Baingan bharta is a dish from the Indian subcontinent that originated in the Punjab region.'Baingan ka bharta' is a part of the national cuisines of all nation states of the Indian subcontinent. It is a vegetarian dish, prepared by mincing eggplant, grilled over charcoal or direct fire; this infuses the dish with a smoky flavour. The smoked and mashed eggplant is mixed with cooked chopped tomato, browned onion, garlic, fresh cilantro, chili pepper, mustard oil or a neutral vegetable oil. Traditionally, the dish is eaten with flatbread and is served with rice or raita, a yogurt salad. In states such as Bihar and Uttar Pradesh, it is served hot with litti. In Pakistan and Bangladesh, baingan bharta is part of popular cuisine, while in India, it is part of the cuisines of many states, including Karnataka, Maharashtra and West Bengal; the dish has several regional names, such as: baingan ka bhurtha, baingan da bhurtha, pura begena chatoni, wangyacha bharit, begun bhôrta, olo. Some non-Punjabi variants may omit the tomato and sometimes the onion as well.
In Karnataka, it is called eṇṇegāyi and prepared by boiling and frying whole eggplant served with akki rotti. In the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu, the Tamils prepare a similar dish called kathrikai thayir kothsu, in which the eggplant is cooked and sautéed with mustard, red chilis and sesame oil; the final step in the recipe involves adding yogurt to the mixture and dressing the dish with coriander leaves. In the Bhojpuri-speaking regions of India, it is known as baigan ka chokha. In Maharashtra in the northern Khandesh region, vangyache bharit as they call it is served in social gatherings including wedding ceremonies. During harvest season, a special "bharit party" is organised. Bharit is served with puri. In the Vidarbha and Khandesh regions of Maharashtra, two variants are popular: kachha bharit and phodni cha bharit. In kachha bharit, all the ingredients except for eggplant are used uncooked. Raw spring onion, green chillies, green coriander, sometimes fresh fenugreek leaves are mixed with flame-roasted eggplant along with raw linseed oil or peanut oil.
In phodni cha bharit, the above ingredients are first fried in oil with spices. The similar process is followed in other Indian states and Pakistan with slight variations on ingredients. In Vidarbha and Khandesh, it is considered a delicacy when the eggplants are roasted on a dried cotton plant stems, a process which gives a distinct smokey flavour to the dish; the dish is served with dal and rice. Eggplant is popular in Afghanistan in the form of a traditional salad called "bonjan salad", served at room temperature together with main dishes; the dish is served with a variety of breads and is similar to another Afghani dish called baingan ka raita. There are many variation of preparing eggplant. In a protest against BT Brinjal and the introduction of genetically modified crops, volunteers from Greenpeace and Delhi's Le Méridien hotel cooked 342 kilograms of organic brinjal bharta at Dilli Haat, New Delhi, on 6 September 2011; this set a world record for the largest amount of the dish produced in one occasion of preparation.
A portion of the final dish was sent to the Indian Prime Minister, Manmohan Singh's residence, accompanied by a letter of protest containing an explanation. Eggplant salads and appetizers List of smoked foods Step by step recipe of authentic baigan Bharta Baingan Bharta Recipe with Spring Onion Baingan aloo tamatar ka mix chokha
Indian classical dance
Indian classical dance, or Shastriya Nritya, is an umbrella term for various performance arts rooted in religious Hindu musical theatre styles, whose theory and practice can be traced to the Sanskrit text Natya Shastra. The number of recognized classical dances range from eight to more, depending on the source and scholar; the Sangeet Natak Akademi recognizes eight – Bharatanatyam, Kuchipudi, Kathakali, Sattriya and Mohiniyattam. Scholars such as Drid Williams add Chhau and Bhagavata Mela to the list; the Culture Ministry of the Government of India includes Chhau in its classical list. These dances are traditionally regional, all of them include music and recitation in local language or Sanskrit, they represent a unity of core ideas in a diversity of styles and expression; the Natya Shastra is the foundational treatise for classical dances of India, this text is attributed to the ancient scholar Bharata Muni. Its first complete compilation is dated to between 200 BCE and 200 CE, but estimates vary between 500 BCE and 500 CE.
