Brahmin is a varna in Hinduism specialising as priests and protectors of sacred learning across generations. The traditional occupation of Brahmins was that of priesthood at the Hindu temples or at socio-religious ceremonies and rite of passage rituals such as solemnising a wedding with hymns and prayers. Theoretically, the Brahmins were the highest ranking of the four social classes. In practice, Indian texts suggest that Brahmins were agriculturalists, warriors and have held a variety of other occupations in the Indian subcontinent; the earliest inferred reference to "Brahmin" as a possible social class is in the Rigveda, occurs once, the hymn is called Purusha Sukta. According to this hymn in Mandala 10, Brahmins are described as having emerged from the mouth of Purusha, being that part of the body from which words emerge; this Purusha Sukta varna verse is now considered to have been inserted at a date into the Vedic text as a charter myth. Stephanie Jamison and Joel Brereton, a professor of Sanskrit and Religious studies, state, "there is no evidence in the Rigveda for an elaborate, much-subdivided and overarching caste system", "the varna system seems to be embryonic in the Rigveda and, both and a social ideal rather than a social reality".
Ancient texts describing community-oriented Vedic yajna rituals mention four to five priests: the hotar, the adhvaryu, the udgatar, the Brahmin and sometimes the ritvij. The functions associated with the priests were: The Hotri recites invocations and litanies drawn from the Rigveda; the Adhvaryu is the priest's assistant and is in charge of the physical details of the ritual like measuring the ground, building the altar explained in the Yajurveda. The adhvaryu offers oblations; the Udgatri is the chanter of hymns set to melodies and music drawn from the Samaveda. The udgatar, like the hotar, chants the introductory and benediction hymns; the Brahmin recites from the Atharvaveda. The Ritvij is the chief operating priest. According to Kulkarni, the Grhya-sutras state that Yajna, dana pratigraha are the "peculiar duties and privileges of brahmins"; the term Brahmin in Indian texts has signified someone, good and virtuous, not just someone of priestly class. Both Buddhist and Brahmanical literature, states Patrick Olivelle define "Brahmin" not in terms of family of birth, but in terms of personal qualities.
These virtues and characteristics mirror the values cherished in Hinduism during the Sannyasa stage of life, or the life of renunciation for spiritual pursuits. Brahmins, states Olivelle, were the social class; the Dharmasutras and Dharmasatras text of Hinduism describe the expectations and role of Brahmins. The rules and duties in these Dharma texts of Hinduism, are directed at Brahmins; the Gautama's Dharmasutra, the oldest of surviving Hindu Dharmasutras, for example, states in verse 9.54–9.55 that a Brahmin should not participate or perform a ritual unless he is invited to do so, but he may attend. Gautama outlines the following rules of conduct for a Brahmin, in Chapters 8 and 9: Be always truthful Teach his art only to virtuous men Follow rules of ritual purification Study Vedas with delight Never hurt any living creature Be gentle but steadfast Have self-control Be kind, liberal towards everyoneChapter 8 of the Dharmasutra, states Olivelle, asserts the functions of a Brahmin to be to learn the Vedas, the secular sciences, the Vedic supplements, the dialogues, the epics and the Puranas.
The text lists eight virtues that a Brahmin must inculcate: compassion, lack of envy, tranquility, auspicious disposition and lack of greed, asserts in verse 9.24–9.25, that it is more important to lead a virtuous life than perform rites and rituals, because virtue leads to achieving liberation. The Dharma texts of Hinduism such as Baudhayana Dharmasutra add charity, refraining from anger and never being arrogant as duties of a Brahmin; the Vasistha Dharmasutra in verse 6.23 lists discipline, self-control, truthfulness, Vedic learning, erudition and religious faith as characteristics of a Brahmin. In 13.55, the Vasistha text states that a Brahmin must not accept weapons, poison or liquor as gifts. The Dharmasastras such as Manusmriti, like Dharmsutras, are codes focussed on how a Brahmin must live his life, their relationship with a king and warrior class. Manusmriti dedicates 1,034 verses, the largest portion, on laws for and expected virtues of Brahmins, it asserts, for example, A well disciplined Brahmin, although he knows just the Savitri verse, is far better than an undisciplined one who eats all types of food and deals in all types of merchandise though he may know all three Vedas.
