Bibliography of sociology
This bibliography of sociology is a list of works, organized by subdiscipline, on the subject of sociology. Some of the works are selected from general anthologies of sociology. Sociology studies society using various methods of empirical investigation to understand human social activity, from the micro level of individual agency and interaction to the macro level of systems and social structure. Comte, Auguste. Discours sur l'ensemble du positivisme. Translated by J. H. Bridges. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-108-00064-2. Marx, Karl; the German Ideology. Including Theses on Feuerbach and introduction to The critique of political economy. Prometheus Books. ISBN 978-1-57392-258-6. Marx, Karl. Das Kapital. Gardners Books. ISBN 978-1-934568-43-9. Weber, Max. Die protestantische Ethik und der'Geist' des Kapitalismus. Translated by Peter Baehr. Wells. Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-043921-2. Puts forward a thesis that Puritan ethic and ideas had influenced the development of capitalism; however religious devotion was accompanied by rejection of mundane affairs including economic pursuit.
Why was that not the case with Protestantism? Weber addresses that paradox in that work. Durkheim, Emile. De La Division Du Travail Social. New York: Free Press. ISBN 978-0-684-83638-6. —. Le Suicide; the Free Press. ISBN 0-684-83632-7. A case study of suicide rates amongst Catholic and Jewish populations, distinguished sociological analysis from psychology or philosophy. A major contribution to structural functionalism.—. Cladis, Mark S. ed. Les formes élémentaires de la vie religieuse. Translated by Carol Cosman. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-954012-9. —. Les Règles de la Méthode Sociologique. Transl. by W. D. Halls with an introduction by Steven Lukes. New York, N. Y.: Free Press. ISBN 978-0-02-907940-9. Demography is the statistical study of human population, it encompasses the study of the size and distribution of these populations, spatial and/or temporal changes in them in response to birth, migration and death. Thomas Malthus, An Essay on the Principle of Population with A Summary View, Introduction by Professor Antony Flew.
Penguin Classics. ISBN 0-14-043206-X. Gunnar Myrdal and Alva Myrdal. Crisis in the Population Question Economic sociology attempts to explain economic phenomena, it concentrates on the roles of social relations and institutions. Tocqueville, Alexis De. Zunz, Olivier, ed. Democracy in America. Translated by Arthur Goldhammer; the Library of America. ISBN 1-931082-54-5. —. The Old Regime and the French Revolution. Translated by Stuart Gilbert. New York: Anchor Books. Durkheim, Emile. De La Division Du Travail Social. New York: Free Press. ISBN 978-0-684-83638-6. Simmel, George; the Philosophy of Money. Translated by David Frisby. Psychology Press. ISBN 978-0-415-34172-1. Weber, Max. Economy and Society. Berkeley: University of California Press. Polanyi, Karl; the Great Transformation: the political and economic origins of our time. Beacon Press. ISBN 978-0-8070-5643-1. Hirschman, Albert O. "Rival Interpretations of Market Society: Civilizing, Destructive, or Feeble?". Journal of Economic Literature. 20: 1463–1484. Granovetter, Mark.
"Economic Action and Social Structure: The Problem of Embeddedness". The American Journal of Sociology. 91: 481–510. Doi:10.1086/228311. White, Harrison C. 2002. Markets from Networks: Socioeconomic Models of Production. Princeton: Princeton University Press Smelser and Richard Swedberg. 2005. The Handbook of Economic Sociology. Boltanski, Luc; the New Spirit of Capitalism. Verso. Boltanski, Luc. On Justification; the Economies of Worth. Princeton University Press. Industrial sociology is the sociology of technological change, labor markets, work organization, managerial practices and employment relations. Daniel Bell The Coming of Post-Industrial Society Harry Braverman Labor and Monopoly Capital: The Degradation of Work in the Twentieth Century Michael Burawoy Manufacturing Consent: Changes in the Labor Process under Monopoly Capitalism Ronald P. Dore British factory, Japanese factory. Hannigan, John A.. Environmental sociology: a social constructionist perspective. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-11255-0.
