A temple is a structure reserved for religious or spiritual rituals and activities such as prayer and sacrifice. It is used for such buildings belonging to all faiths where a more specific term such as church, mosque or synagogue is not used in English; these include Hinduism and Jainism among religions with many modern followers, as well as other ancient religions such as Ancient Egyptian religion. The form and function of temples is thus variable, though they are considered by believers to be in some sense the "house" of one or more deities. Offerings of some sort are made to the deity, other rituals enacted, a special group of clergy maintain, operate the temple; the degree to which the whole population of believers can access the building varies significantly. Temples have a main building and a larger precinct, which may contain many other buildings, or may be a dome shaped structure, much like an igloo; the word comes from Ancient Rome, where a templum constituted a sacred precinct as defined by a priest, or augur.
It has the same root as the word "template", a plan in preparation of the building, marked out on the ground by the augur. Templa became associated with the dwelling places of a god or gods. Despite the specific set of meanings associated with the word, it has now become used to describe a house of worship for any number of religions and is used for time periods prior to the Romans; the temple-building tradition of Mesopotamia derived from the cults of gods and deities in the Mesopotamian religion. It spanned several civilizations; the most common temple architecture of Mesopotamia is the structure of sun-baked bricks called a Ziggurat, having the form of a terraced step pyramid with a flat upper terrace where the shrine or temple stood. Ancient Egyptian temples were meant as places for the deities to reside on earth. Indeed, the term the Egyptians most used to describe the temple building, ḥwt-nṯr, means "mansion of a god". A god's presence in the temple linked the human and divine realms and allowed humans to interact with the god through ritual.
These rituals, it was believed, sustained the god and allowed it to continue to play its proper role in nature. They were therefore a key part of the maintenance of maat, the ideal order of nature and of human society in Egyptian belief. Maintaining maat was the entire purpose of Egyptian religion, thus it was the purpose of a temple as well. Ancient Egyptian temples were of economic significance to Egyptian society; the temples stored and redistributed grain and came to own large portions of the nation's arable land. In addition, many of these Egyptian temples utilized the Tripartite Floor Plan in order to draw visitors to the center room. Though today we call most Greek religious buildings "temples," the ancient Greeks would have referred to a temenos, or sacred precinct, its sacredness connected with a holy grove, was more important than the building itself, as it contained the open air altar on which the sacrifices were made. The building which housed the cult statue in its naos was a rather simple structure, but by the middle of the 6th century BCE had become elaborate.
Greek temple architecture had a profound influence on ancient architectural traditions. The rituals that located and sited Roman temples were performed by an augur through the observation of the flight of birds or other natural phenomenon. Roman temples faced east or toward the rising sun, but the specifics of the orientation are not known today. In ancient Rome only the native deities of Roman mythology had a templum; the Romans referred to a holy place of a pagan religion as fanum. Medieval Latin writers sometimes used the word templum reserved for temples of the ancient Roman religion. In some cases it is hard to determine whether a temple was an outdoor shrine. For temple buildings of the Vikings, the Old Norse term hof is used. A Zoroastrian temple may be called a Dar-e-mehr and a Atashkadeh. A fire temple in Zoroastrianism is the place of worship for Zoroastrians. Zoroastrians revere fire in any form, their temples contains an eternal flame, with Atash Behram as the highest grade of all, as it combines 16 different types of fire gathered in elaborate rituals.
