United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland. The United Kingdom, having financed the European coalition that defeated France during the Napoleonic Wars, developed a large Royal Navy that enabled the British Empire to become the foremost world power for the next century; the Crimean War with Russia and the Boer wars were small operations in a peaceful century. Rapid industrialisation that began in the decades prior to the state's formation continued up until the mid-19th century; the Great Irish Famine, exacerbated by government inaction in the mid-19th century, led to demographic collapse in much of Ireland and increased calls for Irish land reform. The 19th century was an era of rapid economic modernisation and growth of industry and finance, in which Britain dominated the world economy. Outward migration was heavy to the United States; the empire was expanded into much of South Asia. The Colonial Office and India Office ruled through a small number of administrators who managed the units of the empire locally, while democratic institutions began to develop.
British India, by far the most important overseas possession, saw a short-lived revolt in 1857. In overseas policy, the central policy was free trade, which enabled British and Irish financiers and merchants to operate in many otherwise independent countries, as in South America. London formed no permanent military alliances until the early 20th century, when it began to cooperate with Japan and Russia, moved closer to the United States. Growing desire for Irish self-governance led to the Irish War of Independence, which resulted in most of Ireland seceding from the Union and forming the Irish Free State in 1922. Northern Ireland remained part of the Union, the state was renamed to the current "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland" in 1927; the modern-day United Kingdom is the same country as the one from this period—a direct continuation of what remained after the secession—not an new successor state. A brief period of limited independence for Ireland came to an end following the Irish Rebellion of 1798, which occurred during the British war with revolutionary France.
The British government's fear of an independent Ireland siding against them with the French resulted in the decision to unite the two countries. This was brought about by legislation in the parliaments of both kingdoms and came into effect on 1 January 1801; the Irish had been led to believe by the British that their loss of legislative independence would be compensated with Catholic emancipation, that is, by the removal of civil disabilities placed upon Roman Catholics in both Great Britain and Ireland. However, King George III was bitterly opposed to any such Emancipation and succeeded in defeating his government's attempts to introduce it. During the War of the Second Coalition, Britain occupied most of the French and Dutch overseas possessions, the Netherlands having become a satellite state of France in 1796, but tropical diseases claimed the lives of over 40,000 troops; when the Treaty of Amiens ended the war, Britain agreed to return most of the territories it had seized. The peace settlement was in effect only a ceasefire, Napoleon continued to provoke the British by attempting a trade embargo on the country and by occupying the city of Hanover, capital of the Electorate, a German-speaking duchy, in a personal union with the United Kingdom.
In May 1803, war was declared again. Napoleon's plans to invade Great Britain failed, chiefly due to the inferiority of his navy, in 1805 a Royal Navy fleet led by Nelson decisively defeated the French and Spanish at Trafalgar, the last significant naval action of the Napoleonic Wars. In 1806, Napoleon issued the series of Berlin Decrees, which brought into effect the Continental System; this policy aimed to eliminate the threat from the British by closing French-controlled territory to foreign trade. The British Army remained a minimal threat to France. Although the Royal Navy disrupted France's extra-continental trade—both by seizing and threatening French shipping and by seizing French colonial possessions—it could do nothing about France's trade with the major continental economies and posed little threat to French territory in Europe. France's population and agricultural capacity far outstripped that of the British Isles, but it was smaller in terms of industry, mercantile marine and naval strength.
Napoleon expected that cutting Britain off from the European mainland would end its economic hegemony. On the contrary Britain possessed the greatest industrial capacity in the world, its mastery of the seas allowed it to build up considerable economic strength through trade to its possessions and the United States; the Spanish uprising in 1808 at last permitted Britain to gain a foothold on the Continent. The Duke of Wellington pushed the French out of Spain, in early 1814, as Napoleon was being driven back in the east by the Prussians and Russians, Wellington invaded southern France. After Napoleon's surrender and exile to the island of Elba, peace appeared to have returned. Napoleon reappeared in 1815; the Allies united and the armies of Wellington and Blücher defeated Napoleon once and for all at Waterloo. To defeat France, Britain put heavy pressure on the Americans
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Western Australia is a state occupying the entire western third of Australia. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean to the north and west, the Southern Ocean to the south, the Northern Territory to the north-east, South Australia to the south-east. Western Australia is Australia's largest state, with a total land area of 2,529,875 square kilometres, the second-largest country subdivision in the world, surpassed only by Russia's Sakha Republic; the state has about 2.6 million inhabitants – around 11 percent of the national total – of whom the vast majority live in the south-west corner, 79 per cent of the population living in the Perth area, leaving the remainder of the state sparsely populated. The first European visitor to Western Australia was the Dutch explorer Dirk Hartog, who visited the Western Australian coast in 1616; the first European settlement of Western Australia occurred following the landing by Major Edmund Lockyer on 26 December 1826 of an expedition on behalf of the New South Wales colonial government.