Argues that a society's willingness to recognize and solve environmental problems depends more upon the way these claims are presented by a limited number of interest groups than upon the severity of the threat they pose. Schnaiberg, Alan. Environment and society: the enduring conflict. Caldwell, NJ: Blackburn. ISBN 1-930665-00-8
Sociology of race and ethnic relations
The sociology of race and ethnic relations is the study of social and economic relations between races and ethnicities at all levels of society. This area encompasses the study of systemic racism, like residential segregation and other complex social processes between different racial and ethnic groups; the sociological analysis of race and ethnicity interacts with other areas of sociology such as, but not limited to, stratification and social psychology, as well as with postcolonial theory. At the level of political policy, ethnic relations is discussed in terms of either assimilationism or multiculturalism. Anti-racism forms another style of policy popular in the 1960s and 1970s. At the level of academic inquiry, ethnic relations is discussed either by the experiences of individual racial-ethnic groups or else by overarching theoretical issues. Marx described society as having nine "great" classes, the capitalist class and the working class, with the middle classes falling in behind one or the other as they see fit.
He hoped for the working class to rise up against the capitalist class in an attempt to stop the exploitation of the working class. He blamed part of their failure to organize on the capitalist class, as they separated black and white laborers; this separation between Blacks and Whites in America, contributed to racism. Marx attributes capitalism's contribution to racism through segmented labor markets and a racial inequality of earnings. Weber laid the foundations for a micro-sociology of ethnic relations beginning in 1906. Weber argued that biological traits could not be the basis for group foundation unless they were conceived as shared characteristics, it was this shared perception and common customs that create and distinguish one ethnicity from another. This differs from the views of many of his contemporaries who believed that an ethnic group was formed from biological similarities alone apart from social perception of membership in a group. W. E. B. Du Bois is well known as one of the most influential black scholars and activists of the 20th century.
Du Bois educated himself on his people, sought academia as a way to enlighten others on the social injustices against his people. Du Bois research "revealed the Negro group as a symptom, not a cause. Du Bois believed that Black Americans should embrace higher education and use their new access to schooling to achieve a higher position within society, he referred to this idea as the Talented Tenth. With gaining popularity, he preached the belief that for blacks to be free in some places, they must be free everywhere. After traveling to Africa and Russia, he recanted his original philosophy of integration and acknowledged it as a long term vision. Booker T. Washington was considered one of the most influential black educators of the 19th and 20th centuries. Born in 1856 as a slave in Virginia, Washington came of age. Just as slavery ended, however, it was replaced by a system of sharecropping in the South that resulted in black indebtedness. With growing discrimination in the South following the end of the Reconstruction era, Washington felt that the key to advancing in America rested with getting an education and improving one's economic well-being, not with political advancement.
In 1881, he founded the Tuskegee Institute, now Tuskegee University, in order to provide individuals with an education that would help them to find employment in the growing industrial sector. By focusing on education for blacks, rather than political advancement, he gained financial support from whites for his cause. Secretly, however, he pursued legal challenges against disfranchisement of blacks. Patricia Hill Collins is a Distinguished University Professor Emerita at the University of Maryland, College Park, she received her PhD in sociology in 1984 from Brandeis University. Collins was the president-elect for the American Sociological Association, where she was the 100th president and the first African-American woman to be president of the organization. Collins is a social theorist whose work and research focuses on race, social class and gender, she has written a number of articles on said topics. Collins work focuses by looking at issues through the lens of women of color. In her work, she writes "First, we need new visions of what oppression is, new categories of analysis that are inclusive of race and gender as distinctive yet interlocking structures of oppression".