In the Zoroastrian religion, together with clean water, are agents of ritual purity. Clean, white "ash for the purification ceremonies is regarded as the basis of ritual life," which, "are the rites proper to the tending of a domestic fire, for the temple fire is that of the hearth fire raised to a new solemnity". Hindu temples are known by many different names, varying on region and language, including Alayam, Mandira, Gudi, Koil, Kovil, Déul, Devasthana, Deva Mandiraya and Devalaya. A Hindu temple is the seat and dwelling of Hindu gods, it is a structure designed to bring human gods together according to Hindu faith. Inside its Garbhagriha innermost sanctum, a Hindu temple contains a Hindu god's image. Hindu temples are magnificent with a rich history. There is evidence of use of sacred ground as far back as the Bronze Age and during the Indus Valley Civilization. Outside of the Indian subcontinent (India
Nyepi is a Balinese "Day of Silence", commemorated every Isakawarsa according to the Balinese calendar. It is a Hindu celebration celebrated in Bali, Indonesia. Nyepi, a public holiday in Indonesia, is a day of silence and meditation for the Balinese; the day following Nyepi is celebrated as New Year's Day. On this day, the youth of Bali in the village of Sesetan in South Bali practice the ceremony of Omed-omedan or'The Kissing Ritual' to celebrate the new year; the same day celebrated in India as Ugadi. Observed from 6 a.m. until 6 a.m. the next morning, Nyepi is a day reserved for self-reflection, as such, anything that might interfere with that purpose is restricted. The main restrictions are no lighting fires; the effect of these prohibitions is that Bali's bustling streets and roads are empty, there is little or no noise from TVs and radios, few signs of activity are seen inside homes. The only people to be seen outdoors are the Pecalang, traditional security men who patrol the streets to ensure the prohibitions are being followed.
Although Nyepi is a Hindu holiday, non-Hindu residents and tourists are not exempt from the restrictions. Although they are free to do as they wish inside their hotels, no one is allowed onto the beaches or streets, the only airport in Bali remains closed for the entire day; the only exceptions granted are for emergency vehicles responding to life-threatening conditions and women about to give birth. On the day after Nyepi, known as Ngembak Geni, social activity picks up again as families and friends gather to ask forgiveness from one another, to perform certain religious rituals together. Fires and electricity are allowed again, cooking of food resumes. First, The Melasti Ritual is performed 3–4 days beforehand, it is dedicated to Sanghyang Widhi Wasa. The ritual is performed in Pura near the sea and meant to purify Arca and Pralingga belonging to several temples to acquire sacred water from the sea. Second, The Bhuta Yajna Ritual is performed in order to vanquish the negative elements and create a balance with God and Nature.
The ritual is meant to appease Batara Kala by Pecaruan offering of live animal sacrifice. Around sunset the "Pengrupukan" ceremony begins in the house compounds with the noisy banging of pots and pans and bamboo tubes along with burning of dried coconut leaf torches to drive out the demons. Most Hindu Balinese villages make ogoh-ogoh, demonic statues made of richly painted bamboo, cloth and styrofoam symbolizing negative elements or malevolent spirits or characters from Hindu mythology. After the ogoh-ogoh have been paraded around the village, they are burned in the cemeteries although many are displayed in front of community halls for another month or more and sometimes purchased by museums and collectors. Third, the Nyepi Rituals are performed as follows: Amati Geni: No fire or light, including no electricity Amati Karya: No working Amati Lelunganan: No travelling Amati Lelanguan: No revelry/self-entertainment Fourth, the Yoga/Brata Ritual starts at 6:00 a.m. and continues to 6:00 a.m. the next day.
Fifth, the Ngembak Agni/Labuh Brata Ritual is performed for all Hindus to forgive each other and to welcome the new days to come. Sixth and The Dharma Shanti Rituals is performed after all the Nyepi rituals are finished. Many Hindus in the Indian subcontinent observe the same day as new year. For example, the Hindus of Maharashtra term the same festival, observed on Gudi Padwa; the Sindhis, people from Sindh, celebrate the same day as Cheti Chand, the beginning of their calendar year. Manipuris celebrate their New Year as Sajibu Nongma Panba on the same day; the Hindus of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka celebrate their new year on the same day as Ugadi. Security is provided by the usual hansip, while the pecalang are redirected into security roles from their usual mundane tasks like traffic coordination to beef up the local security; these two security forces report to local village heads, in 2017 its reported islandwide that some 22,000 pecalang are taking part for Nyepi. National police take part, but ultimately report to Jakarta rather than the village or regency level.