John Bussanich states that the ethical precepts set for Brahmins, in ancient Indian texts, are similar to Greek virtue-ethics, that "Manu's dharmic Brahmin can be compared to Aristotle's man of practical wisdom", that "the virtuous Brahmin is not unlike the Platonic-Aristotelian philosopher" with the difference that the latter was not sacerdotal. According to Abraham Eraly, "Brahmin as a varna hardly had any presence in historical records before the Gupta Empire era", when Buddhism dominated the land. "No Brahmin, no sacrifice, no ritualistic act of any kind even once, is referred to" in any Indian texts between third century BCE and
The Chaulukya dynasty known as the Chalukyas of Gujarat, ruled parts of what are now Gujarat and Rajasthan in north-western India, between c. 940 CE and c. 1244 CE. Their capital was located at Anahilavada. At times, their rule extended to the Malwa region in present-day Madhya Pradesh; the medieval legends describe them as Agnivanshi Rajputs, they are known as the Solanki dynasty in the vernacular literature. Mularaja, the founder of the dynasty, supplanted the last ruler of the Chapotkata dynasty around 940 CE, his successors fought several battles with the neighbouring rulers such as the Chudasamas, the Paramaras and the Chahamanas of Shakambhari. During the reign of Bhima I, the Ghaznavid ruler Mahmud invaded the kingdom and raided the Somnath temple during 1024-1025 CE; the Chaulukyas soon recovered, the kingdom reached its zenith under the rule of Jayasimha Siddharaja and Kumarapala in the 12th century. Several minor dynasties, such as the Chahamanas of Jalor and the Chahamanas of Naddula, served as Chaulukya vassals during this period.
After Kumarapala's death, the kingdom was weakened by internal rebellions. Taking advantage of this, the Vaghelas, who had earlier served as Chaulukya generals, usurped the power and established a new dynasty in the 1240s. Several princely state rulers of the Solanki clan claimed descent from the Chaulukyas; the dynasty used the self-designation "Chaulukya" in all but four of its records. The four exceptions are: "Chaulukika" in the Kadi grant of Mularaja "Saulkika" in a grant of Chamundaraja "Chaulakya" in the Sambhar inscription of Jayasimha "Chaullakya" in the Jalor inscription of KumarapalaHemachandra, a Jain scholar in the Chaulukya court used the terms "Chaulukya" and "Chulukya", his Dvyasraya Mahakavya mentions the variants "Chulakya", "Chalukka", "Chulukka". The Chaulukya court poet Someshvara describes the dynasty as "Chaulukya" and "Chulukya"."Solanki" or "Solankhi" is a vernacular form of the term. The word "Chaulukya" is thought to be a variant of the word "Chalukya". Several other dynasties were known by the name "Chalukya", including the Chalukyas of Vatapi, Vemulavada, Kalyani and Lata.
These dynasties are sometimes thought to be branches of the same family, but the relationship between all of them is not certain. Unlike the Chalukyas of Kalyani and Vengi, the Chaulukyas of Gujarat never claimed a shared descent or any other association with the earliest Chalukya dynasty — the Chalukyas of Vatapi. Moreover, they never used the term "Chalukya" to describe themselves. However, the Chaulukyas of Gujarat shared a myth of origin with the Chalukyas of Vengi. According to this legend, the progenitor of the dynasty was created by Brahma; the version of the legend mentioned in the Vadnagar prashasti inscription of Kumarapala is as follows: the deities once asked the creator god Brahma to protect them from the danavas. Brahma created a hero from his chuluka, filled with Ganges water; this hero was named "Chulukya", became the progenitor of the dynasty. A variation of this legend is mentioned by Abhayatilaka Gani in his commentary on Hemachandra's Dvyashraya-Kavya. According to this version, Brahma produced the hero to support the earth, after his other creations disappointed him.