Eduardo Bonilla-Silva is a professor of sociology at Duke University and is the 2018 president of the American Sociological Association. He received his PhD in 1993 from University of Wisconsin–Madison, where he met his mentor, Professor Charles Camic, of which he said "Camic believed in me and told me, just before graduation, that I should stay in the states as I would contribute to American sociology." Bonilla-Silva did not start off his work as a "race scholar," but was trained in class analysis, political sociology, sociology of development. It was not until the late 1980s when he joined a student movement calling for racial justice at the University of Wisconsin that he began his work in race. In his book, Racism without Racists, Bonilla-Silva discusses less overt racism, which he refers to as "new racism," which disguises itself "under the cloak of legality" in order to accomplish the same things, he discusses "color-blind racism,", when people go off the basis that we have achieved equality and deny past and present discriminations.
Denise Ferreira da Sil
History of sociology
Sociology as a scholarly discipline emerged out of the Enlightenment thought, shortly after the French Revolution, as a positivist science of society. Its genesis owed to various key movements in the philosophy of science and the philosophy of knowledge. Social analysis in a broader sense, has origins in the common stock of philosophy and pre-dates the field. Modern academic sociology arose as a reaction to modernity, urbanization, secularization and imperialism. Late-19th-century sociology demonstrated a strong interest in the emergence of the modern nation state. An emphasis on the concept of modernity, rather than the Enlightenment distinguishes sociological discourse from that of classical political philosophy. Various quantitative social research techniques have become common tools for governments and organizations, have found use in the other social sciences. Divorced from theoretical explanations of social dynamics, this has given social research a degree of autonomy from the discipline of sociology.
"social science" has come to be appropriated as an umbrella term to refer to various disciplines which study humans, society or culture. The sociological reasoning may be traced back at least as far as the ancient Greeks. Proto-sociological observations are to be found in the founding texts of Western philosophy, as well as in the non-European thought of figures such as Confucius; the characteristic trends in the sociological thinking of the ancient Greeks can be traced back to their social environment. Because there was any extensive or centralized political organization within states this allowed the tribal spirit of localism and provincialism to have free play; this tribal spirit of localism and provincialism pervaded most of the Greek thinking upon social phenomena. The origin of the survey can be traced back to the Domesday Book ordered by king William I in 1086. In the 13th century, Ma Tuan-Lin, a Chinese historian, first recognized patterns of social dynamics as an underlying component of historical development in his seminal encyclopedia, Wenxian Tongkao or "Comprehensive Examination of Literature".
There is evidence of early Muslim sociology from the 14th century. Some consider Ibn Khaldun, a 14th-century Tunisian, Islamic scholar from North Africa, to have been the first sociologist and father of sociology. Ibn Khaldun, in his Muqaddimah, the introduction to a seven volume analysis of universal history, was the first to advance social philosophy and social science in formulating theories of social cohesion and social conflict, he is thus considered by some to be the forerunner of sociology. Concerning the discipline of sociology, he conceived a dynamic theory of history that involved conceptualizations of social conflict and social change, he developed the dichotomy of sedentary life versus nomadic life as well as the concept of a "generation", the inevitable loss of power that occurs when desert warriors conquer a city. Following a contemporary Arab scholar, Sati' al-Husri, the Muqaddimah may be read as a sociological work: six books of general sociology. Topics dealt with in this work include politics, urban life and knowledge.
The work is based around Ibn Khaldun's central concept of'asabiyyah, translated as "social cohesion", "group solidarity", or "tribalism". This social cohesion arises spontaneously in other small kinship groups. Ibn Khaldun's analysis looks at how this cohesion carries groups to power but contains within itself the seeds – psychological, economic, political – of the group's downfall, to be replaced by a new group, dynasty or empire bound by a stronger cohesion; the term was first coined by the French essayist Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès, from the Latin: socius, "companion". In 1838, the French-thinker Auguste Comte gave sociology the definition that it holds today. Comte had earlier expressed his work as "social physics", but that term had been appropriated by others, such as Belgian statistician Adolphe Quetelet. Saint-Simon published Physiologie sociale in 1813 and devoted much of his time to the prospect that human society could be steered toward progress if scientists would form an international assembly to influence its course.