He established a convict-supported military garrison at King George III Sound, at present-day Albany, on 21 January 1827 formally took possession of the western third of the continent for the British Crown. This was followed by the establishment of the Swan River Colony in 1829, including the site of the present-day capital, Perth. York was the first inland settlement in Western Australia. Situated 97 kilometres east of Perth, it was settled on 16 September 1831. Western Australia achieved responsible government in 1890 and federated with the other British colonies in Australia in 1901. Today, its economy relies on mining, agriculture and tourism; the state produces 46 per cent of Australia's exports. Western Australia is the second-largest iron ore producer in the world. Western Australia is bounded to the east by longitude 129°E, the meridian 129 degrees east of Greenwich, which defines the border with South Australia and the Northern Territory, bounded by the Indian Ocean to the west and north.
The International Hydrographic Organization designates the body of water south of the continent as part of the Indian Ocean. The total length of the state's eastern border is 1,862 km. There are 20,781 km including 7,892 km of island coastline; the total land area occupied by the state is 2.5 million km2. The bulk of Western Australia consists of the old Yilgarn craton and Pilbara craton which merged with the Deccan Plateau of India and the Karoo and Zimbabwe cratons of Southern Africa, in the Archean Eon to form Ur, one of the oldest supercontinents on Earth. In May 2017, evidence of the earliest known life on land may have been found in 3.48-billion-year-old geyserite and other related mineral deposits uncovered in the Pilbara craton. Because the only mountain-building since has been of the Stirling Range with the rifting from Antarctica, the land is eroded and ancient, with no part of the state above 1,245 metres AHD. Most of the state is a low plateau with an average elevation of about 400 metres low relief, no surface runoff.
This descends sharply to the coastal plains, in some cases forming a sharp escarpment. The extreme age of the landscape has meant that the soils are remarkably infertile and laterised. Soils derived from granitic bedrock contain an order of magnitude less available phosphorus and only half as much nitrogen as soils in comparable climates in other continents. Soils derived from extensive sandplains or ironstone are less fertile, nearly devoid of soluble phosphate and deficient in zinc, copper and sometimes potassium and calcium; the infertility of most of the soils has required heavy application by farmers of fertilizers. These have resulted in damage to bacterial populations; the grazing and use of hoofed mammals and heavy machinery through the years have resulted in compaction of soils and great damage to the fragile soils. Large-scale land clearing for agriculture has damaged habitats for native fauna; as a result, the South West region of the state has a higher concentration of rare, threatened or endangered flora and fauna than many areas of Australia, making it one of the world's biodiversity "hot spots".
Large areas of the state's wheatbelt region have problems with dryland salinity and the loss of fresh water. The southwest coastal area has a Mediterranean climate, it was heavily forested, including large stands of karri, one of the tallest trees in the world. This agricultural region is one of the nine most bio-diverse terrestrial habitats, with a higher proportion of endemic species than most other equivalent regions. Thanks to the offshore Leeuwin Current, the area is one of the top six regions for marine biodiversity and contains the most southerly coral reefs in the world. Average annual rainfall varies from 300 millimetres at the edge of the Wheatbelt region to 1,400 millimetres in the wettest areas near Northcliffe, but from November to March, evaporation exceeds rainfall, it is very dry. Plants are adapted to this as well as the extreme poverty of all soils; the central two-thirds of the state is sparsely inhabited. The only significant economic activity is mining. Annual rainfall averages less than 300 millimetres, most of which occurs in sporadic torrential falls related to cyclone events in summer.
An exception to this is
Business rates in England
Business rates in England or non-domestic rates is a tax on the occupation of non-domestic property. Rates are a property tax with ancient roots, used to fund local services, formalised with the Poor Law 1572 and superseded by the Poor Law of 1601; the Local Government Finance Act 1988 introduced business rates in England and Wales from 1990, repealing its immediate predecessor, the General Rate Act 1967. The act introduced business rates in Scotland, but as an amendment to the existing system which had evolved separately to that in the rest of Great Britain. Since the establishment, in 1997, of a Welsh Assembly able to pass legislation, the English and Welsh systems have been able to diverge. In 2015 business rates for Wales were devolved; the Local Government Finance Act 1988, with follow-up legislation, provided a fresh administrative framework for assessing and billing, but did not redefine the legal unit of property, the hereditament, developed through rating case law. Properties are assessed in a rating list with a rateable value, a valuation of their annual rental value on a fixed valuation date using assumptions fixed by statute.
