Land of Israel
The Land of Israel is the traditional Jewish name for an area of indefinite geographical extension in the Southern Levant. Related biblical and historical English terms include the Land of Canaan, the Promised Land, the Holy Land, Palestine; the definitions of the limits of this territory vary between passages in the Hebrew Bible, with specific mentions in Genesis 15, Exodus 23, Numbers 34 and Ezekiel 47. Nine times elsewhere in the Bible, the settled land is referred as "from Dan to Beersheba", three times it is referred as "from the entrance of Hamath unto the brook of Egypt”; these biblical limits for the land differ from the borders of established historical Israelite and Jewish kingdoms. Jewish religious belief defines the land as where Jewish religious law prevailed and excludes territory where it was not applied, it holds that the area is a God-given inheritance of the Jewish people based on the Torah the books of Genesis and Exodus, as well as on the Prophets. According to the Book of Genesis, the land was first promised by God to the descendants of Abram.
Abram's name was changed to Abraham, with the promise refined to pass through his son Isaac and to the Israelites, descendants of Jacob, Abraham's grandson. This belief is not shared by most adherents of replacement theology, who hold the view that the Old Testament prophecies were superseded by the coming of Jesus, a view repudiated by Christian Zionists as a theological error. Evangelical Zionists variously claim that Israel has title to the land by divine right, or by a theological and moral grounding of attachment to the land unique to Jews; the idea that ancient religious texts can be warrant or divine right for a modern claim has been challenged, Israeli courts have rejected land claims based on religious motivations. During the League of Nations mandatory period the term "Eretz Yisrael" or the "Land of Israel" was part of the official Hebrew name of Mandatory Palestine. Official Hebrew documents used the Hebrew transliteration of the word “Palestine” פלשתינה followed always by the two initial letters of "Eretz Yisrael", א״י Aleph-Yod.
The Land of Israel concept has been evoked by the founders of the State of Israel. It surfaces in political debates on the status of the West Bank, referred to in official Israeli discourse as the Judea and Samaria Area, from the names of the two historical Jewish kingdoms; the term "Land of Israel" is a direct translation of the Hebrew phrase ארץ ישראל, which occurs in the Bible, is first mentioned in the Tanakh in 1 Samuel 13:19, following the Exodus, when the Israelite tribes were in the Land of Canaan. The words are used sparsely in the Bible: King David is ordered to gather'strangers to the land of Israel' for building purposes, the same phrasing is used in reference to King Solomon's census of all of the'strangers in the Land of Israel'. Ezekiel, though preferring the phrase'soil of Israel', employs eretz israel twice at Ezekiel 40:2 and Ezekiel 47:18. According to Martin Noth, the term is not an "authentic and original name for this land", but instead serves as "a somewhat flexible description of the area which the Israelite tribes had their settlements".
According to Anita Shapira, the term "Eretz Yisrael" was a holy term, vague as far as the exact boundaries of the territories are concerned but defining ownership. The sanctity of the land developed rich associations in rabbinical thought, where it assumes a symbolic and mythological status infused with promise, though always connected to a geographical location. Nur Masalha argues that the biblical boundaries are "entirely fictitious", bore religious connotations in Diaspora Judaism, with the term only coming into ascendency with the rise of Zionism; the Hebrew Bible provides three specific sets of borders for the "Promised Land", each with a different purpose. Neither of the terms "Promised Land" or "Land of Israel" are used in these passages: Genesis 15:13–21, Genesis 17:8 and Ezekiel 47:13–20 use the term "the land", as does Deuteronomy 1:8 in which it is promised explicitly to "Abraham and Jacob... and to their descendants after them," whilst Numbers 34:1–15 describes the "Land of Canaan", allocated to nine and half of the twelve Israelite tribes after the Exodus.
The expression "Land of Israel" is first used in a book, 1 Samuel 13:19. It is defined in detail in the exilic Book of Ezekiel as a land where both the twelve tribes and the "strangers in midst", can claim inheritance; the name "Israel" first appears in the Hebrew Bible as the name given by God to the patriarch Jacob. Deriving from the name "Israel", other designations that came to be associated with the Jewish people have included the "Children of Israel" or "Israelite"; the term'Land of Israel' occurs in one episode in the New Testament, according to Shlomo Sand, it bears the unusual sense of'the area surrounding Jerusalem'. The section in which it appears was written as a parallel to the e
The Bible is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures. Varying parts of the Bible are considered to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans by Christians, Jews and Rastafarians. What is regarded as canonical text differs depending on traditions and groups; the Hebrew Bible overlaps with the Christian Old Testament. The Christian New Testament is a collection of writings by early Christians, believed to be Jewish disciples of Christ, written in first-century Koine Greek. Among Christian denominations there is some disagreement about what should be included in the canon about the Apocrypha, a list of works that are regarded with varying levels of respect. Attitudes towards the Bible differ among Christian groups. Roman Catholics, high church Anglicans and Eastern Orthodox Christians stress the harmony and importance of the Bible and sacred tradition, while Protestant churches, including Evangelical Anglicans, focus on the idea of sola scriptura, or scripture alone.