He argued that scientists could distract groups from war and strife, by focusing their attention to improving their societies living conditions. In turn, this would prevent conflict. Saint-Simon took the idea that everyone had encouraged from the Enlightenment, the belief in science, spun it to be more practical and hands-on for the society. Saint-Simon's main idea was, he saw that people had been seeing progress as an approach for science, but he wanted them to see it as an approach to all aspects of life. Society was making a crucial change at the time; this new path could provide the basis for solving all the old problems society had encountered. He was more concerned with the participation of
Sociology of law
The sociology of law is described as a sub-discipline of sociology or an interdisciplinary approach within legal studies. Some see sociology of law as belonging "necessarily" to the field of sociology, but others tend to consider it a field of research caught up between the disciplines of law and sociology. Still others regard it neither a subdiscipline of sociology nor a branch of legal studies but as a field of research on its own right within the broader social science tradition. Accordingly, it may be described without reference to mainstream sociology as "the systematic, theoretically grounded, empirical study of law as a set of social practices or as an aspect or field of social experience", it has been seen as treating law and justice as fundamental institutions of the basic structure of society mediating "between political and economic interests, between culture and the normative order of society and maintaining interdependence, constituting themselves as sources of consensus and social control".
Irrespective of whether sociology of law is defined as a sub-discipline of sociology, an approach within legal studies or a field of research in its own right, it remains intellectually dependent on the traditions and theories of mainstream sociology and, to a lesser extent, on other social sciences such as social anthropology, political science, social policy and psychology. As such, it reflects social theories and employs social scientific methods to study law, legal institutions and legal behavior. More sociology of law consists of various approaches to the study of law in society, which empirically examine and theorise the interaction between law, non-legal institutions and social factors. Areas of socio-legal inquiry include the social development of legal institutions, forms of social control, legal regulation, the interaction between legal cultures, the social construction of legal issues, legal profession and the relation between law and social change. Sociology of law benefits from and draws on research conducted within other fields such as comparative law, critical legal studies, legal theory and economics and law and literature.
Its object encompasses the historical movement of law and justice and their relentless contemporary construction such as in the field of jurisprudence focused on institutional questions conditioned by social and political situations, in interdisciplinary dominions such as criminology and through analysis of the economic efficiency and the social impact of legal norms. The roots of the sociology of law can be traced back to the works of sociologists and jurists of the turn of the previous century; the relationship between law and society was sociologically explored in the seminal works of both Max Weber and Émile Durkheim. The writings on law by these classical sociologists are foundational to the entire sociology of law today. A number of other scholars jurists employed social scientific theories and methods in an attempt to develop sociological theories of law. Notably among these were Leon Petrazycki, Eugen Ehrlich and Georges Gurvitch. For Max Weber, a so-called "legal rational form" as a type of domination within society, is not attributable to people but to abstract norms.
He understood the body of calculable law in terms of a rational-legal authority. Such coherent and calculable law formed a precondition for modern political developments and the modern bureaucratic state and developed in parallel with the growth of capitalism. Central to the development of modern law is the formal rationalisation of law on the basis of general procedures that are applied and to all. Modern rationalised law is codified and impersonal in its application to specific cases. In general, Weber's standpoint can be described as an external approach to law that studies the empirical characteristics of law, as opposed to the internal perspective of the legal sciences and the moral approach of the philosophy of law. Émile Durkheim wrote in The Division of Labour in Society that as society becomes more complex, the body of civil law concerned with restitution and compensation grows at the expense of criminal laws and penal sanctions. Over time, law has undergone a transformation from repressive law to restitutive law.
Restitutive law operates in societies in which there is a high degree of individual variation and emphasis on personal rights and responsibilities. For Durkheim, law is an indicator of the mode of integration of a society, which can be mechanical, among identical parts, or organic, among differentiated parts such as in industrialized societies. Durkheim argued that a sociology of law should be developed alongside, in close connection with, a sociology of morals, studying the development of value systems reflected in law. In Fundamental Principles of the Sociology of Law, Eugen Ehrlich developed a sociological approach to the study of law by focusing on how social networks and groups organized social life, he explored the relationship between law and general social norms and distinguished between "positive law," consisting of the compulsive norms of state requiring official enforcement, "living law," consisting of the rules of conduct that people in fact obeyed and which dominated social life.