Indian New Year's days Gudi Padwa, celebrated in Maharashtra state of India same day as Nyepi Ugadi, celebrated in Telegu areas of India same day as Nyepi Juniartha, I Wayan. "Nyepi, in search of the silence within". The Jakarta Post. Archived from the original on 2009-02-07. Retrieved 2009-01-13. "Nyepi: Bali's day of silence". Indo.com. Retrieved 2009-01-13. "Nyepi Day, a silence day to mark Balinese New Year". Balifriend.net. Retrieved 2009-01-13. Dhadhiati, Anna. "Nyepi: the balinese silence". Essortment.com. Archived from the original on 2009-03-28. Retrieved 2009-01-13. "Nyepi: New Year in Bali". Villajegeg.com. 2011-01-30. Retrieved 2011-01-30
Central Java is a province of Indonesia. This province is located in the middle of the island of Java, its administrative capital is Semarang. The province is bordered by West Java in the west, the Indian Ocean and the Special Region of Yogyakarta in the south, East Java in the east, the Java Sea in the north; the area is around 28.94 % of the total area of Java. The province of Central Java includes the island of Nusakambangan in the south, the Karimun Jawa Islands in the Java Sea. Central Java is a cultural concept that includes the Special Region and city of Yogyakarta as well as the Province of Central Java. However, administratively the city and its surrounding regencies have formed a separate special region since Indonesian independence, administrated separately. Central Java is known as the "heart" of Javanese culture. So, in this province there are other ethnic groups that have different cultures from the Javanese, such as the Sundanese in the border area with West Java. Besides there are Chinese-Indonesians, Arabs-Indonesians and Indian-Indonesians scattered throughout the province.
The province has been inhabited by humans since the prehistoric-era. Remains of the Homo erectus, popularly dubbed the "Java Man", were found along the banks of the Bengawan Solo River, these dates back to 1.7 million years ago. In the past, Central Java was under the control of several Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms, Islamic sultanates and the Dutch East Indies colonial government. Central Java was center of the Indonesian independence movement; as the majority of the modern-day Indonesian are of Javanese descent, both Central Java and East Java has a major impact on Indonesia's social and economic life. The province is 32,800.69 km2 in area a quarter of the total land area of Java. Its population was 33,753,023 at the 2015 Census; the origin of the name "Java" can be traced from the Sanskrit chronicle which mentions the existence of an island called yavadvip. Are these grains a millet or rice, both of which have been found on this island in the days before the entry of Indian influence, it is possible that this island has many previous names, including the possibility of originating from the word jaú which means "far away".
Yavadvipa is mentioned in one of Ramayana. According to the epic, the commander of the wanara from Sri Rama's army, sent his envoy to Yavadvip to look for the Hindu goddess Sita. Another possible assumption is that the word "Java" comes from the root words in Proto-Austronesian language, Awa or Yawa which means "home". An island called Iabadiu or Jabadiu is mentioned in Ptolemy's work called Geographia, made around 150 AD during the era of the Roman Empire. Iabadiu is said to mean "island of barley" rich in gold, has a silver city called Argyra at its western end; this name mentioned Java, which most origins from the Sanskrit term Java-dvipa. Chinese records from the Songshu and the Liangshu referred to Java as She-po, He-ling called it She-po again until the Yuan Dynasty, where they began to call Zhao-Wa. In the book Yingyai Shenglan, wrotten by the Chinese Ming explorer Ma Huan, the Chinese call Java as Chao-Wa, it was once called the She-pó; when Giovanni de' Marignolli returned from China to Avignon, he stopped at the kingdom of Saba, which he said had many elephants and was led by a queen.