The most studied version of the Natya Shastra text consists of about 6000 verses structured into 36 chapters. The text, states Natalia Lidova, describes the theory of Tāṇḍava dance, the theory of rasa, of bhāva, gestures, acting techniques, basic steps, standing postures – all of which are part of Indian classical dances. Dance and performance arts, states this ancient text, are a form of expression of spiritual ideas and the essence of scriptures. While the Natya Shastra is the revered ancient text in the Hindu tradition, there are numerous other ancient and medieval Sanskrit dance-drama related texts that further discuss and expand on the classical repertoire of performance arts, such as the Abhinaya Darpana, Abhinaba Bharati, Natya Darpana, Bhava Prakasa and many others; the term "classical" denotes the Natya Shastra-based performing arts. The text Natya Shastra describes religious arts as a form as margi, or a "spiritual traditional path" that liberates the soul, while the folk entertainment is called desi, or a "regional popular practice".
Indian classical dances are traditionally performed as an expressive drama-dance form of religious performance art, related to Vaishnavism, Shaktism, pan-Hindu Epics and the Vedic literature, or a folksy entertainment that includes story-telling from Sanskrit or regional language plays. As a religious art, they are either near it. Folksy entertainment may be performed in temple grounds or any fairground in a rural setting by traveling troupes of artists; the Natya Shastra mentions four Pravrittis of ancient dance-drama in vogue when it was composed – Avanti, Dakshinatya and Odra-Magadhi. Sources differ in their list of Indian classical dance forms. Encyclopædia Britannica mentions six dances; the Sangeet Natak Akademi has given recognition to nine Indian dances. The Indian government's Ministry of Culture includes eleven dance forms. Scholars such as Drid Williams and others include Chhau and Bhagavata Mela to the eight classical Indian dances in the Sangeet Natak Akademi list; the classical dance forms recognised by the Sangeet Natak Akademi and the Ministry of Culture are: Bharatanatyam, from Tamil Nadu Kathak, from Uttar Pradesh and western India Kathakali, from Kerala Kuchipudi, from Andhra Pradesh Odissi, from Odisha Sattriya, from Assam Manipuri, from Manipur Mohiniyattam, from Kerala Chhau, from Jharkhand, West Bengal and Odisha All major classical Indian dance forms include in repertoire, three categories of performance in the Natya Shastra.
These are Nritta and Natya: The Nritta performance is abstract and rhythmic aspect of the dance. The viewer is presented with pure movement, wherein the emphasis is the beauty in motion, speed and pattern; this part of the repertoire has no interpretative aspect, no telling of story. It is a technical performance, aims to engage the senses of the audience; the Nritya is slower and expressive aspect of the dance that attempts to communicate feelings, storyline with spiritual themes in Hindu dance traditions. In a nritya, the dance-acting expands to include silent expression of words through gestures and body motion set to musical notes; the actor articulates a spiritual message. This part of the repertoire is more than sensory enjoyment, it aims to engage the emotions and mind of the viewer; the Natyam is a play a team performance, but can be acted out by a solo performer where the dancer uses certain standardized body movements to indicate a new character in the underlying story. A Natya incorporates the elements of a Nritya.