The latter emerged spontaneously. The centre of gravity of legal development therefore from time immemorial has not lain in the activity of the state, but in society itself, must be sought there at the present time"; this was subjected to criticism by the advocates of legal positivism such as the jurist Hans Kelsen for its distinction between "law created by the state and law produced by the organi
Social network analysis
Social network analysis is the process of investigating social structures through the use of networks and graph theory. It characterizes networked structures in terms of nodes and the ties, edges, or links that connect them. Examples of social structures visualized through social network analysis include social media networks, memes spread, information circulation and acquaintance networks, business networks, social networks, collaboration graphs, disease transmission, sexual relationships; these networks are visualized through sociograms in which nodes are represented as points and ties are represented as lines. These visualizations provide a means of qualitatively assessing networks by varying the visual representation of their nodes and edges to reflect attributes of interest. Social network analysis has emerged as a key technique in modern sociology, it has gained a significant following in anthropology, demography, communication studies, geography, information science, organizational studies, political science, social psychology, development studies and computer science and is now available as a consumer tool.
Social network analysis has its theoretical roots in the work of early sociologists such as Georg Simmel and Émile Durkheim, who wrote about the importance of studying patterns of relationships that connect social actors. Social scientists have used the concept of "social networks" since early in the 20th century to connote complex sets of relationships between members of social systems at all scales, from interpersonal to international. In the 1930s Jacob Moreno and Helen Jennings introduced basic analytical methods. In 1954, John Arundel Barnes started using the term systematically to denote patterns of ties, encompassing concepts traditionally used by the public and those used by social scientists: bounded groups and social categories. Scholars such as Ronald Burt, Kathleen Carley, Mark Granovetter, David Krackhardt, Edward Laumann, Anatol Rapoport, Barry Wellman, Douglas R. White, Harrison White expanded the use of systematic social network analysis. In the study of literature, network analysis has been applied by Anheier and Romo, Wouter De Nooy, Burgert Senekal.
Indeed, social network analysis has found applications in various academic disciplines, as well as practical applications such as countering money laundering and terrorism. Homophily: The extent to which actors form ties with similar versus dissimilar others. Similarity can be defined by gender, age, educational achievement, values or any other salient characteristic. Homophily is referred to as assortativity. Multiplexity: The number of content-forms contained in a tie. For example, two people who are friends and work together would have a multiplexity of 2. Multiplexity has been associated with relationship strength. Mutuality/Reciprocity: The extent to which two actors reciprocate each other's friendship or other interaction. Network Closure: A measure of the completeness of relational triads. An individual's assumption of network closure is called transitivity. Transitivity is an outcome of the situational trait of Need for Cognitive Closure. Propinquity: The tendency for actors to have more ties with geographically close others.
Bridge: An individual whose weak ties fill a structural hole, providing the only link between two individuals or clusters. It includes the shortest route when a longer one is unfeasible due to a high risk of message distortion or delivery failure. Centrality: Centrality refers to a group of metrics that aim to quantify the "importance" or "influence" of a particular node within a network. Examples of common methods of measuring "centrality" include betweenness centrality, closeness centrality, eigenvector centrality, alpha centrality, degree centrality. Density: The proportion of direct ties in a network relative to the total number possible. Distance: The minimum number of ties required to connect two particular actors, as popularized by Stanley Milgram's small world experiment and the idea of'six degrees of separation'. Structural holes: The absence of ties between two parts of a network. Finding and exploiting a structural hole can give an entrepreneur a competitive advantage; this concept was developed by sociologist Ronald Burt, is sometimes referred to as an alternate conception of social capital.