Java has been inhabited by their ancestors since prehistoric times. In Central Java and the adjacent territories in East Java remains known as "Java Man" were discovered in the 1890s by the Dutch anatomist and geologist Eugène Dubois. Java Man belongs to the species Homo erectus, they are believed to be about 1.7 million years old. The Sangiran site is an important prehistoric site on Java. About 40,000 years ago, Australoid peoples related to modern Australian Aboriginals and Melanesians colonised Central Java, they were assimilated or replaced by Mongoloid Austronesians by about 3000 BC, who brought with them technologies of pottery, outrigger canoes, the bow and arrow, introduced domesticated pigs and dogs. They introduced cultivated rice and millet. Recorded history began in Central Java in the 7th century AD; the writing, as well as Hinduism and Buddhism, were brought to Central Java by Indians from South Asia. Central Java was a centre of power in Java back then. In 664 AD, the Chinese monk Hui-neng visited the Javanese port city he called Hēlíng or Ho-ling, where he translated various Buddhist scriptures into Chinese with the assistance of the Javanese Buddhist monk Jñānabhadra.
It is not known what is meant by the name Hēlíng. It used to be considered the Chinese transcription of Kalinga but it now most thought of as a rendering of the name Areng. Hēlíng is believed to be located somewhere between Jepara; the first dated inscription in Central Java is the Inscription of Canggal, from 732 AD. This inscription which hailed from Kedu, is written in Sanskrit in Pallava script. In this inscription it is written that a Shaivite king named Sri Sanjaya established a kingdom called Mataram. Under the reign of Sanjaya's dynasty several monuments such as the Prambanan temple complex were built. In the meantime a
Durga, identified as Adi Parashakti, is a principal and popular form of Hindu Goddess. She is the warrior goddess, whose mythology centres around combating evils and demonic forces that threaten peace and dharma of the good, she is the fierce form of the protective mother goddess, willing to unleash her anger against wrong, violence for liberation and destruction to empower creation. Durga is depicted in the Hindu pantheon as a Goddess riding a lion or tiger, with many arms each carrying a weapon defeating Mahishasura; the three principle forms of Durga worshiped are Maha Durga and Aparajita. Of these, Chandika has two forms called Chandi, of the combined power and form of Saraswati and Parvati and of Chamunda, a form of Kali created by the goddess for killing demons Chanda and Munda. Maha Durga has three forms: Ugrachanda and Katyayani. Bhadrakali Durga is worshiped in the form of her nine epithets called Navadurga, she is a central deity in Shaktism tradition of Hinduism, where she is equated with the concept of ultimate reality called Brahman.
One of the most important texts of Shaktism is Devi Mahatmya known as Durgā Saptashatī or Chandi patha, which celebrates Durga as the goddess, declaring her as the supreme being and the creator of the universe. Estimated to have been composed between 400 and 600 CE, this text is considered by Shakta Hindus to be as important a scripture as the Bhagavad Gita, she has a significant following all over India and Nepal in its eastern states such as West Bengal, Jharkhand and Bihar. Durga is revered after autumn harvests, specially during the festival of Navratri; the word Durga means "impassable", "invincible, unassailable". It is related to the word Durg which means "fortress, something difficult to defeat or pass". According to Monier Monier-Williams, Durga is derived from the roots gam. According to Alain Daniélou, Durga means "beyond defeat"; the word Durga, related terms appear in the Vedic literature, such as in the Rigveda hymns 4.28, 5.34, 8.27, 8.47, 8.93 and 10.127, in sections 10.1 and 12.4 of the Atharvaveda.
A deity named Durgi appears in section 10.1.7 of the Taittiriya Aranyaka. While the Vedic literature uses the word Durga, the description therein lacks the legendary details about her, found in Hindu literature; the word is found in ancient post-Vedic Sanskrit texts such as in section 2.451 of the Mahabharata and section 4.27.16 of the Ramayana. These usages are in different contexts. For example, Durg is the name of an Asura who had become invincible to gods, Durga is the goddess who intervenes and slays him. Durga and its derivatives are found in sections 4.1.99 and 6.3.63 of the Ashtadhyayi by Pāṇini, the ancient Sanskrit grammarian, in the commentary of Nirukta by Yaska. Durga as a demon-slaying goddess was well established by the time the classic Hindu text called Devi Mahatmya was composed, which scholars variously estimate to between 400 and 600 CE; the Devi Mahatmya and other mythologies describe the nature of demonic forces symbolised by Mahishasura as shape-shifting and adapting in nature and strategy to create difficulties and achieve their evil ends, while Durga calmly understands and counters the evil in order to achieve her solemn goals.
