Interpol is an American rock band from Manhattan, New York, formed in 1997. Their original line-up consisted of Daniel Kessler, Carlos Dengler and Greg Drudy. Drudy was replaced by Sam Fogarino. In 2010, shortly after recording finished for the band's fourth album, Dengler left to pursue personal projects, resulting in Banks becoming the band's bass player. Having first performed at Luna Lounge along with bands such as the Strokes, the National and Stellastarr, Interpol is one of the bands associated with the New York City indie music scene and one of several groups that emerged from the post-punk revival of the 2000s; the band's sound is a mix of staccato bass and rhythmic, harmonized guitar, with a snare-heavy mix, drawing comparisons to post-punk bands such as Joy Division and the Chameleons. Aside from the lyrics, each band member contributes to songwriting, rather than relying on a lead songwriter. Interpol's debut album Turn on the Bright Lights was critically acclaimed, making it to tenth position on the NME's list of top albums in 2002 and number one on Pitchfork Media's Top 50 Albums of 2002.
Subsequent records Antics and Our Love to Admire brought greater commercial success. The band released its fourth, self-titled album on September 7, 2010, they went on hiatus from 2011 through 2012. Their fifth studio album El Pintor was released on September 9, 2014. In 2017, the band embarked on an anniversary tour for Turn On the Bright Lights, performing the album live in its entirety; the band's sixth studio album, was released on August 24, 2018. The band was formed by Drudy. Kessler had "been looking to put a band together for a while". Kessler "had a hard time finding musicians to play with—musicians at all, really." Kessler met Dengler in a philosophy class at New York University and asked him if he played an instrument. Kessler ran into Banks in New York City's East Village, the pair discussed collaborating. Banks admitted that he and Dengler "butted heads" early on in the band's history, but told Spin that now the two are "really tight, in a spiritual way"; the band had trouble choosing a name at first.
"I got to the point where I was like,'Guys, we're getting decent crowds, but like... we don't have a name so no one knows who to go see again,'" Kessler said. Furthermore, the band considered the names Las Armas and The French Letters before adopting Interpol. In 2000, after releasing the Fukd ID No. 3 extended-play album, Drudy left the band to focus on Hot Cross and his label Level Plane Records. Kessler recruited Fogarino, who worked at a local vintage clothing store and at the time considered retiring from music, to replace Drudy. While a member of Interpol, Drudy was a member of seminal first-wave screamo act Saetia. After self-releasing several EPs between 1998 and 2001, the band signed with Matador Records, a member of the independent Beggars Group, in early 2002; the first release, a self-titled EP containing re-recorded versions of "PDA" and "NYC" was released in June 2002. Turn On the Bright Lights was released on August 19, 2002. Recorded at Tarquin Studios in Bridgeport, the album's sound drew comparisons to post-punk groups of the early 1980s and late 1970s Joy Division and the Bunnymen and The Smiths.
The record was a slow-building success, selling 300,000 copies by 2004. The band regrouped in late 2003 to begin sessions for the follow-up album, again decamping to Tarquin Studios to record; the band released its second album Antics on September 27, 2004. The album sold 350,000 copies in its first four months of release; the record saw the band earn its first UK Top 40 hits with "Slow Hands", "Evil" and "C'mere" charting at No. 36, No. 18 and No. 19, respectively. The album reached gold status in the UK, in the US; the band toured again after the release of the album, playing more dates than before and at bigger venues. The Antics tour stretched on for 18 months, including a number of shows playing as undercards for U2 and The Cure, the band reported feelings of exhaustion to BBC Radio 1 DJ Zane Lowe at a concert in Sunderland; the band took three months off. Whilst on the road, the band had released the one-off track "Direction", written for the official soundtrack to HBO's Six Feet Under, Six Feet Under, Vol. 2: Everything Ends.
In late March 2006, Fogarino confirmed that the band were back in the studio working on new material. In an interview with Pitchfork Media, Fogarino stated " moving right along where I think it should...we're all pretty much on fire about it". Fogarino dispelled rumors that the band had signed to major label Interscope, but confirmed that they would be leaving Matador in search of a new label. An update to their website in June confirmed that the band had been working on the follow-up since the turn of the year, but did not confirm a name for the album or comment on the mounting speculation that they were imminently to sign to a major label. On August 14, it was reported that Interpol had signed for Capitol Records, a fact confirmed by Matador on September 1 in a press release on their website. Our Love to Admire was released in July 2007; the album represents a departure for the band, being both the first record they have recorded in New York City, the first time they have included keyboards in the arrangements from the start of the songwriting process.