This concept arose during the Protestant Reformation, many denominations today support the use of the Bible as the only infallible source of Christian teaching. The Bible has been a massive influence on literature and history in the Western World, where the Gutenberg Bible was the first book printed using movable type. According to the March 2007 edition of Time, the Bible "has done more to shape literature, history and culture than any book written, its influence on world history is unparalleled, shows no signs of abating." With estimated total sales of over 5 billion copies, it is considered to be the most influential and best-selling book of all time. As of the 2000s, it sells 100 million copies annually; the English word Bible is from the Latin biblia, from the same word in Medieval Latin and Late Latin and from Koinē Greek: τὰ βιβλία, translit. Ta biblia "the books". Medieval Latin biblia is short for biblia sacra "holy book", while biblia in Greek and Late Latin is neuter plural, it came to be regarded as a feminine singular noun in medieval Latin, so the word was loaned as a singular into the vernaculars of Western Europe.
Latin biblia sacra "holy books" translates Greek τὰ βιβλία τὰ ἅγια tà biblía tà ágia, "the holy books". The word βιβλίον itself had the literal meaning of "paper" or "scroll" and came to be used as the ordinary word for "book", it is the diminutive of βύβλος byblos, "Egyptian papyrus" so called from the name of the Phoenician sea port Byblos from whence Egyptian papyrus was exported to Greece. The Greek ta biblia was "an expression. Christian use of the term can be traced to c. 223 CE. The biblical scholar F. F. Bruce notes that Chrysostom appears to be the first writer to use the Greek phrase ta biblia to describe both the Old and New Testaments together. By the 2nd century BCE, Jewish groups began calling the books of the Bible the "scriptures" and they referred to them as "holy", or in Hebrew כִּתְבֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ, Christians now call the Old and New Testaments of the Christian Bible "The Holy Bible" or "the Holy Scriptures"; the Bible was divided into chapters in the 13th century by Stephen Langton and it was divided into verses in the 16th century by French printer Robert Estienne and is now cited by book and verse.
The division of the Hebrew Bible into verses is based on the sof passuk cantillation mark used by the 10th-century Masoretes to record the verse divisions used in earlier oral traditions. The oldest extant copy of a complete Bible is an early 4th-century parchment book preserved in the Vatican Library, it is known as the Codex Vaticanus; the oldest copy of the Tanakh in Hebrew and Aramaic dates from the 10th century CE. The oldest copy of a complete Latin Bible is the Codex Amiatinus. Professor John K. Riches, Professor of Divinity and Biblical Criticism at the University of Glasgow, says that "the biblical texts themselves are the result of a creative dialogue between ancient traditions and different communities through the ages", "the biblical texts were produced over a period in which the living conditions of the writers – political, cultural and ecological – varied enormously". Timothy H. Lim, a professor of Hebrew Bible and Second Temple Judaism at the University of Edinburgh, says that the Old Testament is "a collection of authoritative texts of divine origin that went through a human process of writing and editing."
He states that it is not a magical book, nor was it written by God and passed to mankind. Parallel to the solidification of the Hebrew canon, only the Torah first and the Tanakh began to be translated into Greek and expanded, now referred to as the Septuagint or the Greek Old Testament. In Christian Bibles, the New Testament Gospels were derived from oral traditions in the second half of the first century CE. Riches says that: Scholars have attempted to reconstruct something of the history of the oral traditions behind the Gospels, but the results have not been too encouraging; the period of transmission is short: less than 40 years passed between the death of Jesus and the writing of Mark's Gospel. This means that there was little time for oral trad
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
The Talmud is the central text of Rabbinic Judaism and the primary source of Jewish religious law and Jewish theology. Until the advent of modernity, in nearly all Jewish communities, the Talmud was the centerpiece of Jewish cultural life and was foundational to "all Jewish thought and aspirations", serving as "the guide for the daily life" of Jews; the term "Talmud" refers to the collection of writings named the Babylonian Talmud, although there is an earlier collection known as the Jerusalem Talmud. It may traditionally be called Shas, a Hebrew abbreviation of shisha sedarim, or the "six orders" of the Mishnah; the Talmud has two components. The term "Talmud" may refer to either the Gemara alone; the entire Talmud consists of 63 tractates, in standard print is over 6,200 pages long. It is written in Mishnaic Hebrew and Jewish Babylonian Aramaic and contains the teachings and opinions of thousands of rabbis on a variety of subjects, including halakha, Jewish ethics, customs, history and many other topics.