These stories are of no historical value, as it was customary for contemporary royal houses to claim mythical and heroic origins. The Kumarapala-Bhupala-Charita of Jayasimha Suri presents Chulukya as a historical warrior, whose capital was Madhupadma. Mularaja was his descendant, with nearly a hundred generations separating the two; this account may be historical: Madhupadma has been identified variously as a location outside Gujarat, including present-day Mathura. C. V. Vaidya theorized. G. H. Ojha opposed this theory, pointing out that an inscription of the Lata Chalukya ruler Kirtiraja describes his family as "Chalukya", while an inscription of his grandson Trilochanapala describes the family as "Chaulukya". According to Asoke Majumdar, while these similar-sounding names suggest a common origin for all these dynasties, there is no concrete evidence to draw any definitive conclusion. Majumdar theorized that the Chaulukyas were connected to the Sulikas or the Chulikas, a tribe mentioned in several ancient records.
This tribe is described as living on the northern frontier of ancient India. However, Majumdar admitted. In the period, the Chaulukyas were categorized as one of the Rajput clans, although the Rajput identity did not exist during their time. According to the Agnikula myth mentioned in a 16th-century recension of the legendary text Prithviraj Raso, four Rajput clans including the Chaulukyas were born from a fire-pit on Mount Abu. A section of colonial-era historians interpreted this mythical account to suggest that these clans were foreigners who came to India after the decline of the Gupta Empire around the 5th century CE, were admitted in the Hindu caste system after performing a fire ritual. In addition, the Chaulukya rulers have been called "Gurjararāja" and "Gurjareśvara". Based on this legend, D. R. Bhandarkar and others theorized that the Chaulukyas were a branch of Gurjaras, whom they believed to be a tribe of foreign origin. Bhandarkar and Augustus Hoernle believed that the name of the "Lata" region changed to "Gurjaratra" during the Chaulukya reign because they were Gurjaras.
Jayasiṃha, who assumed the title Siddharāja, was an Indian king who ruled western parts of India. He was a member of the Chaulukya dynasty. Jayasimha's capital was located at Anahilapataka in present-day Gujarat. Besides large parts of Gujarat, his control extended to parts of Rajasthan: he subdued the Shakambhari Chahamana king Arnoraja, the former Naddula Chahamana ruler Asharaja acknowledged his suzerainty. Jayasimha annexed a part of Malwa by defeating the Paramaras, he waged an inconclusive war against the Chandela king Madanavarman. Jayasimha's daughter Kanchana married Arnoraja; the couple's son Someshvara was brought up by Jayasimha at the Chaulukya court. Jayasimha was a son of the Chaulukya king queen Mayanalla-devi. According to folklore, he was born in Palanpur. Jayasimha was so named by the old ladies of the Chaulukya palace, he assumed the title "Siddharaja". The 12th century Jain scholar Hemachandra mentions a legend according to which Karna prayed to the goddess Lakshmi for a son, he restored a temple of Lakshmi, meditated for a long time, overcoming seductive apsaras and a threatening demon.
The goddess Lakshmi appeared before him, blessed him, as a result of which Jayasimha was born. The 14th century author Merutunga does not mention Hemachandra's semi-mythical account, but he mentions another legend about Jayasimha's childhood: at the age of 3, Jayasimha climbed on the royal throne, sat there. The astrologers declared that this had happened at an auspicious moment, so Karna performed his son's coronation ceremony and there. Merutunga dates this event to 7 January 1094, therefore, suggests that Jayasimha was born in 1091 CE. However, this account does not seem to be accurate as it has not been mentioned by earlier authors such as Hemachandra. In his Dvyashraya, Hemachandra mentions several mythical tales presenting Jayasimha as an epic hero. Had Merutunga's account been accurate, Hemachandra would not have failed to mention it. According to Hemachandra, Jayasimha's father Karna had a brother named Kshemaraja who renounced his rights to the throne. Kshemaraja's descendants were Devaprasada and Kumarapala.
