a pre-cut optical mask. The LVT will record pixel beyond grain; some machines can burn 120-res or 120 lines per millimeter. The LVT is a reverse drum scanner; the exposed film is printed by regular photographic chemical processing. Film recorders are available for a variety of film formats; the 35mm negative film and transparencies are popular because they can be processed by any photo shop. Single-image 4×5 film and 8×10 are used for high-quality, large format printing; some models have detachable film holders to handle multiple formats with the same camera or with Polaroid backs to provide on-site review of output before exposing film. Film recorders are used in digital printing to generate master negatives for offset and other bulk printing processes. For preview and small-volume reproduction, film recorders have been rendered obsolete by modern printers that produce photographic-quality hardcopies directly on plain paper.
They are used to produce the master copies of movies that use computer animation or other special effects based on digital image processing. Film recorders were among the earliest computer graphics output devices. Film recorders were commonly used to produce slides for slide projectors; the terms "slide" and "slide deck" are still used in presentation programs. Film recorders are used in the motion picture film-out process for the increasing amount of digital intermediate work being done. Although significant advances in large venue video projection alleviates the need to output to film, there remains a deadlock between the motion picture studios and theater owners over who should pay for the cost of these costly projection systems. This, combined with the increase in international and independent film production, will keep the demand for film recording steady for at least a decade. Traditional film recorder manufacturers have all but vanished from the scene or have evolved their product lines to cater to the motion picture industry.
Dicomed was one such early provider of digital color film recorders. Polaroid, Management Graphics, MacDonald-Detwiler, Information International, Inc. and Agfa were other producers of film recorders. Arri is the only current major manufacturer of film recorders. Kodak Lightning I film recorder. One of the first laser recorders. Needed an engineering staff to set up. Kodak Lightning II film recorder used both diode laser to record on to film; the last LVT machines produced by Kodak / Durst-Dice stopped production in 2002. There are no LVT film recorders being produced. LVT Saturn 1010 uses a LED exposure to 8"x10" film at 1000-3000ppi. LUX Laser Cinema Recorder from Autologic/Information International in Thousand Oaks, California. Sales end in March 2000. Used on the 1997 film “Titanic”. Arri produces the Arrilaser line of laser-based motion picture film recorders. Celco makes a line of CRT based motion picture film recorders. Lasergraphics is a recent entrant into the cine film recorder market with its twenty-year h