The Talmud is the basis for all codes of Jewish law, is quoted in rabbinic literature. Talmud translates as "instruction, learning", from a root LMD "teach, study". Jewish scholarship was oral. Rabbis expounded and debated the Torah and discussed the Tanakh without the benefit of written works, though some may have made private notes, for example of court decisions; this situation changed drastically as the result of the destruction of the Jewish commonwealth and the Second Temple in the year 70 and the consequent upheaval of Jewish social and legal norms. As the rabbis were required to face a new reality—mainly Judaism without a Temple and Judea without at least partial autonomy—there was a flurry of legal discourse and the old system of oral scholarship could not be maintained, it is during this period. The oldest full manuscript of the Talmud, known as the Munich Talmud, dates from 1342 and is available online; the process of "Gemara" proceeded in what were the two major centers of Jewish scholarship and Babylonia.
Correspondingly, two bodies of analysis developed, two works of Talmud were created. The older compilation is called the Talmud Yerushalmi, it was compiled in the 4th century in Galilee. The Babylonian Talmud was compiled about the year 500; the word "Talmud", when used without qualification refers to the Babylonian Talmud. While the editors of Jerusalem Talmud and Babylonian Talmud each mention the other community, most scholars believe these documents were written independently. Here the argument from silence is convincing." The Jerusalem Talmud known as the Palestinian Talmud, or Talmuda de-Eretz Yisrael, was one of the two compilations of Jewish religious teachings and commentary, transmitted orally for centuries prior to its compilation by Jewish scholars in the Land of Israel. It is a compilation of teachings of the schools of Tiberias and Caesarea, it is written in Jewish Palestinian Aramaic, a Western Aramaic language that differs from its Babylonian counterpart. This Talmud is a synopsis of the analysis of the Mishnah, developed over the course of nearly 200 years by the Academies in Galilee Because of their location, the sages of these Academies devoted considerable attention to analysis of the agricultural laws of the Land of Israel.
Traditionally, this Talmud was thought to have been redacted in about the year 350 by Rav Muna and Rav Yossi in the Land of Israel. It is traditionally known as the Talmud Yerushalmi, but the name is a misnomer, as it was not prepared in Jerusalem, it has more been called "The Talmud of the Land of Israel". Its final redaction belongs to the end of the 4th century, but the individual scholars who brought it to its present form cannot be fixed with assurance. By this time Christianity had become the state religion of the Roman Empire and Jerusalem the holy city of Christendom. In 325, Constantine the Great, the first Christian emperor, said "let us have nothing in common with the detestable Jewish crowd." This policy made a Jew an pauper. The compilers of the Jerusalem Talmud lacked the time to produce a work of the quality they had intended; the text is not easy to follow. The apparent cessation of work on the Jerusalem Talmud in the 5th century has been associated with the decision of Theodosius II in 425 to suppress the Patriarchate and put an end to the practice of semikhah, formal scholarly ordination.
Some modern scholars have questioned this connection. Despite its incomplete state, the Jerusalem Talmud remains an indispensable source of knowledge of the development of the Jewish Law in the Holy Land, it was an important resource in the study of the Babylonian Talmud by the Kairouan school of Chana
The Exilarch was the title of the leader of the Jewish community in Babylon during the era of the Parthians and Abbasids up until the Mongol invasion of Baghdad in 1258, with intermitent gaps akin to political developments. The Exilarch was the equivalent of the Katholikos of the Christian Church of the East, was thus responsible for community-specific organizational tasks such as running courts, collecting taxes and providing financing for the Talmudic Academies in Babylon, the redistribution and financial assistance to needy members of the community; the position was hereditary in a family. The first historical documents referring to it date from the time when Babylon was part of the Parthian Empire; the office first lasted to the middle of the 6th century, under different regimes (the Parthians and Sassanids. During the end of 5th century and the beginning of 6th century CE, Mar-Zutra II formed a politically independent state where he ruled from Mahoza for about seven years, he was defeated by Kavadh I, King of Persia.