There are many epithets for Durga in Shaktism and her nine appellations are: Shailaputri, Chandraghanta, Skandamata, Kaalratri and Siddhidatri. A list of 108 names of the goddess are recited in order to worship her and is popularly known as the "Ashtottarshat Namavali of Goddess Durga". One of the earliest evidence of reverence for Devi – the feminine nature of God, appears in chapter 10.125 of the Rig Veda, one of the scriptures of Hinduism. This hymn is called the Devi Suktam hymn: – Devi Sukta, Rigveda 10.125.3 – 10.125.8, Devi's epithets synonymous with Durga appear in Upanishadic literature, such as Kali in verse 1.2.4 of the Mundaka Upanishad dated to about the 5th century BCE. This single mention describes Kali as "terrible yet swift as thought" red and smoky colored manifestation of the divine with a fire-like flickering tongue, before the text begins presenting its thesis that one must seek self-knowledge and the knowledge of the eternal Brahman. Durga, in her various forms, appears as an independent deity in the Epics period of ancient India, the centuries around the start of the common era.
Both Yudhisthira and Arjuna characters of the Mahabharata invoke hymns to Durga. She appears in Harivamsa in the form of Vishnu's eulogy, in Pradyumna prayer. Various Puranas from the early to late 1st millennium CE dedicate chapters of inconsistent mythologies associated with Durga. Of these, the Markandeya Purana and the Devi-Bhagavata Purana are the most significant texts on Durga; the Devi Upanishad and other Shakta Upanishads dated to have been composed in or after the 9th century, present the philosophical and mystical speculations related to Durga as Devi and other epithets, identifying her to be the same as the Brahman and Atman. The historian Ramaprasad Chanda stated in 1916 that Durga evolved over time in the Indian subcontinent. A primitive form of Durga, according to Chanda, was the result of "syncretism of a mountain-goddess worshiped by the dwellers of the Himalaya and the Vindhyas", a deity of the Abhiras conceptualized as a war-goddess. Durga transformed into Kali as the personification of the all-destroying time, while aspects of her emerged as the primordial energy integrated into the samsara concept and this idea was built
For the national airline of Indonesia, see Garuda Indonesia, for the giant wasp, see Megalara garuda The Garuda is a legendary bird or bird-like creature in Hindu and Jain mythology. He is variously the vehicle mount of the Hindu god Vishnu, a dharma-protector and Astasena in Buddhism, the Yaksha of the Jain Tirthankara Shantinatha. Garuda is described as the king of a kite-like figure, he is shown either in an anthropomorphic form. Garuda is a protector with power to swiftly go anywhere watchful and an enemy of the serpent, he is known as Tarkshya and Vynateya. Garuda is a part of state insignia in India, Thailand and Indonesia; the Indonesian official coat of arms is centered on the Garuda. The national emblem of Indonesia is called Garuda Pancasila; the Indian Air Force uses the Garuda in their coat of arms and named their special operations unit after it as Garud Commando Force. In Hinduism, Garuda is the king of birds. A Garutman is mentioned in the Rigveda, described as celestial deva with wings.
The Shatapatha Brahmana embedded inside the Yajurveda text mentions Garuda as the personification of courage. In the Mahabharata, Garutman is stated to be same as Garuda described as the one, fast, who can shapeshift into any form and enter anywhere, he is a powerful creature in the epics, whose wing flapping can stop the spinning of heaven and hell. He is described to be the vehicle mount of the Hindu god Vishnu, they are shown together. According to George Williams, Garuda speak, he is a metaphor in the Vedic literature for Rik, Saman and the atman. In the Puranas, states Williams, Garuda becomes a literal embodiment of the idea, the Self who attached to and inseparable from the Supreme Self. Though Garuda is an essential part of the Vaishnavism mythology, he features prominently in Shaivism mythology, Shaiva texts such as the Garuda Tantra and Kirana Tantra, Shiva temples as a bird and as a metaphor of atman; the Hindu texts on Garuda iconography vary in their details. If in the bird form, he is eagle-like with the wings open as if ready and willing to fly wherever he needs to.