All classical dances of India used similar symbolism and rules of gestures in abhinaya. The roots of abhinaya are found in the Natyashastra text which defines drama in verse 6.10 as that which aesthetically arouses joy in the spectator, through the medium of actor's art of communication, that helps connect and transport the individual into a super sensual inner state of being. A performance art, asserts Natyashastra, connects the artists and the audience through abhinaya, applying body-speech-mind and scene, wherein the actors communicate to the audience, through song and music. Drama in this ancient Sanskrit text, thus is an art to engage every aspect of life, in order to glorify and gift a state of joyful consciousness; the communication through symbols is in pantomime set to music. The gestures and
The Mahishadal Rathayatra is held annually in Mahishadal in Purba Medinipur District, West Bengal. The rathayatra was founded by Janaki Devi of Mahishadal estate in the year 1776. Mahesh Rathayatra Guptipara Rathayatra Dhamrai Rathayatra
Sarada Devi. Sarada Devi is reverentially addressed as the Holy Mother by the followers of the Sri Ramakrishna monastic order. Sri Sarada Devi or Sri Sri Maa is one of the notable woman saints and mystics of the nineteenth century, she paved the way for the future generation of women to take up monasticity as the means and end of life. In fact the Sri Sarada Math and Ramakrishna Sarada Mission situated at Dakshineshwar is based on the ideals and life of Sri Sri Maa. Sri Sarada Devi played an important role in the growth of the Ramakrishna Movement. Sri Sarada Devi was born in Joyrambati. At the age of five she was betrothed to Sri Ramakrishna, whom she joined at Dakshineswar Kali temple when she was in her late teens. According to her biographers, both lived lives of unbroken continence, showing the ideals of a householder and of the monastic ways of life. After Sri Ramakrishna's death, Maa Sarada Devi stayed most of the time either at Joyrambati or at the Udbodhan office, Calcutta; the disciples of Sri Ramakrishna regarded her as their own mother, after their guru's death looked to her for advice and encouragement.
The followers of the Ramakrishna movement and a large section of devotees across the world worship Sri Sri Maa Sarada Devi as an incarnation of the Adi Parashakti or the Divine Mother. Saradamani Devi was born of Brahmin parents as the eldest daughter on 29 December 1853, in the quiet village of Jayrambati in present-day West Bengal, India, her parents, Ramachandra Mukhopadhyay and Shyama Sundari Devi, were poor. Her father Ramchandra earned his living through the performance of priestly duties. According to traditional accounts and Syama Sundari had visions and supernatural events foretelling the birth of a divine being as their daughter. Sarada lived the simple life of an Indian village girl; as a child Sarada—then known as Saradamani—was fascinated by traditional Hindu folklore and narratives. As in the case of most girls of rural upbringing, she did not receive any formal education but learned to serve others as she helped her mother run a large household and looked after her younger brothers.
During the terrible famine of 1864, Sarada worked ceaselessly as her family served food to hungry people. She was interested in the clay models of goddesses Lakshmi, which she worshiped regularly, she is said to have started meditating from her childhood and traditional accounts recount her mystic visions and experiences. According to Sarada Devi, she used to see a bevy of eight girls of her age coming from an unknown place and escorting her in her chores during her childhood. Ramakrishna—then known as Gadadhar Chattopadhayay and a priest of the Dakshineswar Kali Temple since 1855—was practising spiritual austerities, his mother and brother thought that a marriage would be a good steadying effect on him, by diverting his attention away from spiritual austerities and visions. It is reported. In May 1859, Sarada was betrothed to Ramakrishna. Sarada was 5 years old and Ramakrishna was 23. After the betrothal, Sarada was left to the care of her parents and Ramakrishna returned to Dakshineswar. Sarada next met Ramakrishna when she was fourteen years old, she spent three months with him at Kamarpukur.
There, Ramakrishna imparted to Sarada instructions on spiritual life. Ramakrishna's frequent bhava samadhi and unorthodox ways of worship led some onlookers to doubt his mental stability, while others regarded him as a great saint. Sarada joined Ramakrishna at Dakshineswar in 1872 on her own accord when she was eighteen, after hearing these rumours about his mental health, she found Ramakrishna to be caring person. At Dakshineswar, Sarada Devi stayed in a tiny room in the nahabat, she stayed at Dakshineswar except for short periods when she visited Jayrambati. By this time Ramakrishna had embraced the monastic life of a sannyasin; as a priest, Ramakrishna performed the ritual ceremony—the Shodashi Puja where Sarada Devi was made to sit in the seat of goddess Kali, worshiped as the divine mother Tripurasundari. According to Swami Saradananda a direct disciple of Ramakrishna, Ramakrishna married to show the world an ideal of a sexless marriage. Ramakrishna regarded Sarada as an incarnation of the Divine Mother, addressing her as Sree Maa and it was by this name that she was known to Ramakrishna's disciples.