The position was restored under Arab rule. Exilarchs continued to be appointed through the 11th century. Under Arab rule, Muslims treated the exilarch with great circumstance; the Exilarchs authority came under considerable challenge in 825 CE during the reign of al-Ma'mun who issued a decree permitting a group of ten men from any religious community to organize separately, which allowed the Gaon of the Talmudic academies of Sura and Pumbedita to compete with the Exilarch for power and influence contributing to the wider schism between Karaites and Rabbinic Jewry. Although there is no mention about the office before the 2nd century BCE, the traditional view is that the office of Exilarch was established following the deportation of King Jeconiah and his court into Babylonian exile after the first fall of Jerusalem in 597 BCE and augmented after the further deportations following the destruction of the kingdom of Judah in 587 BCE; the history of the exilarchate falls into two periods, separated by the beginning of the Arabic rule in Babylonia.
Nothing is known about the office before the 2nd century, including any details about its founding or beginnings. It can be said in general that the golah, the Jews living in compact masses in various parts of Babylon, tended to unite and create an organization, that this tendency, together with the high regard in which the descendants of the house of David living in Babylon were held, brought it about that a member of this house was recognized as "head of the golah." The dignity became hereditary in this house, was recognized by the state, hence became an established political institution, first of the Arsacid and of the Sassanid empire. Such was the exilarchate as it appears in Talmudic literature, the chief source for its history during the first period, which provides our only information regarding the rights and functions of the exilarchate. For the second, period, there is a important and trustworthy description of the institution of the exilarchate; the following list of exilarchs is based on the evidence detailed in the following sections.
Exilarchs listed in the Second Book of Kings, the Books of Chronicles and in the Seder Olam Zutta, some legendary, are: Jeconiah or Jehoiachin, according to the chronology of the exilarchate, the last of the Davidic kings of Judah. After a reign of only three months and ten days, Jeconiah's reign came to an end by Babylonian intervention, Jeconiah and the elite of Judah were taken into Babylonian exile in 597 BCE as part of the first deportation, Jeconiah continued to be regarded as the legitimate king of Judah by the Jews in Babylon, his family line was followed by subsequent exilarchs. Cuneiform records dated to 592 BCE mention Jeconiah and his five sons as recipients of food rations in Babylon. In any event, all the sons of Jehoiachin's successor on the throne of Judah, were killed by Nebuchadrezzar II after the fall of Jerusalem and destruction of the Temple in 586 BCE. Shealtiel, son of Jehoiachin Zerubbabel, son of Pedaiah, a son of Jehoiachin and is mentioned as a governor of the Persian Yehud Province.
According to the Seder Olam Zutta, Zerubbabel was the son of Shealtiel. Meshullam, son of Zerubbabel Hananiah, son of Zerubbabel Berechiah, son of Zerubbabel Hasadiah, son of Hananiah Jesaiah, son of Hananiah Obadiah, son of Hananiah Shemaiah, son of Shecaniah, a son of Hananiah Shechaniah, son of Hananiah According to the Seder Olam Zutta, Shechaniah was the son of Shemaiah, lived at the time of the destruction of the Second Temple. However, this is unlikely, since the Second temple wasn't destroyed until over 500 years after the days of Zerubbabel. Hezekiah, son of Neriah, the son of Shemaiah Akkub, son of Elioenai, a son of Neriah, a son of Shemaiah Probably historical exilarchs found in the Seder Olam Zutta: Nahum the same person known as Nehunyon or Ahijah from the time of the Hadrianic
Berachot is the first tractate of Seder Zeraim, a collection of the Mishnah that deals with laws relating to plants and farming, hence the name. The tractate Berakhot is the only tractate in Zeraim to have a Gemara from both the Jerusalem Talmud and the Babylonian Talmud, it addresses the rules regarding the Shema, the Amidah, Birkat Hamazon, Kiddush and other blessings and prayers. The first three chapters of the tractate address the subject of the recitation of Shema, a biblical command that constitutes the acceptance of the yoke of Heaven, to be performed twice per day. Topics discussed include when to say it, how to say it and possible exemptions from the fulfillment of this mitzvah. Chapter 1 Mishnah א - In the case of the evening Shema, recital begins when the Kohanim enter to eat their terumah, at nightfall. R'Eliezer says, he takes "when you lie down" to mean the Shema is recited at the time that people lie down to go to sleep, anyone who will be going to sleep for the night has done so by the end of the first watch.