Rating lists are created and maintained by the Valuation Office Agency, a UK government executive agency. Rating lists can be altered either to reflect changes in properties, or as valuations are appealed against. New rating lists are created every five years, the 2015 revaluation has been postponed until 2017. In 2014-15 authorities collected a total of £22.9 billion in business rates, representing 3.53% of the total UK tax income and achieving an average in-year collection rate of 98.1%. On 1 April 2013 a new system of business rates retention began in England. Before April 2013 all business rate income collected by councils formed a single, national pot, distributed by government in the form of formula grant. Through the Local Government Finance Act 2012, regulations that followed, the government gave local authorities the power to keep up to half of business rate income and transfer half of it centrally, to central government; the central share is distributed to councils in the form of revenue support grants.
The other half kept by local authorities are subjected to tariff, top-up and safety payments depending on the financial position of the council. According to the government the change gives financial incentives to councils to grow their local economies and increase their income from business rates. At the same time the new scheme has resulted in uncertainty. Business rates are the latest incarnation of a series of taxes for funding local services known as rates, based on property values; the first rate was part of the Elizabethan Poor Law Act 1572, which established relief for the poor at the local parish level, paid for by inhabitants of the parish. A system of rates to fund local government and services evolved over the next three centuries, including a separate system for London from 1869 to 1963. Changes included a stricter definition of; the immediate predecessor to business rates was the general rate, established by the General Rate Act 1967. This was a local tax in England and Wales on both domestic and non-domestic property and was based on rental values.
It retained the core concept of how to identify a rateable property from the older rating systems, along with other features, can still be seen in the modern system. The Local Government Finance Act 1988 repealed the General Rate Act and replaced it with two new taxes from 1 April 1990; the Community Charge, better known as the "poll tax", replaced the rating of domestic property. It was itself replaced by Council Tax; the remaining non-domestic properties were to be covered by a modernised version of the general rate. The new non-domestic rating system became known as business rates, or sometimes the universal business rate, it retained from its predecessors the concept of a series of local rating lists, with each property being assessed for a rateable value based on rental values. Rating lists were prepared and maintained by the Valuation Office, while billing and collection was the responsibility of local authorities. Local authorities had decided what proportion of rateable values to charge.
The bill could be further modified by various reliefs, including the newly introduced transitional relief, designed to smooth large changes in liability due to revaluations. The multiplier was calculated to ensure that, on average, bills rose by no more than the rate of inflation. A system of rating had evolved in Scotland, through separate legislation. While in many ways similar, key underlying concepts in the Scottish system differed, as did the administrative scheme; the Local Government Finance Act 1988 renamed the Scottish rates, imposed the centrally set multiplier, but did not otherwise disturb the Scottish rating legislation. During the introduction of business rates, criticism focused on the level of the multiplier to be chosen, on the transitional relief scheme, with organisations such as the Confederation of British Industry calling for a lower multiplier and a relief scheme more to the benefit of its members. In 2007, the Lyons Inquiry into Local Government said there was no significa
New International Encyclopedia
The New International Encyclopedia was an American encyclopedia first published in 1902 by Dodd and Company. It descended from the International Cyclopaedia and was updated in 1906, 1914 and 1926; the New International Encyclopedia was the successor of the International Cyclopaedia. The International Cyclopaedia was a reprint of Alden's Library of Universal Knowledge, a reprint of the British Chambers's Encyclopaedia; the title was changed to The New International Encyclopedia in 1902, with editors Harry Thurston Peck, Daniel Coit Gilman, Frank Moore Colby. The encyclopedia was popular and reprints were made in 1904, 1905, 1907, 1909 and 1911; the 2nd edition appeared from 1914 to 1917 in 24 volumes. With Peck and Gilman deceased, Colby was joined by Talcott Williams; this edition was set up from new type and revised. It was strong in biography. A third edition was published in 1923, however this was a reprint with the addition of a history of the First World War in volume 24, a reading and study guide.