Sarada Devi's days began at 3 am. After finishing her ablutions in the Bhāgirathi-Hooghly, she would practice japa and meditation until daybreak. Ramakrishna taught her the sacred mantras, instructed her how to initiate people and guide them in spiritual life. Sarada Devi is regarded as Ramakrishna's first disciple. Except for her hours of meditation, most of her time was spent in cooking for Ramakrishna and the growing number of his devotees. While Sarada Devi remained in the background, her unassuming, warm personality attracted some female devotees to become her lifelong companions. During Ramakrishna's last days, during which he suffered from throat cancer, Sarada Devi played an important role in nursing him and preparing suitable food for him and his disciples, it is reported that after Ramakrishna's death in August 1886, when Sarada Devi tried to remove her bracelets as the customs dictated for a widow, she had a vision of Ramakrishna in which he said, "I have not passed away, I have gone from one room to another."
According to her, whenever she thought
Rasgulla is an Indian syrupy dessert popular in the Indian subcontinent and regions with South Asian diaspora. It is made from ball-shaped dumplings of chhena and semolina dough, cooked in light syrup made of sugar; this is done. The dish originated in East India. In 2015, a committee formed by the government of Odisha asserted that the sweet had originated in Odisha, where it is offered at the Puri Jagannath Temple. In 2016, the West Bengal government applied for a Geographical Indications tag for the variant called "Banglar Rosogolla", clarifying that the Bengal and Odisha variants were different in "both in colour, taste, juice content and method of manufacturing."In 2017, when West Bengal got its Rosogolla's GI status, the Registry office of India clarified that West Bengal was given GI status for Banglar Rosogolla and Odisha can claim it too if they site the place of origin of their variant along with colour, taste, juice content and method of manufacturing. The dessert is known as Roshogolla in Bengali and Rasagola in Odia.
Rasgulla is derived from the words gulla. Other names for the dish include Roshgulla, Rossogolla, Rasagola and Rasbhari or Rasbari. According to historians of Odisha, the rasgulla originated in Puri, as khira mohana, which evolved into the Pahala rasgulla, it has been traditionally offered as bhog to goddess Lakshmi at Puri. According to the local legend, Laxmi gets upset because her husband Lord Jagannath goes on a 9-day sojourn without her consent. So, she locks Jai Vijay Dwar, one of the temple gates and prevents his convoy from re-entering the sanctum sanctorum of the temple. To appease her, Jagannath offers her rasgullas; this ritual, known as Bachanika, is part of the "Niladri Bije" observance, which marks the return of the deities to the temple after the Ratha Yatra. The Jagannath Temple scholars such as Laxmidhar Pujapanda and researchers like Jagabandhu Padhi state that the tradition has existed since the 12th century, when the present-day temple structure was first built. Pujapanda states that the Niladri Bije tradition is mentioned in Niladri Mahodaya, dated to the 18th century by Sarat Chandra Mahapatra.
According to Mahapatra, several temple scriptures, which are over 300 years old, provide the evidence of rasgulla offering ritual in Puri. According to folklore, Pahala had a large number of cows; the village would produce excess milk, the villagers would throw it away when it became spoilt. When a priest from the Jagannath Temple saw this, he taught them the art of curdling, including the recipe for rasagulla. Pahala thus went on to become the biggest market for chhena-based sweets in the area. According to the Bengali culinary historian Pritha Sen, in the mid-18th century, many Odia cooks were employed in Bengali homes who arguably have introduced Rasgulla along with many other Odia dishes. According to another theory, it is possible that the Bengali visitors to Puri might have carried the recipe for rasgulla back to Bengal in the nineteenth century; this claim is contested by Bengali historians. According to food historians K. T. Achaya and Chitra Banerji, there are no references to cheese in India before the 17th century.