The band intended to tour behind the album extensively, beginning with the summer fes
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum
The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum referred to as The Guggenheim, is an art museum located at 1071 Fifth Avenue on the corner of East 89th Street in the Upper East Side neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City, it is the permanent home of a continuously expanding collection of Impressionist, Post-Impressionist, early Modern and contemporary art and features special exhibitions throughout the year. The museum was established by the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation in 1939 as the Museum of Non-Objective Painting, under the guidance of its first director, the artist Hilla von Rebay, it adopted its current name after the death of its founder, Solomon R. Guggenheim, in 1952. In 1959, the museum moved from rented space to its current building, a landmark work of 20th-century architecture. Designed by Frank Lloyd Wright, the cylindrical building, wider at the top than the bottom, was conceived as a "temple of the spirit", its unique ramp gallery extends up from ground level in a long, continuous spiral along the outer edges of the building to end just under the ceiling skylight.
The building underwent extensive expansion and renovations in 1992 and from 2005 to 2008. The museum's collection has grown organically, over eight decades, is founded upon several important private collections, beginning with Solomon R. Guggenheim's original collection; the collection is shared with the museum's sister museums in Bilbao and elsewhere. In 2013, nearly 1.2 million people visited the museum, it hosted the most popular exhibition in New York City. Solomon R. Guggenheim, a member of a wealthy mining family, had been collecting works of the old masters since the 1890s. In 1926, he met artist Hilla von Rebay, who introduced him to European avant-garde art, in particular abstract art that she felt had a spiritual and utopian aspect. Guggenheim changed his collecting strategy, turning to the work of Wassily Kandinsky, among others, he began to display his collection to the public at his apartment in the Plaza Hotel in New York City. As the collection grew, he established the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation, in 1937, to foster the appreciation of modern art.
The foundation's first venue for the display of art, the "Museum of Non-Objective Painting", opened in 1939 under the direction of Rebay, in midtown Manhattan. Under Rebay's guidance, Guggenheim sought to include in the collection the most important examples of non-objective art available at the time by early modernists such as Rudolf Bauer, Kandinsky, Piet Mondrian, Marc Chagall, Robert Delaunay, Fernand Léger, Amedeo Modigliani and Pablo Picasso. By the early 1940s, the foundation had accumulated such a large collection of avant-garde paintings that the need for a permanent museum building had become apparent. In 1943, Rebay and Guggenheim wrote a letter to Frank Lloyd Wright asking him to design a structure to house and display the collection. Wright accepted the opportunity to experiment with his organic style in an urban setting, it took him 15 years, 700 sketches, six sets of working drawings to create the museum. In 1948, the collection was expanded through the purchase of art dealer Karl Nierendorf's estate of some 730 objects, notably German expressionist paintings.
By that time, the foundation's collection included a broad spectrum of expressionist and surrealist works, including paintings by Paul Klee, Oskar Kokoschka and Joan Miró. After Guggenheim's death in 1949, members of the Guggenheim family who sat on the foundation's board of directors had personal and philosophical differences with Rebay, in 1952 she resigned as director of the museum, she left a portion of her personal collection to the foundation in her will, including works by Kandinsky, Alexander Calder, Albert Gleizes and Kurt Schwitters. The museum was renamed the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in 1952. Rebay conceived of the space as a "temple of the spirit" that would facilitate a new way of looking at the modern pieces in the collection, she wrote to Wright that "each of these great masterpieces should be organized into space, only you... would test the possibilities to do so.... I want a temple of spirit, a monument!" The critic Paul Goldberger wrote that, before Wright's modernist building, "there were only two common models for museum design: Beaux-arts Palace... and the International Style Pavilion."
Goldberger thought the building a catalyst for change, making it "socially and culturally acceptable for an architect to design a expressive, intensely personal museum. In this sense every museum of our time is a child of the Guggenheim." From 1943 to early 1944, Wright produced four different sketches for the initial design. While one of the plans had a hexagonal shape and level floors for the galleries, all the others had circular schemes and used a ramp continuing around the building, he had experimented with the ramp design in 1948 at the V. C. Morris Gift Shop in San Francisco and on the house he completed for his son in 1952, the David and Gladys Wright House in Arizona. Wright's original concept was called an inverted "ziggurat", because it resembled the steep steps on the ziggurats built in ancient Mesopotamia, his design dispensed with the conventional approach to museum layout, in which visitors are led through a series of interconnected rooms and forced to retrace their steps when exiting.