In part human-form, he may have an eagle-like nose, beak or legs, his eyes are open and big, his body is the color of emerald, his wings are golden-yellow. He may be shown with either four hands. If he is not carrying Vishnu, he holds a jar of amrita in one hand in the rear and an umbrella in the other, while the front pair of hands are in anjali posture. If he is carrying Vishnu, the rear hands provide the support for Vishnu's feet. According to the text Silparatna, states Rao, Garuda is best depicted with only two hands and with four bands of colors: "golden yellow color from feet to knees, white from knees to navel, scarlet from navel to neck, black above the neck", his hands, recommends the text, should be in abhaya posture. In Sritatvanidhi text, the recommended iconography for Garuda is a kneeling figure, who wears one or more serpents, pointed bird-beak like nose, his two hands in namaste posture; this style is found in Hindu temples dedicated to Vishnu. In some iconography, Garuda carries his two consorts by his side: Lakshmi and Bhūmi.
Garuda iconography is found in early temples of India, such as on the underside of the eave at Cave 3 entrance of the Badami cave temples. Garuda mythology is linked to that of Aruna – the charioteer of Surya. However, these Indian mythologies are inconsistent across the texts. Both and Garuda, developed from egg. According to one version, states George Williams, Kashyapa Prajapati's two wives Vinata and Kadru wanted to have children. Kashyapa granted them a boon. Kadru asked for one thousand Nāga sons, while Vinata wanted two, each equal to Kadru's thousand naga sons. Kashyapa blessed them, went away to a forest to meditate. Kadru gave birth to one thousand eggs, while Vinata gave birth to two eggs; these incubated for five hundred years, upon which Kadru's eggs broke open and out came her 1,000 sons. Vinata eager for her sons, impatiently broke one of the eggs from which emerged the formed Aruna, who looked radiant and reddish as the morning sun but not as bright as the midday sun. Aruna chided his mother, Vinata for her impatience since he was born without legs and warned her to not break open the second egg but wait.
Aruna left to become the charioteer of Surya, the sun god. Vinata waited, after many years the second egg hatched, Garuda was born. Garuda went to war with his step brothers, the Nagas; some myths present Garuda as so massive. The text Garuda Purana is named after him. Garuda is presented in the Mahabharata mythology as one who eats snake meat, such as the story about him planning to kill and eat Sumukha snake, where Indra attempts to intervene. Garudas are a race of birds who devour snakes in the epic; the Suparṇākhyāna, a late Vedic period poem considered to be among the "earliest traces of epic poetry in India," relates the legend of Garuda, provides the basis for a expanded version which appears within the Mahābhārata. Garuda's links to Vishnu – the Hindu god who fights injustice and destroys evil in his various avatars to preserve dharma, has made him an iconic symbol of king's duty and power, an insignia of royalty or dharma, his eagle-like form is shown either alone or with Vishnu
Concubinage is an interpersonal and sexual relationship in which the couple are not or cannot be married. The inability to marry may be due to multiple factors such as differences in social rank status, an existing marriage, religious or professional prohibitions, or a lack of recognition by appropriate authorities; the woman or man in such a relationship is referred to as a concubine. In Judaism, a concubine is a marital companion of inferior status to a wife. A concubine among polygamous peoples is a secondary wife of inferior rank; the prevalence of concubinage and the status of rights and expectations of a concubine have varied among cultures, as have the rights of children of a concubine. Whatever the status and rights of the concubine, they were always inferior to those of the wife and neither she nor her children had rights of inheritance. Concubinage was entered into voluntarily as it provided a measure of economic security for the woman. Involuntary or servile concubinage sometimes involved sexual slavery of one member of the relationship the woman.