Tie Strength: Defined by the linear combination of time, emotional intensity and reciprocity. Strong ties are associated with homophily and transitivity, while weak ties are associated with bridges. Groups are identified as'cliques' if every individual is directly tied to every other individual,'social circles' if there is less stringency of direct contact, imprecise, or as structurally cohesive blocks if precision is wanted. Clustering coefficient: A measure of the likelihood that two associates of a node are associates. A higher clustering coefficient indicates a greater'cliquishness'. Cohesion: The degree to which actors are connected directly to each other by cohesive bonds. Structural cohesion refers to the minimum number of members who, if removed from a group, would disconnect the group. Visual representation of social networks is important to understand the network data and convey the result of the analysis. Numerous methods of visualization for data produced by social network analysis have been presented.
Many of the analytic software have modules for network visualization. Exploration of
A social movement is a type of group action. There is no single consensus definition of a social movement, they are large, sometimes informal, groupings of individuals or organizations which focus on specific political or social issues. In other words, they resist, or undo a social change, they provide a way of social change from the bottom within nations. Social movements can be defined as "organizational structures and strategies that may empower oppressed populations to mount effective challenges and resist the more powerful and advantaged elites". Political science and sociology have developed a variety of theories and empirical research on social movements. For example, some research in political science highlights the relation between popular movements and the formation of new political parties as well as discussing the function of social movements in relation to agenda setting and influence on politics. Sociologists distinguish between several types of social movement examining things such as scope, type of change, method of work, type of change and timeframe.
Modern Western social movements became possible through education and increased mobility of labor due to the industrialization and urbanization of 19th-century societies. It is sometimes argued that the freedom of expression and relative economic independence prevalent in the modern Western culture are responsible for the unprecedented number and scope of various contemporary social movements. Many of the social movements of the last hundred years grew up, like the Mau Mau in Kenya, to oppose Western colonialism. Social movements have been and continue to be connected with democratic political systems. Social movements have been involved in democratizing nations, but more they have flourished after democratization. Over the past 200 years, they have become part of a global expression of dissent. Modern movements utilize technology and the internet to mobilize people globally. Adapting to communication trends is a common theme among successful movements. Research is beginning to explore how advocacy organizations linked to social movements in the U.
S. and Canada use social media to facilitate collective action. The systematic literature review of Buettner & Buettner analyzed the role of Twitter during a wide range of social movements. Mario Diani argues that nearly all definitions share three criteria: "a network of informal interactions between a plurality of individuals, groups and/or organizations, engaged in a political or cultural conflict, on the basis of a shared collective identity" Sociologist Charles Tilly defines social movements as a series of contentious performances and campaigns by which ordinary people make collective claims on others. For Tilly, social movements are a major vehicle for ordinary people's participation in public politics, he argues that there are three major elements to a social movement: Campaigns: a sustained, organized public effort making collective claims of target authorities. Sidney Tarrow defines a social movement as "collective challenges by people with common purposes and solidarity in sustained interactions with elites and authorities."
He distinguishes social movements from political parties and advocacy groups. The sociologists John McCarthy and Mayer Zald define as a social movement as "a set of opinions and beliefs in a population which represents preferences for changing some elements of the social structure and/or reward distribution of a society." According to Paul van Seeters and Paul James defining a social movement entails a few minimal conditions of ‘coming together’: the formation of some kind of collective identity. Thus we define a social movement as a form of political association between persons who have at least a minimal sense of themselves as connected to others in common purpose and who come together across an extended period of time to effect social change in the name of that purpose; the early growth of social movements was connected to broad economic and political changes in England in the mid-18th century, including political representation, market capitalization, proletarianization. The first mass social movement catalyzed around the controversial political figure John Wilkes.