The milk-based sweets were made up of khoa, before the Portuguese influence led to introduction of cheese-based sweets. Therefore, the possibility of a cheese-based dish being offered at Jagannath Temple in the 12th century is unlikely. According to Nobin Chandra Das' descendant Animikh Roy and historian Haripada Bhowmik, rasgulla is not mentioned as one of the chhappan bhog in the early records of the Temple, they state that it would have been a blasphemy to offer something made from spoiled milk to a deity. However, Michael Krondl argues that Hindu dietary rules vary from region to region, it is possible that this restriction did not exist in present-day Odisha. According to Asit Mohanty, an Odia research scholar on Jagannath cult and traditions, the sweet is mentioned as "Rasagola" in the 15th century text Jagamohana Ramayana of Balaram Das; the text mentions Rasagola, along with other sweets found in Odisha. There is mention of many other cheese made sweets like Chhenapuri and Rasabali. Another ancient text Premapanchamruta of Bhupati mentions cheese.
It is being argued. The spongy white rasgulla is believed to have been introduced in present-day West Bengal in 1868 by a Kolkata-based confectioner named Nobin Chandra Das. Das started making rasgulla by processing the mixture of chhena and semolina in boiling sugar syrup in contrast to the mixture sans semolina in the original rasgulla in his sweet shop located at Sutanuti, his descendants claim that his recipe was an original, but according to another theory, he modified the traditional Odisha rasgulla recipe to produce this less perishable variant. Yet another theory is that rasgulla was first prepared by someone else in Bengal, Das only popularized it. In Banglar Khabar, food historian Pranab Ray states that a man named Braja Moira had introduced rasgulla in his shop near Calcutta High Court in 1866, two years before Das started selling the dish. In 1906, Panchana Bandopadhyay wrote that rasgullla was invented in the 19th century by Haradhan Moira, a Phulia-based sweetmaker who worked
Martin Burn Limited is a Kolkata based construction and real-estate listed company. The history of Martin Burn Limited referred to as Martin & Burn Co. goes back to 1890, when Sir Rajen Mookerjee in partnership with Sir Thomas Acquin Martin started the firm named Martin Co.. Martin & Co, has to its credit of building waterworks at Tripura, Ahmedabad and Benares, but its major contribution are architectural marvels like Esplanade Mansion, Standard Chartered Building, South Eastern Railway Headquarters in Garden Reach, Tipu Sultan Mosque, Patna Secretariat and Ujjayanta Palace. Towards the high point of its career in 1904 the firm was awarded the contract of building the Victoria Memorial, completed in 1921. Many of these buildings have been declared Heritage monuments. Another construction firm, Burn & Co, founded as Burn & Currie by Alexander Burn in 1809 and had the experience of building many an important structures in Calcutta like St. Andrew’s Church, the 152 high Ochterlony Monument was taken over by Rajen Mookerjee in 1927 and the two together went on dotting the city with buildings like St. Xaviers’ College, Oriental Seminary, Belur Math, the headquarters of the Ramakrishna Mission, Darbhanga House the Calcutta residence of Darbhanga Raj, Assembly House, Grand Hotel Arcade, United Bank Buildings, New Secretariat Building, Club House at Eden Gardens – the list is endless.
The city of Kolkata - is sometimes referred to as Martin Burn City for this reason. The two companies were merged to form present day Martin Burn Limited in 1946. Sir Rajen Mookerjee along with Martin & Co. promoted Indian Iron & Steel Co. in year 1918. In 1936,the two of the group companies - namely, Bengal Iron Company and IISCO with Martin & Co and Burn & Co as the respective agents got merged to forge a strong unit. Martin Burn Limited is now operated by Fatehpuria's and the Mookerjees no longer hold any stake, it still operates from its original head office at 1, R. N. Mookerjee Road, Martin Burn House, Kolkata in B. B. D. Bagh area; the old Martin Burn House, in the Victorian style, has been replaced with a more modern multi-storey building housing many corporate offices. The company engages in turnkey projects, it is a listed entity. Rajen Mookerjee Burnpur "Martin Burn Ltd". MOney Control
Dhamrai Jagannath Roth is a chariot temple, a Roth, dedicated to the Hindu God Jagannath located in Dhamrai, Bangladesh. The annual Jagannath Roth Jatra is a famous Hindu festival attracting thousands of people; the Roth Jatra in Dhamrai is one of the most important events for the Hindu community of Bangladesh. Sri Jagannath is believed by the Hindus to be an incarnation of Lord Vishnu, one among the Holy Hindu Trinity of Gods. Lord Jagannath is believed to be a deity form of Lord Krishna. For the thousands of Hindu devotees, it is considered a pious deed and the huge processions accompanying the chariots play devotional songs with drums, trumpets etc. A glimpse of Lord Jagannath on the chariot is considered to be auspicious and saints and scriptures have glorified the sanctity of this special festival; the sanctity of the festival is such that a touch of the chariot or the ropes with which these are pulled is considered enough to confer the results of several pious deeds or penance for ages.