Sexual relations outside marriage were not uncommon among royalty and nobility, the woman in such relationships was described as a mistress. The children of such relationships were counted as illegitimate and were barred from inheriting the father's title or estates in the absence of legitimate heirs. While forms of long-term sexual relationships and co-habitation short of marriage have become common in the Western world, these are not described as concubinage; the terms concubinage and concubine are used today when referring to non-marital partnerships of earlier eras. In modern usage, a non-marital domestic relationship is referred to as co-habitation, the woman in such a relationship is referred to as a girlfriend, fiancée, lover or life partner. Concubinage was popular before the early 20th century all over East Asia; the main function of concubinage was producing additional heirs, as well as bringing males pleasure. Children of concubines had lower rights in account to inheritance, regulated by the Dishu system.
In China, successful men had concubines until the practice was outlawed when the Communist Party of China came to power in 1949. The standard Chinese term translated as "concubine" was qiè 妾, a term, used since ancient times, which means "concubine. Concubinage resembled marriage in that concubines were recognized sexual partners of a man and were expected to bear children for him. Unofficial concubines are of lower status, their children are considered illegitimate; the English term concubine is used for what the Chinese refer to as pínfēi, or "consorts of emperors", an official position carrying a high rank. In premodern China it was illegal and disreputable for a man to have more than one wife at a time, but it was acceptable to have concubines. In the earliest records a man could have as many concubines. From the Eastern Han period onward, the number of concubines a man could have was limited by law; the higher rank and the more noble identity a man possessed, the more concubines he was permitted to have.
A concubine's treatment and situation was variable and was influenced by the social status of the male to whom she was attached, as well as the attitude of his wife. In the Book of Rites chapter on "The Pattern of the Family" it says, “If there were betrothal rites, she became a wife. Wives brought a dowry to a relationship. A concubinage relationship could be entered into without the ceremonies used in marriages, neither remarriage nor a return to her natal home in widowhood were allowed to a concubine; the position of the concubine was inferior to that of the wife. Although a concubine could produce heirs, her children would be inferior in social status to a wife's children, although they were of higher status than illegitimate children; the child of a concubine had to show filial duty to two women, their biological mother and their legal mother—the wife of their father. After the death of a concubine, her sons would make an offering to her, but these offerings were not continued by the concubine's grandsons, who only made offerings to their grandfather’s wife.
There are early records of concubines being buried alive with their masters to "keep them company in the afterlife". Until the Song dynasty, it was considered a serious breach of social ethics to promote a concubine to a wife. During the Qing dynasty, the status of concubines improved, it became permissible to promote a concubine to wife, if the original wife had died and the concubine was the mother of the only surviving sons. Moreover, the prohibition against forcing a widow to remarry was extended to widowed concubines. During this period tablets for concubine-mothers seem to have been more placed in family ancestral altars, genealogies of some lineages listed concubine-mothers. Imperial concubines, kept by emperors in the Forbidden City, had different ranks and were traditionally guarded by eunuchs to ensure that they could not be impregnated by anyone but the emperor. In Ming China there was an official system to select concubines for the emperor; the age of the candidates ranged from 14 to 16.
Virtues, character and body condition were the selection criteria. Despite the limitations imposed on Chinese concubines, there are several examples in history
A crematory is a machine in which bodies are burned down to the bones, eliminating all soft tissue. Crematories are found in funeral homes, cemeteries, veterinary hospitals, or in stand-alone facilities. Prior to the Industrial Revolution, any cremation which took place was on an outdoor, open pyre. With firewood, to a lesser extent, coal being the only available fuel options and the low energy efficiency inherent in such a configuration, it is no surprise that cremation enjoyed minimal popularity in densely populated areas up until furnace technology developed during the Industrial Revolution could be applied to cremation to make it more practical in an urbanizing world; the organized movement to instate cremation as a viable method for body disposal began in the 1870s. In 1869 the idea was presented to the Medical International Congress of Florence by Professors Coletti and Castiglioni "in the name of public health and civilization". In 1873, Professor Paolo Gorini of Lodi and Professor Lodovico Brunetti of Padua published reports or practical work they had conducted.