As editor of the paper The North Briton, Wilkes vigorously attacked the new administration of Lord Bute and the peace terms that the new government accepted at the 1763 Treaty of Paris at the end of the Seven Years' War. Charged with seditious libel, Wilkes was arrested after the issue of a general warrant, a move that Wilkes denounced as unlawful - the L
Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, culture of everyday life. It is a social science that uses various methods of empirical investigation and critical analysis to develop a body of knowledge about social order and change or social evolution. While some sociologists conduct research that may be applied directly to social policy and welfare, others focus on refining the theoretical understanding of social processes. Subject matter ranges from the micro-sociology level of individual agency and interaction to the macro level of systems and the social structure; the different traditional focuses of sociology include social stratification, social class, social mobility, secularization, sexuality and deviance. As all spheres of human activity are affected by the interplay between social structure and individual agency, sociology has expanded its focus to other subjects, such as health, economy and penal institutions, the Internet, social capital, the role of social activity in the development of scientific knowledge.
The range of social scientific methods has expanded. Social researchers draw upon a variety of quantitative techniques; the linguistic and cultural turns of the mid-20th century led to interpretative and philosophic approaches towards the analysis of society. Conversely, the end of the 1990s and the beginning of the 2000s have seen the rise of new analytically and computationally rigorous techniques, such as agent-based modelling and social network analysis. Social research informs politicians and policy makers, planners, administrators, business magnates, social workers, non-governmental organizations, non-profit organizations, people interested in resolving social issues in general. There is a great deal of crossover between social research, market research, other statistical fields. Sociological reasoning predates the foundation of the discipline. Social analysis has origins in the common stock of Western knowledge and philosophy, has been carried out from as far back as the time of ancient Greek philosopher Plato, if not before.
The origin of the survey, i.e. the collection of information from a sample of individuals, can be traced back to at least the Domesday Book in 1086, while ancient philosophers such as Confucius wrote about the importance of social roles. There is evidence of early sociology in medieval Arab writings; some sources consider Ibn Khaldun, a 14th-century Arab Islamic scholar from North Africa, to have been the first sociologist and father of sociology. The word sociology is derived from both Greek origins; the Latin word: socius, "companion". It was first coined in 1780 by the French essayist Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès in an unpublished manuscript. Sociology was defined independently by the French philosopher of science, Auguste Comte in 1838 as a new way of looking at society. Comte had earlier used the term social physics, but that had subsequently been appropriated by others, most notably the Belgian statistician Adolphe Quetelet. Comte endeavoured to unify history and economics through the scientific understanding of the social realm.
Writing shortly after the malaise of the French Revolution, he proposed that social ills could be remedied through sociological positivism, an epistemological approach outlined in The Course in Positive Philosophy and A General View of Positivism. Comte believed a positivist stage would mark the final era, after conjectural theological and metaphysical phases, in the progression of human understanding. In observing the circular dependence of theory and observation in science, having classified the sciences, Comte may be regarded as the first philosopher of science in the modern sense of the term. Comte gave a powerful impetus to the development of sociology, an impetus which bore fruit in the decades of the nineteenth century. To say this is not to claim that French sociologists such as Durkheim were devoted disciples of the high priest of positivism, but by insisting on the irreducibility of each of his basic sciences to the particular science of sciences which it presupposed in the hierarchy and by emphasizing the nature of sociology as the scientific study of social phenomena Comte put sociology on the map.
To be sure, beginnings can be traced back well beyond Montesquieu, for example, to Condorcet, not to speak of Saint-Simon, Comte's immediate predecessor. But Comte's clear recognition of sociology as a particular science, with a character of its own, justified Durkheim in regarding him as the father or founder of this science, in spite of the fact that Durkheim did not accept the idea of the three states and criticized Comte's approach to sociology. Both Auguste Comte and Karl Marx set out to develop scientifically justified systems in the wake of European industrialization and secularization, informed by various key movements in the philosophies of history and science. Marx rejected Comtean positivism but in attempting to develop a science of society came to be recognized as a founder of sociology as the word gained wider meaning. For Isaiah Berlin, Marx may be regarded as the "true father" of modern sociology, "in so far as anyone can claim the title."To have given clear and unified answers in familiar empirical terms to those theor