A two-volume supplement was published in 1925 and was incorporated into the 1927 reprint, which had 25 volumes. A further two volumes supplement in 1930 along with another reprint; the final edition was published in 1935, now under the Wagnalls label. This edition included another updating supplement, authored by Herbert Treadwell Wade; some material from the The New International would be incorporated into future books published by Funk and Wagnall's books such as Funk & Wagnalls Standard Encyclopaedia. The 1926 material was printed in Massachusetts, by Yale University Press. Boston Bookbinding Company of Cambridge produced the covers. Thirteen books enclosing 23 volumes comprise the encyclopedia, which includes a supplement after Volume 23; each book contains about 1600 pages. Like other encyclopedias of the time, The New International had a yearly supplement, The New International Yearbook, beginning in 1908. Like the encyclopedia itself, this publication was sold to Funk and Wagnalls in 1931.
It was edited by Frank Moore Colby until his death in 1925, by Wade. In 1937 Frank Horace Vizetelly became editor; the yearbook outlasted the parent encyclopedia, running to 1966. More than 500 men and women submitted and composed the information contained in the The New International Encyclopedia. Walsh, S. P.. Anglo-American general encyclopedias: a historical bibliography, 1703–1967. New York: Bowker. OCLC 577541. Works related to The New International Encyclopedia at Wikisource
Fianna Fáil Fianna Fáil – The Republican Party, is a conservative political party in Ireland. The party was founded as an Irish republican party on 23 March 1926 by Éamon de Valera and his supporters after they split from Sinn Féin on the issue of abstentionism, in the aftermath of the Irish Civil War. Fianna Fáil has since 1927 been one of Ireland's two major parties, along with Fine Gael; the party dominated Irish political life for most of the 20th century, since its foundation either it or Fine Gael has led every government. Between 1989 and 2011, it led coalition governments with parties of the right. Fianna Fáil was last in government from 1997 to 2011 under Bertie Ahern and Brian Cowen, with a periodic high of 81 seats in 2002, reduced to 77 in 2007 and to 20 in 2011, the lowest in the party's history. Having won 44 seats at the 2016 general election, Fianna Fáil is the largest Opposition party in both houses of the Oireachtas, with party leader Micheál Martin entering into a confidence and supply arrangement with a Fine Gael-led minority government at the beginning of the 32nd Dáil.
Fianna Fáil is a member of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe and of Liberal International. Since 9 February 2019, Fianna Fáil has been in partnership with the Social Democratic and Labour Party in Northern Ireland. Fianna Fáil was founded by a former leader of Sinn Féin, he and a number of other members split from Sinn Féin when a motion he proposed—which called for elected members to be allowed to take their seats in Dáil Éireann if and when the controversial Oath of Allegiance was removed—failed to pass at the Sinn Féin Ard Fheis in 1926. The party adopted its name on 2 April of the same year. While it was opposed to the Treaty settlement, it rejected abstentionism, instead aiming to republicanise the Irish Free State from within. Fianna Fáil's platform of economic autarky had appeal among the farmers, working-class people and the poor, while alienating more affluent classes; the party first entered government on 9 March 1932. It was in power for 61 of the 79 years between and the election of 2011.
Its longest continuous period in office has been 11 months. Its longest single period out of office in the 20th century was four months. Seven of the party's eight leaders have served as Taoiseach. Fianna Fáil joined the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe party on 16 April 2009, the party's Members of the European Parliament sat in the ALDE Group during the 7th European Parliament term from June 2009 to 1 July 2014; the party is an observer affiliate of the Liberal International. It was the largest party in the Dáil after every general election from that of 1932 until that of 2007. In the 2011 general election it suffered the worst defeat of a sitting government in the history of the Irish state; this loss was described as "historic" in its proportions, "unthinkable". The party sank from being the largest in the Dáil to the third-largest. Fianna Fáil's success was credited by The Irish Times to its local structure; the basic unit was the cumann. At the party's height it had an average of 75 per constituency.
The party claimed 55,000 members in 2004, a figure which political scientist Eoin O'Malley considers exaggerated compared to membership figures for other parties. However, from the early 1990s onward; every cumann was entitled to three votes to selection conventions irrespective of its size. Another problem had arisen with the emergence of parallel organisations grouped around candidates or elected officials. Supporters and election workers for a particular candidate were loyal to a candidate and not to the party. If the candidate were to leave the party, through either resignation, retirement or defeat at an election, the candidate's supporters would depart. Although this phenomenon was nothing new it increased from the early 1990s in the Dublin Region with former Taoiseach Bertie Ahern's "Drumcondra mafia" and the groups supporting Tom Kitt and Séamus Brennan in Dublin South that were separate from the official party structure. Since the 2007 election, the party's structure has weakened; this was in part exacerbated by significant infighting between candidates in the run-up to the 2011 general election.