A model of Brunetti's cremating apparatus, together with the resulting ashes, was exhibited at the Vienna Exposition in 1873 and attracted great attention, including that of Sir Henry Thompson, 1st Baronet, a surgeon and Physician to the Queen Victoria, who returned home to become the first and chief promoter of cremation in England. Meanwhile, Sir Charles William Siemens had developed his regenerative furnace in the 1850s, his furnace operated at a high temperature by using regenerative preheating of fuel and air for combustion. In regenerative preheating, the exhaust gases from the furnace are pumped into a chamber containing bricks, where heat is transferred from the gases to the bricks; the flow of the furnace is reversed so that fuel and air pass through the chamber and are heated by the bricks. Through this method, an open-hearth furnace can reach temperatures high enough to melt steel, this process made cremation an efficient and practical proposal. Charles's nephew, Carl Friedrich von Siemens perfected the use of this furnace for the incineration of organic material at his factory in Dresden.
The radical politician, Sir Charles Wentworth Dilke, took the corpse of his dead wife there to be cremated in 1874. The efficient and cheap process brought about the quick and complete incineration of the body and was a fundamental technical breakthrough that made industrial cremation a practical possibility. Sir Henry Thompson's main reason for supporting cremation was that "it was becoming a necessary sanitary precaution against the propagation of disease among a population daily growing larger in relation to the area it occupied". In addition, he believed, cremation would prevent premature burial, reduce the expense of funerals, spare mourners the necessity of standing exposed to the weather during interment, urns would be safe from vandalism. On 13 January 1874, some advocates of cremation, including Anthony Trollope, John Everett Millais, George du Maurier, Thomas Spencer Wells, John Tenniel and Shirley Brooks, held a meeting at Thompson's house in London and formally founded the Cremation Society of Great Britain, "organised expressly for the purpose of obtaining and disseminating information on the subject and for adopting the best method of performing the process, as soon as this could be determined, provided that the act was not contrary to Law".
The first duty of the Cremation Society was to ascertain whether cremation could be performed in the country, to construct a first crematorium. In 1878, a piece of land in Woking on which the crematorium was to be established was bought by Sir Henry Thompson. Professor Gorini was invited to visit Woking and supervise the erection of his cremation apparatus there. In 1885, the first official cremation in the UK took place in Woking; the deceased was Mrs Jeannette C. Pickersgill, a well-known figure in literary and scientific circles. By the end of the year, the Cremation Society of Great Britain had overseen two more cremations, a total of 3 out of 597,357 deaths in the UK that year. In 1886 ten bodies were cremated at Woking Crematorium. During 1888, in which 28 cremations took place, the Cremation Society planned to provide a chapel, waiting rooms and other amenities there. In 1892 a crematorium opened in Manchester, followed by one in Glasgow in 1895, Liverpool in 1896 and Birmingham Crematorium in 1903.
Crematoria in Europe were built in 1878 in the town of Gotha in Germany and in Heidelberg in 1891. The first modern crematory in the U. S. was built in 1876 by Francis Julius LeMoyne after hearing about its use in Europe. During that time it was thought that people were getting sick by attending funerals of those deceased and that decomposing bodies were leaking into the water systems. LeMoyne built the crematory to cremate bodies in a controlled environment for sanitary reasons. Cremation was used to destroy any organic matter that could cause illness and give families a better way to preserve ashes. Before LeMoyne's crematory closed in 1901, it had performed 42 cremations; some of the various Protestant churches came to accept cremation, with the rationale being, "God can resurrect a bowl of ashes just as conveniently as he can resurrect a bowl of dust." The 1908 Catholic Encyclopedia was critical about these efforts, referring to them as a "sinister movement" and associating them with Freemasonry, although it said that "there is nothing directly opposed to any dogma of the Church in the practice of cremation."
In 1963, Pope Paul VI lifted the ban on cremation, in 1966 allowed Catholic priests to officiate at cremation ceremonies. In the U. S. only about one crematory per year was built in the late 19th century. As embalming became