Wright's plan was for the museum guests to ride to the top of the building by elevator, to descend at a leisurely pace along the gentle slope of the continuous ramp, to view the atrium of the building as the last work of art. The open rotunda afforded viewers the unique possibility of seeing several bays of work on different levels and to interact with guests on other levels. At the
The Neptunes are an American production duo, composed of Pharrell Williams and Chad Hugo. The Neptunes' sound is a distinctive brand of off-kilter, stripped-down electronic funk with sounds from Middle Eastern and Asian music including percussion and woodwind. Pharrell provides additional vocals and raps on records as well as appears in music videos, unlike Hugo, who tends to stay behind the scenes. Before gaining success and forming The Neptunes and Hugo along with local producer Timbaland and rapper Magoo formed a group "Surrounded by Idiots" in the early'90s, but disbanded before recording together. Timbaland & Magoo emerged as a hip hop duo collaborating with The Neptunes; the Neptunes are estimated to have a net worth of $160 million and are considered one of the most successful producers in music history, noted by twenty-four Billboard Hot 100 top 10 hits during the late 1990s and 2000s. In 2009, Billboard ranked The Neptunes number one on their list of the top 10 producers of the decade.
Pharrell and Chad met at a summer camp for the school of The Gifted and Talented in Virginia Beach, where Williams was a drummer and Hugo played tenor saxophone. They were both members of a marching band. In 1990 Chad and Pharrell formed a 4-piece "R&B type" group along with friends Shay and Mike Etheridge, which they named The Neptunes. Upon entering a local talent contest, they were discovered by Teddy Riley, whose studio was close to Pharrell's school. After graduating from high school, they signed with Riley as a group. Through working with Riley, Pharrell went on to write a verse for Wreckx-N-Effect's 1992 #2 Billboard Hot 100 hit "Rump Shaker". In 1994, Hugo and Williams had established themselves formally as a production duo under the used name "The Neptunes", assistant-produced "Tonight's The Night" from Teddy Riley's group BLACKstreet's self-titled debut. Over the next three years they continued to produce occasionally; some of the production, such as for SWV and Total, had little resemblance to what would become their distinctive sound, while other songs such as Mase's 1998 No.8 Billboard Hot 100 hit "Lookin' at Me" showed clear signs the Neptunes sound was developing.
Their first major production hit, the most clear beginning of the distinctive Neptunes sound, came with N. O. R. E.'s "Superthug" in 1998, reaching #36 on the Billboard Hot 100, gaining them widespread attention for the first time. The duo went on to work with Kelis, producing her first album Kaleidoscope, the duo's first full album production and Ol' Dirty Bastard's record "Got Your Money", on which Kelis is featured, they achieved huge commercial success with tracks like Jay-Z's "I Just Wanna Love U", Mystikal's "Shake Ya Ass", then-newly renamed Diddy's single "D. I. D. D. Y". Other notable hits during their commercial rise were Busta Rhymes' "Pass the Courvoisier, Part II”, Usher's "U Don't Have to Call" and Foxy Brown’s “Candy”. Kelis was one of several artists whose careers Williams have helped launch, they have helped re-launch the careers of Snoop Dogg, Robin Thicke and Mystikal. In 2001, The Neptunes gained their first worldwide hit with Britney Spears' single, "I'm A Slave 4 U", which reached #1 in several countries in Europe and South America.
The following year they reached #1 in the U. S. with Nelly's single, "Hot in Herre". In August of the same year, The Neptunes were named "Producers of the Year" at both The Source Awards and the Billboard Music Awards. In 2003, they released a self-credited album called The Neptunes Present... Clones, featuring songs and remixes from various Star Trak artists; this album topped the US Billboard 200 Albums Chart. The Neptunes went home with two Grammy Awards in 2004, one for "Producer of the Year, Non-Classical", another for "Best Pop Vocal Album" for their work on Justin Timberlake's No.2 Billboard hit Justified. They gained their first UK #1, again with Nelly, Flap Your Wings. Their'sound' is synthesizer riffs, sampling keyboard and modules; the Neptunes sound was first heard on Noreaga's 1998 track "Superthug". Although not their first production, the song became known as an example for the "Neptunes Sound". Another example of the Neptunes Sound is their remix of the Daft Punk song "Harder, Faster, Stronger".