The Irish Times estimated that half of its 3,000 cumainn were moribund. This fraction rose in Dublin with the exception of Dublin West, the former seat of both Brian Lenihan Snr and Brian Lenihan Jnr. Fianna Fáil is seen as a typical catch-all party. R. Ken Carty wrote of Fianna Fáil and Fine Gael that they were'heterogeneous in their bases of support undifferentiated in terms of policy or programme, remarkably stable in their support levels'. Evidence from expert surveys, opinion polls and candidate surveys all fail to identify strong distinctions between the two parties. Many point to Ireland's Civil War politics, feel that the ba
1977 Irish general election
The Irish general election of 1977 was held on 16 June 1977 and is regarded as a pivotal point in twentieth-century Irish politics. Jack Lynch led; the general election took place in 42 parliamentary constituencies throughout Ireland for 148 seats in the lower house of parliament, Dáil Éireann. The number of seats in the Dáil was increased by 4 from 144 to 148; the newly elected 148 members of the 21st Dáil assembled at Leinster House on 5 July, when a new Fianna Fáil government replaced the incumbent Fine Gael–Labour Party coalition, Jack Lynch becoming Taoiseach for the second time. In spite of having faced some controversial issues during its term of office, the ruling Fine Gael–Labour Party coalition looked set to defy political history by winning an unprecedented second term; this belief was further augmented following the so-called "Tullymander" of parliamentary constituencies. This refers to the Minister for Local Government James Tully, his scheme of redrawing every constituency in the country in an effort to maximise the vote for the coalition partners.
For example, in Dublin there were thirteen three-seat constituencies. It was hoped that the coalition partners would win two of the seats, leaving Fianna Fáil with only one seat. A similar tactic was used in rural areas; as a result of this, Fianna Fáil and its leader Jack Lynch believed that they couldn't win the general election. The party drew up a manifesto which offered the electorate a string of financial and economic "sweeteners", encouraging them to vote for Fianna Fáil; some of the promises that were offered included the abolition of rates on houses, the abolition of car tax and the promise of reducing unemployment to under 100,000. Lynch agreed to the manifesto because he believed that the party needed something dramatic if it were to win the election. Both The Irish Times and The Irish Press, edited by Tim Pat Coogan, were critical of the government's curtailment of freedom of speech and in particular of the Minister for Posts and Telegraphs Conor Cruise O'Brien, who used these restrictions against the PIRA.
The Fianna Fáil campaign was based on the American model. Inspired by director of elections Séamus Brennan, Lynch travelled the length and breadth of the country, music blaring, accompanied by his followers, his popularity was at its highest, it soon became clear he might win the election. Lynch's popularity was a big electoral asset; the party slogan "Bring Back Jack" played on Lynch's huge appeal. But the monetary sweeteners were Fianna Fáil's biggest asset. In contrast to Fianna Fáil, the government parties of Fine Gael and the Labour Party fought the general election on their record in government; the redrawing of the constituency boundaries gave them hope for success, however they offered little to the electorate except for the policies they had been pursuing for the previous four years. While towards the end of the campaign Fianna Fáil were expected to win the general election, nobody predicted the scale of that victory. An unprecedented twenty-seat majority in Dáil Éireann for Fianna Fáil saw the National Coalition swept from power in what was at the time the biggest political hurricane in Irish history.
Only Éamon de Valera had done better, but only once out of 13 elections. Following the election defeat the leaders of Fine Gael and the Labour Party, Liam Cosgrave and Brendan Corish resigned as leaders of their respective parties, the first occasion in which a defeated Taoiseach or Tánaiste had done so. "Tullymandering" and the unprecedented sweeteners were the cause for the scale of the coalition's defeat. The new government established an independent commission to carry out future boundary revisions. Independents include the Community group in Dublin. Fianna Fáil majority government formed. A total of 42 TDs were elected for the first time: Myra Barry Clement Coughlan Liam Burke Liam Burke Ruairí Brugha Justin Keating Conor Cruise O'Brien Seán Flanagan Richard Gogan Gus Healy Brigid Hogan-O'Higgins Eugene Timmons Members of the 21st Dáil Government of the 21st Dáil Ministers of State of the 21st Dáil Gerrymandering in Ireland