When Karna died, Devaprasada left his son Tribhuvanapala in Jayasimha's care and committed suicide by immolating himself on Karna's funeral pyre. Jayasimha treated Tribhuvanapala like his own son. All other chroniclers state that Jayasimha hated Tribhuvanapala's son Kumarapala; as Hemachandra was a courtier of both Jayasimha and Kumarapala, historian A. K. Majumdar theorizes that he created a fictional account to hide an unpleasant truth. According to Majumdar, Karna banished Devaprasada to avoid any rival claims to the throne. After Karna's death, Devaprasada tried to usurp the throne, taking advantage of Jayasimha's young age. However, Karna's wife Mayanalla and her loyal minister Santu had Devaprasada killed. Mayanalla acted as a regent for the young king Jayasimha. Multiple literary sources as well as inscriptions establish that Jayasimha defeated Khangara alias Navaghana, the king of Saurashtra. According to Merutunga, Khangara was an Abhira, which suggests that he belonged to the Chudasama dynasty.
Jayasimha's Dahod inscription boasts. According to bardic legends, Khangara married a woman coveted by Jayasimha, because of which the Chaulukya king invaded Khangara's kingdom. However, this legend is not credible. Jain chronicler Prabhachandra mentions that Siddharaja had first dispatched an army led by Kirtipala to attack Navaghana; when this army was unsuccessful, another force led by Udayana was dispatched in its support. This joint army defeated Navagaha. Prabhachandra goes on to mention that Jayasimha killed Khangara. According to Merutunga, Navaghana was another name of Khangara. So, it appears that Khangara was not subdued in the battle in which Udayana was killed. Merutunga claims that Khangara defeated Jayasimha 11 times, but the Chaulukya king emerged victorious in the 12th battle. Merutunga's claim cannot be taken literally: 12 was a favourite number of the Jain writers, he may have used the number to emphasize the seriousness of the war. Merutunga's legend states that Khangara fortified Vardhamana and other cities.
He did not want to die by weapons, therefore, asked his nephew to kill him with coins if the enemy succeeded in scaling the ramparts. As a result, he was beaten to death with boxes full of coins. According to Jayasimha Suri, after defeating Khangara, Jayasimha appointed Sajjana as the governor of Girnar; this is corroborated by an 1120 CE inscription found at Girnar. Merutunga supports this claim, although he calls Sajjana the governor of Saurashtra. Historical evidence indicates that Jayasimha was unable to capture all of Khangara's territories in Saurashtra: Jayasimha's successor Kumarapala had to send an army against the Abhiras. According to Prabhachandra, Jayasimha was unable to annex Khangara's kingdom because a large number of Khangara's followers continued to offer resistance; the Naddula Chahamana ruler Asharaja became a vassal of Jayasimha. It appears that Asharaja was dethroned by his rival Ratnapala, because of which he sought Jayasimha's help. Ashraja's 1110 CE and 1116 CE inscriptions do not mention Jayasimha as his overlord.
Ratnapala's 1120 CE and 1135 CE inscriptions prove that he was the ruler of Naddula
Mandore, is a town located 9 km north of Jodhpur city, in the Indian state of Rajasthan. Mandore is an ancient town, was the seat of the Inda Parihar dynasty, who ruled the region in the 6th century CE. After the disintegration of the Parihar empire, one branch of Inda continued to rule at Mandore; the last emperor of Parihar dynasty of Mandore was Daata Shri Nahar Rao Singh Ji Parihar he ruled the region until 1395. In 1395 CE, a princess of this branch married Rao Chunda of Rathore clan. Rao Chunda received the Junagarh fort in Mandore in dowry from Inda Parihar rulers, moved his capital to Mandore; the town remained the Rathore capital until 1459 CE, when Rao Jodha shifted his capital to the newly founded city of Jodhpur. Rao Rinmal Rathore secured the throne of Mandore in 1427. In addition to ruling Mandore, Rao Rinmal became the administrator of Mewar to assist Maharana Mokal. After the assassination of Maharana Mokal in 1433, Rinmal continued as administrator of Mewar at the side of Rana Kumbha.