The song was released on Daft Punk's remix album, Daft Club, released internationally on December 3, 2003 and in the U. S. on January 27, 2004. A Neptunes production is characterized by flat, punchy drum machine sounds and the use of module presets. "Grindin'" was a drum track that paid tribute to Eric B. & Rakim's song of the same nature, "My Melody". Justin Timberlake's "Like I Love You" paid tribute to the drums of the funk era, where the loop consisted of various snare sounds. On Busta Rhymes' "Light Yo Ass On Fire" they used a heavy chorus effect on the rhythm track suggesting an industrial or robotic theme, they have used the popular Roland TR-808 drum sound on such songs as LL Cool J's and Jamie Foxx's collaboration "Best Dress" but production work introduced'live' drum sounds similar to the ones they would use under their N*E*R*D guise. Both The Neptunes and Pharrell as a solo producer are well known for their extensive use of percussion other than drums. Examples of Pharrell's use of percussion are in Robin Thicke's 2013 hit "Blurred Lines" on which he featured with rapper T.
I. and Get Like Me by Nelly, which featured Nicki Minaj and himself. The Neptunes' engineer, in an interview with Sound on Sound magazine, revealed many o
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Brighton Centre is a conference and exhibition centre located in Brighton, England. It is the largest of its kind in southern England, is used for conferences of the British political parties and other bodies of national importance; the venue has the capacity to accommodate up to 5,000 delegates, although rooms in the building can be used for weddings and banquets. It has been used as a live music venue since it was opened by James Callaghan on 19 September 1977, it was designed in a Brutalist style by architects Russell Diplock & Associates, who made extensive use of textured concrete. The venue is situated in the centre of Brighton on the sea front and is within 200 metres of major hotels. In 2004, it was estimated; the second phase of redevelopment was completed in January 2012. In addition to this, the venue’s restaurant, used as a relaxation space for larger conferences, now features floor-to-ceiling windows with uninterrupted views of the seafront and new interiors; as part of Brighton's "City Plan", it has been proposed that the building be knocked down to make way to an extension to the Churchill Square shopping centre.
Bing Crosby's final performance was at the Brighton Centre on 10 October 1977. He died of a heart attack four days while at a golf tournament in Spain. On 11 December 1982, The Jam played their last gig in the Conference Room at the Brighton Centre. On 29-30 November 1983, pop duo Wham! Performed their final dates on their debut UK tour, titled Club Fantastic Tour. On 28 April 1990, New Kids On The Block performed at the venue on their first UK tour. On 16 December 1997, Louise Redknapp performed at the venue on her sell-out Soft and Gentle Tour, in support of her platinum selling album Woman in Me. On 12 and 13 March 2001, Kylie Minogue performed at the venue on her On a Night Like This Tour. In 2003 and 2004, it hosted the 2003 and 2004 British Open snooker, from November 8 to 16. On 13-14 June 2004, Irish vocal pop band Westlife held a concert for their Turnaround Tour supporting their album Turnaround. Between 2007 & 2017, it was host to an annual Premier League Darts night, as well as hosting the Champions League of Darts in 2018.
In 2017, it played host to Emeli Sande, one of the UK's most successful selling artists, during her tour of her second album Long Live the Angels. In 2018, it will hold Noel Gallagher's High Flying Birds smallest capacity concert to date that has gone on general sale, as well as playing host for the smallest venue on Paloma Faith's tour for her album The Architect. On 5 November 2018, The Prodigy performed at the venue. Media related to The Brighton Centre at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Brooklyn is the most populous borough of New York City, with an estimated 2,648,771 residents in 2017. Named after the Dutch village of Breukelen, it borders the borough of Queens at the western end of Long Island. Brooklyn has several bridge and tunnel connections to the borough of Manhattan across the East River, the Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge connects Staten Island. Since 1896, Brooklyn has been coterminous with Kings County, the most populous county in the U. S. state of New York and the second-most densely populated county in the United States, after New York County. With a land area of 71 square miles and water area of 26 square miles, Kings County is New York state's fourth-smallest county by land area and third-smallest by total area, though it is the second-largest among the city's five boroughs. Today, if each borough were ranked as a city, Brooklyn would rank as the third-most populous in the U. S. after Los Angeles and Chicago. Brooklyn was an independent incorporated city until January 1, 1898, after a long political campaign and public relations battle during the 1890s, according to the new Municipal Charter of "Greater New York", Brooklyn was consolidated with the other cities and counties to form the modern City of New York, surrounding the Upper New York Bay with five constituent boroughs.