From the unpublished documents and records it seems that the Dhamrai Roth is said to be about 400 years old. It is learned from those records that from Bangla Year 1079 to 1204 the Roth, in existence was made with bamboos, it is, not known how this Bamboo made Roth was replaced by the one made of wood. The unpublished sources mention that in between BS 1204 to BS 1340 the Jamindars of Baliati had four ‘Roth’s made and they provided all the expenses for its construction; the last one took a period of one year to build and the carpenters of Dhamrai, Kaliakoir and Singair jointly worked to make a Roth, 60 feet in height and 45 feet wide, completed in 1340 BS, corresponding to 1933 AD. The newly constructed Roth was 3-storied; each of the first and second floors had four chambers at the four corners and one chamber on the top floor. These chambers or rooms were called ‘Noborotno’s; the Roth had 32 giant wooden wheels and was adorned with two wooden horses in front as well as carvings and paintings of Hindu deities.
Thick ropes made with about 1000 kilograms of jute fiber were used to pull the Roth along. As it was being pulled people lining up the street and on roof-tops would shower bananas and sugar on the Roth amidst cheers and chanting. After the abolition of ‘jamindari’ system in 1950, Ray Bahadur Ranada Prosad Shaha of Mirzapur, Tangail extended extensive support and financial assistance for the upkeep, maintenance of the Roth, for hosting of the event with pomp and grandeur; this support continued until 1970 under the auspices of Kumudini Welfare Trust, formed by Mr. R. P. Saha; the War of Liberation began in 1971 and this majestic historical Roth was burnt down by the Pakistan Army. The chief patron, Mr. R. P. Saha, was himself abducted and killed by the Army as an aftermath of ethnic cleansing which the Pakistan Army unleashed on Bangladesh Hindus. After Bangladesh gained independence, in order to carry on the tradition of yearly Roth festival, a makeshift Roth was built with bamboos with the assistance of the daughter of Mr. Saha, Mrs. Joya Pati, Justice Debesh Bhattacharya, Gouro Gopal Saha and Thakur Gopal Banik.
In the year 2006 Mrs. Bina Sikri, the Indian High Commissioner to Bangladesh pledged to provide financial assistance in building a new Roth. A 3-storied Roth was built in 2010; the new Roth is 27 feet long and of the same width. A Roth Committee of local people of Dhamrai with Mr. Rajib Saha, the son of Mr. R. P. Saha, as the chief Patron, have been holding this yearly gala event; the journey of the Roth begins from the Madhabbari Temple to the Gope Nagar Temple, regarded to be the In-Laws house, a distance of about half a kilometer away. During the festival, devotees brought to the Gope Nagar temple. After one week the Chariot is pulled back to Madhab Mandir again, termed as “Ulto Roth” - Return Journey; the Roth festival, Roth Mela, is a month long, connected with the Bengali calendar. It takes place during the Bengali month of Ashadh; the date is fixed on the second quarter of the moon. The time is during June, but sometimes it takes place in July; the celebrations are held along the main road of Dhamrai.
In addition to various stalls set up for sale of varieties of products and puppet shows come to provide entertainment to people from all walks of life and across religious faiths