In 1438, Rana Kumbha decided to end the power sharing arrangement and had Rao Rinmal assassinated in Chittor and captured Mandore. Rao Jodha, son of Rao Rinmal, escaped towards Marwar. 700 horsemen accompanied Rao Jodha as he escaped from Chittor. Fighting near Chittor and a valiant attempt to bar the pursuers at Someshwar Pass resulted in heavy losses amongst Jodha's warriors; when Jodha reached Mandore he had only seven people accompanying him. Jodha collected whatever forces he abandoned Mandore and pressed on towards Jangalu. Jodha managed to reach safety at Kahuni. For 15 years Jodha tried in vain to recapture Mandore. Jodha's opportunity to strike came in 1453 with Rana Kumbha facing simultaneous attacks by the Sultans of Malwa and Gujarat. Jodha made a surprise attack on Mandore. Jodha's forces captured Mandore with relative ease. Jodha and Kumbha settled their differences in order to face their common enemies, the Muslim rulers of Malwa and Gujarat. "Mantri Karam Chand Vanshavali Prabandh", written by Jaysom Uppadhyay, states that Bachhraj known as Vatsraj was not only a religious person but a brave and gallant warrior in Patan.
He is a descendant of a Deora Chauhan of Delwara. During mid-15th century, on being invited, Bachharaj submitted his services to the Chief of Mandore Rao Jodha, where he was appointed Dewan as he was an able administrator and a strategist. Rao Jodha for the first time, allowed Bachchraj and other Oswals to take part in commanding armies. A holy man sensibly advised Rao Jodha to move the capital to hilltop safety; the construction of the fort thus begun by Rao Jodha in 1459, under the supervision of Dewan Bachhraj and thus Jodhpur was founded. The fort was completed by Maharaja Jaswant Singh; the new fort was named Mehrangarh Fort and situated on a 125 m high hill, is among the most impressive and formidable forts in Rajasthan. Mandore was the capital of the erstwhile princely state of Marwar, before moving to Mehrangarh Fort in Jodhpur; the historic town boasts several monuments. The now ruined Mandore fort, with its thick walls and substantial size, was built in several stages and was once a fine piece of architecture.
A huge, now ruined temple is a highlight of the fort. The outer wall of the temple depicts finely carved botanical designs, birds and planets. The'Mandore gardens', with its charming collection of temples and memorials, its high rock terraces, is another major attraction; the gardens house the Chhatris of many rulers of Jodhpur state. Prominent among them is the chhatri of Maharaja Ajit Singh, built in 1793. Ravan temple is another attraction at Mandore, it is believed to be the native place of Ravan's wife Mandodari. Ravan is treated as son in law among some local Brahmins; the Mandore Gardens house a government museum, a'Hall of Heroes' and a Hindu temple to 33 crore gods. Various artefacts and statues found in the area are housed at the museum. The'Hall of Heroes' commemorates popular folk heroes of the region, it contains 16 figures carved out of a single rock. Next door is a larger hall called "The temple of 33 crore gods" which houses images of various Hindu deities; the Rao Festival Hariyali Amavasya Naag Panchami Veerpuri Mela BhogiShell Parikrama Rajput clans Jodhpur State Rathor Dynasty Mandore Garden
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes appearing in elective republics. Alternative terms for "dynasty" may include "family" and "clan", among others; the longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, otherwise known as the Yamato dynasty, whose reign is traditionally dated to 660 BC. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "noble house", which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital" etc. depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of numerous nations and civilizations, such as Ancient Egypt and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties; as such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which a family reigned, to describe events and artifacts of that period. The word "dynasty" itself is dropped from such adjectival references; until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty: that is, to expand the wealth and power of his family members.
Prior to the 20th century, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. In nations where it was permitted, succession through a daughter established a new dynasty in her husband's ruling house; this has changed in some places in Europe, where succession law and convention have maintained dynasties de jure through a female. For instance, the House of Windsor will be maintained through the children of Queen Elizabeth II, as it did with the monarchy of the Netherlands, whose dynasty remained the House of Orange-Nassau through three successive queens regnant; the earliest such example among major European monarchies was in the Russian Empire in the 18th century, where the name of the House of Romanov was maintained through Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna. In Limpopo Province of South Africa, Balobedu determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mother's dynasty when coming into her inheritance.