The borough continues, however. Many Brooklyn neighborhoods are ethnic enclaves. Brooklyn's official motto, displayed on the Borough seal and flag, is Eendraght Maeckt Maght, which translates from early modern Dutch as "Unity makes strength". In the first decades of the 21st century, Brooklyn has experienced a renaissance as an avant garde destination for hipsters, with concomitant gentrification, dramatic house price increases, a decrease in housing affordability. Since the 2010s, Brooklyn has evolved into a thriving hub of entrepreneurship and high technology startup firms, of postmodern art and design; the name Brooklyn is derived from the original Dutch colonial name Breuckelen, meaning marshland. Established in 1646, the name first appeared in print in 1663; the Dutch colonists named it after the scenic town of Netherlands. Over the past two millennia, the name of the ancient town in Holland has been Bracola, Brocckede, Brocklandia, Broikelen and Breukelen; the New Amsterdam settlement of Breuckelen went through many spelling variations, including Breucklyn, Brucklyn, Brookland, Brockland and Brookline/Brook-line.
There have been so many variations of the name. The final name of Brooklyn, however, is the most accurate to its meaning; the history of European settlement in Brooklyn spans more than 350 years. The settlement began in the 17th century as the small Dutch-founded town of "Breuckelen" on the East River shore of Long Island, grew to be a sizeable city in the 19th century, was consolidated in 1898 with New York City, the remaining rural areas of Kings County, the rural areas of Queens and Staten Island, to form the modern City of New York; the etymology of Breuckelen may be directly from the dialect word Breuckelen meaning buckle or from the Plattdeutsch Brücken meaning bridge. The Dutch were the first Europeans to settle Long Island's western edge, largely inhabited by the Lenape, an Algonquian-speaking American Indian tribe who are referred to in colonial documents by a variation of the place name "Canarsie". Bands were associated with place names, but the colonists thought their names represented different tribes.
The Breuckelen settlement was named after Breukelen in the Netherlands. The Dutch West India Company lost little time in chartering the six original parishes: Gravesend: in 1645, settled under Dutch patent by English followers of Anabaptist Lady Deborah Moody, named for's-Gravenzande, Netherlands, or Gravesend, England Brooklyn Heights: as Breuckelen in 1646, after the town now spelled Breukelen, Netherlands. Breuckelen was located along Fulton Street between Smith Street. Brooklyn Heights, or Clover Hill, is where the village Brooklyn was founded in 1816. Flatlands: as Nieuw Amersfoort in 1647 Flatbush: as Midwout in 1652 Nieuw Utrecht: in 1657, after the city of Utrecht, Netherlands Bushwick: as Boswijck in 1661 The colony's capital of New Amsterdam, across the East River, obtained its charter in 1653 than the village of Brooklyn; the neighborhood of Marine Park was home to North America's first tide mill. It was built by the Dutch, the foundation can be seen today, but the area was not formally settled as a town.
Many incidents and documents relating to this period are in Gabriel Furman's 1824 compilation. What is Brooklyn today left Dutch hands after the final English conquest of New Netherland in 1664, a prelude to the Second Anglo–Dutch War. New Netherland was taken in a naval action, the conquerors renamed their prize in honor of the overall English naval commander, Duke of York, brother of the monarch King Charles II of England and future king himself as King James II of England and James VII of Scotland; the English reorganized the six old Dutch towns on southwestern Long Island as Kings County on November 1, 1683, one of the "original twelve counties" established in New York Pro
Crown Heights, Brooklyn
Crown Heights is a neighborhood in the central portion of the New York City borough of Brooklyn. The main thoroughfare through this neighborhood is Eastern Parkway, a tree-lined boulevard designed by Frederick Law Olmsted extending 2 miles east–west; the area was known as Crow Hill. It was a succession of hills running east and west from Utica Avenue to Washington Avenue, south to Empire Boulevard and East New York Avenue; the name was changed when Crown Street was cut through in 1916. Crown Heights is bounded by Washington Avenue to the west, Atlantic Avenue to the north, Ralph Avenue to the east, Empire Boulevard/East New York Avenue to the south, it is 2 miles long. Neighborhoods bordering Crown Heights include Prospect Heights to the west and Prospect Lefferts Gardens to the south, Brownsville to the east, Bedford-Stuyvesant to the north; the northern half of Crown Heights is part of Brooklyn Community District 8 and is patrolled by the 77th Precinct of the New York City Police Department.
The southern half is part of Brooklyn Community District 9 and is patrolled by the 71st Precinct of the NYPD. Crown Heights's primary ZIP Codes are 11213, 11216, 11233, 11238, 11225. Politically, it is represented by the New York City Council's 35th, 36th, 41st Districts. Although no known physical evidence remains in the Crown Heights vicinity, large portions of what is now called Long Island including present-day Brooklyn were occupied by the Lenape; the Lenape lived in communities of bark- or grass-covered wigwams, in their larger settlements—typically located on high ground adjacent to fresh water, occupied in the fall and spring—they fished, harvested shellfish, trapped animals, gathered wild fruits and vegetables, cultivated corn, tobacco and other crops. The first recorded contact between the indigenous people of the New York City region and Europeans was with the Italian explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano in 1524 in the service of France when he anchored at the approximate location where the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge touches down in Brooklyn today.
There he was visited by a canoe party of Lenape. The next contact was in 1609 when the explorer Henry Hudson arrived in what is now New York Harbor aboard a Dutch East India Company ship, the Halve Maen commissioned by the Dutch Republic. European habitation in the New York City area began in earnest with the founding of a Dutch fur trading settlement called "Nieuw Amsterdam", on the southern tip of Manhattan in 1614. By 1630, Dutch and English colonists started moving into the western end of Long Island. In 1637, Joris Jansen de Rapalje purchased about 335 acres around Wallabout Bay and over the following two years, director Kieft of the Dutch West India Company purchased title to nearly all the land in what is now Kings County and Queens County from the indigenous inhabitants; the areas around present-day Crown Heights saw its first European settlements starting in about 1661/1662 when several men each received, from Governor Peter Stuyvesant and the directors of the Dutch West India Company what was described as “a parcel of free woodland there” on the condition that they situate their houses “within one of the other concentration, which would suit them best, but not to make a hamlet.”
Crown Heights had begun as a fashionable residential neighborhood, a place for secondary homes in which Manhattan's growing bourgeois class could reside. The area benefited by having its rapid transit in a subway configuration, the IRT Eastern Parkway Line, in contrast to many other Brooklyn neighborhoods, which had elevated lines. Conversion to a commuter town included tearing down the 19th century Kings County Penitentiary at Carroll Street and Nostrand Avenue. Beginning in the early 1900s, many upper-class residences, including characteristic brownstone buildings, were erected along Eastern Parkway. Away from the parkway were a mixture of lower middle-class residences; this development peaked in the 1920s. Before World War II Crown Heights was among New York City's premier neighborhoods, with tree-lined streets, an array of cultural institutions and parks, numerous fraternal and community organizations. From the early 1920s through the 1960s, Crown Heights was an overwhelmingly white neighborhood and predominantly Jewish.
Population changes began in the 1920s with newcomers from Jamaica and the West Indies, as well as African Americans from the South. In 1950, the neighborhood was 89 percent white, with some 50 to 60 percent of the white population, or about 75,000 people, being Jewish, a small, growing black population. By 1957, there were about 25,000 blacks in Crown Heights, making up about one-fourth of the population. Following the end of World War II, suburbanization began to affect Crown Heights and Brooklyn. Robert Moses expanded the borough’s access to Long Island through expressway construction, by way of the G. I. Bill, many families moved east. Most of these opportunities were limited to whites. Levittown in Long Island, for example, forbid applications from black families; as the Jewish and Italian populations of Crown Heights moved out of Brooklyn, black people from the south and immigrants from the Caribbean continued to move there. The 1957 departure of the Brooklyn Dodgers and the destruction of Ebbets Field for public housing for its black population symbolically served as the end of the old white ethnic Crown Heights and in the 1960s the neighborhood experienced mass white flight.
The demographic change was astounding. The one exception to this pattern was