Less a monarchy has alternated or been rotated, in a multi-dynastic system – that is, the most senior living members of parallel dynasties, at any point in time, constitute the line of succession. Not all feudal states or monarchies were/are ruled by dynasties. Throughout history, there were monarchs. Dynasties ruling subnational monarchies do not possess sovereign rights; the word "dynasty" is sometimes used informally for people who are not rulers but are, for example, members of a family with influence and power in other areas, such as a series of successive owners of a major company. It is extended to unrelated people, such as major poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team; the word "dynasty" derives from Latin dynastia, which comes from Greek dynastéia, where it referred to "power", "dominion", "rule" itself. It was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the agent noun of dynamis, "power" or "ability", from dýnamai, "to be able". A ruler from a dynasty is sometimes referred to as a "dynast", but this term is used to describe any member of a reigning family who retains a right to succeed to a throne.
For example, King Edward VIII ceased to be a dynast of the House of Windsor following his abdication. In historical and monarchist references to reigning families, a "dynast" is a family member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchy's rules still in force. For example, after the 1914 assassinations of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his morganatic wife Duchess Sophie von Hohenberg, their son Duke Maximilian was bypassed for the Austro-Hungarian throne because he was not a Habsburg dynast. Since the abolition of the Austrian monarchy, Duke Maximilian and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position; the term "dynast" is sometimes used only to refer to agnatic descendants of a realm's monarchs, sometimes to include those who hold succession rights through cognatic royal descent. The term can therefore describe distinct sets of people. For example, David Armstrong-Jones, 2nd Earl of Snowdon, a nephew of Queen Elizabeth II through her sister Princess Margaret, is in the line of succession to the British crown.
On the other hand, the German aristocrat Prince Ernst August of Hanover, a male-line descendant of King George III of the United Kingdom, possesses no legal British name, titles or styles. He was born in the line of succession to the British throne and was bound by Britain's Royal Marriages Act 1772 until it was repealed when the Succession to the Crown Act 2013 took effect on 26 March 2015. Thus, he requested and obtained formal permission from Queen Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco in 1999. Yet, a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time, stipulating that dynasts who
Rajasthan is a state in northern India. The state covers an area of 342,239 square kilometres or 10.4 percent of the total geographical area of India. It is the seventh largest by population. Rajasthan is located on the northwestern side of India, where it comprises most of the wide and inhospitable Thar Desert and shares a border with the Pakistani provinces of Punjab to the northwest and Sindh to the west, along the Sutlej-Indus river valley. Elsewhere it is bordered by five other Indian states: Punjab to the north. Major features include the ruins of the Indus Valley Civilisation at Balathal. Rajasthan is home to three national tiger reserves, the Ranthambore National Park in Sawai Madhopur, Sariska Tiger Reserve in Alwar and Mukundra Hill Tiger Reserve in Kota; the state was formed on 30 March 1949 when Rajputana – the name adopted by the British Raj for its dependencies in the region – was merged into the Dominion of India. Its capital and largest city is Jaipur. Other important cities are Jodhpur, Bikaner and Udaipur.
Rajasthan means "Land of Kings" or "King's Abode". The oldest reference to Rajasthan is found in a stone inscription dated back to 625 A. D; the print mention of the name "Rajasthan" appears in the 1829 publication Annals and Antiquities of Rajast'han or the Central and Western Rajpoot States of India, while the earliest known record of "Rajputana" as a name for the region is in George Thomas's 1800 memoir Military Memories. John Keay, in his book India: A History, stated that "Rajputana" was coined by the British in 1829, John Briggs, translating Ferishta's history of early Islamic India, used the phrase "Rajpoot princes" rather than "Indian princes". Parts of what is now Rajasthan were part of the Vedic Civilisation and Indus Valley Civilization. Kalibangan, in Hanumangarh district, was a major provincial capital of the Indus Valley Civilization.. Another archeological excavation at Balathal site in Udaipur district shows a settlement contemporary with the Harrapan civilization dating back to 3000 - 1500 BC. Stone Age tools dating from 5,000 to 200,000 years were found in Bundi and Bhilwara districts of the state.
Matsya Kingdom of the Vedic civilisation of India, is said to corresponded to the former state of Jaipur in Rajasthan and included the whole of Alwar with portions of Bharatpur. The capital of Matsya was at Viratanagar, said to have been named after its founder king Virata. Bhargava identifies the two districts of Jhunjhunu and Sikar and parts of Jaipur district along with Haryana districts of Mahendragarh and Rewari as part of Vedic state of Brahmavarta. Bhargava locates the present day Sahibi River as the Vedic Drishadwati River, which along with Saraswati River formed the borders of the Vedic state of Brahmavarta. Manu and Bhrigu narrated the Manusmriti to a congregation of seers in this area only. Ashrams of Vedic seers Bhrigu and his son Chayvan Rishi, for whom Chyawanprash was formulated, were near Dhosi Hill part of which lies in Dhosi village of Jhunjhunu district of Rajasthan and part lies in Mahendragarh district of Haryana; the Western Kshatrapas, the Saka rulers of the western part of India, were successors to the Indo-Scythians, were contemporaneous with the Kushans, who ruled the northern part of the Indian subcontinent.
The Indo-Scythians invaded the area of Ujjain and established the Saka era, marking the beginning of the long-lived Saka Western Satraps state. Gurjars ruled for many dynasties in this part of the country, the region was known as Gurjaratra. Up to the 10th century AD all of North India acknowledged the supremacy of the Gurjars, with their seat of power at Kannauj; the Gurjar Pratihar Empire acted as a barrier for Arab invaders from the 8th to the 11th century. The chief accomplishment of the Gurjara-Pratihara Empire lies in its successful resistance to foreign invasions from the west, starting in the days of Junaid. Historian R. C. Majumdar says that this was acknowledged by the Arab writers, he further notes that historians of India have wondered at the slow progress of Muslim invaders in India, as compared with their rapid advance in other parts of the world. Now there seems little doubt that it was the power of the Gurjara Pratihara army that barred the progress of the Arabs beyond the confines of Sindh, their only conquest for nearly 300 years.
Traditionally the Rajputs, Jats, Bhils, Charans, Bishnois, Sermals, PhulMali and other tribes made a great contribution in building the state of Rajasthan. All these tribes suffered great difficulties in protecting the land. Millions of them were killed trying to protect their land. Bhils once ruled Kota. Meenas were rulers of Bundi and the Dhundhar region. Hem Chandra Vikramaditya, the Hindu Emperor, was born in the village of Machheri in Alwar District in 1501, he won 22 battles against Afghans, from Punjab to Bengal including states of Ajmer and Alwar in Rajasthan, defeated Akbar's forces twice at Agra and Delhi in 1556 at Battle of Delhi before acceding to the throne of Delhi and establishing the "Hindu Raj" in North India, albeit for
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with "networks", organizations that provided training and marketing services. By 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on the OCLC Members Council. During 2008, OCLC commissioned two studies to look at distribution channels. In early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world. WorldCat has holding records from private libraries worldwide; the Open WorldCat program, launched in late 2003, exposed a subset of WorldCat records to Web users via popular Internet search and bookselling sites.
In October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. WikiD was phased out; the Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988. A browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013; until August 2009, when it was sold to Backstage Library Works, OCLC owned a preservation microfilm and digitization operation called the OCLC Preservation Service Center, with its principal office in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users; this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. Starting in 1971, OCLC produced catalog cards for members alongside its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, such as CONTENTdm for managing digital collections.
It offers the bibliographic discovery system WorldCat Discovery, which allows for library patrons to use a single search interface to access an institution's catalog, database subscriptions and more. OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years. In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications; these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organization's website. OCLC Publications – Research articles from various journals including Code4Lib Journal, OCLC Research, Reference & User Services Quarterly, College & Research Libraries News, Art Libraries Journal, National Education Association Newsletter; the most recent publications are displayed first, all archived resources, starting in 1970, are available. Membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding. Newsletters – Current and archived newsletters for the library and archive community.
Presentations – Presentations from both guest speakers and OCLC research from conferences and other events. The presentations are organized into five categories: Conference presentations, Dewey presentations, Distinguished Seminar Series, Guest presentations, Research staff