The sages say. And Rabban Gamliel says until the light of dawn. Rabban Gamliel says that whatever mitzvahs the sages said can be performed only until midnight can be performed until the light of dawn; the sages said until midnight to distance a person from procrastination and thus transgression. Mishnah ב - The time for reciting the morning Shema is referred to by "when you arise", this is when there is enough light to distinguish between blue and white wool. R'Eliezer says between blue and green wool, which would be at a later time. R'Yehoshua says until the end of the first three hours of the day, because it was customary for kings to still be rising until then; the hours referred to are seasonal hours, which are defined by measuring from either the first light of dawn to nightfall or from sunrise to sunset and dividing this into twelve equal parts. Halacha accords with R'Yehoshua and if one recites the Shema after the first three hours, it is as if he is reading from the Torah, which shows that reciting the Shema properly is greater than reciting words of Torah.
The ideal time to recite the Shema is shortly before sunrise so the Shemoneh Esrei can be started at sunrise. This is. Mishnah ג - The position one should assume when reciting the Shema is now discussed; the School of Shammai said the evening Shema should be recited lying down because it is written "when you lie down" and the morning Shema should be recited standing because it says "when you arise". The School of Hillel say it can be said in any position because it is written "when you go on the way". Hillel say that "when you lie down and when you arise" comes to tell us that it is recited at the time that people are lying down and rising, not the physical position one should be in while reciting; as in most cases, halakha is in accordance with Hillel. Mishnah ד - In the morning, the two blessings said before the Shema are "Who forms light" and "With an abundant love". In the evening, the two blessings said before the Shema are "Who brings on evenings" and "With an eternal love". A short blessing cannot be said in place of a long blessing, vice versa.
Where the sages said to conclude a blessing with "Blessed are You, Hashem", one cannot conclude without it. Where the sages did not say to conclude in that manner, one cannot add it. Mishnah ה - There is a mitzvah to mention the Exodus from Egypt at night; the beginning of the second chapter discusses the protocol of how one says the Shema itself. As saying the Shema requires concentration for only the first verse to fulfill the mitzvah, workers may say it while in a tree or on a stone wall. However, this does not apply to the Amidah; the rest of the second chapter and the entire third chapter discusses exemptions from the Shema, as there are cases where an individual is not required to say it. The second chapter contains a series of parables regarding Rabban Gamliel to help the reader understand why exemptions may be acceptable. A married man is exempt from saying the Shema as he may be anxious about his wedding. However, if he is able to properly dedicate himself to God in prayer, he should recite it regardless of the exemption.
A person, mourning the death of a relative is exempt from saying the Shema and from wearing tefillin. Funeral attendees who can see the mourner should not recite the Shema so that the mourner does not feel uncomfortable for not saying it. Women and children are exempt from the recital of the Shema and from wearing tefillin, but are not exempt from the Amidah, affixing a mezuzah and Birkat Hamazon. Chapters 4 and 5 discuss the main prayer known as the Shemoneh Esrei, Amidah, or just Tefillah in Talmud literature, it consisted of eighteen blessings with one being added by Rabban Gamliel. To
Funk & Wagnalls
Funk & Wagnalls was an American publisher known for its reference works, including A Standard Dictionary of the English Language, the Funk & Wagnalls Standard Encyclopedia. The encyclopedia was renamed Funk & Wagnalls New Standard Encyclopedia in 1931 and in 1945, it was known as New Funk & Wagnalls Encyclopedia, Universal Standard Encyclopedia, Funk & Wagnalls Standard Reference Encyclopedia, Funk & Wagnalls New Encyclopedia; the last printing of Funk & Wagnalls New Encyclopedia was in 1997. As of 2018, annual Yearbooks are still in production; the I. K. Funk & Company, founded in 1875, was renamed Funk & Wagnalls Company after two years, became Funk & Wagnalls Inc. Funk & Wagnalls Corporation. Isaac Kaufmann Funk founded the business in 1875 as I. K. Funk & Company. In 1877, Adam Willis Wagnalls, one of Funk's classmates at Wittenberg College, joined the firm as a partner and the name of the firm was changed to Funk & Wagnalls Company. During its early years, Funk & Wagnalls Company published religious books.
The publication of The Literary Digest in 1890 marked a shift to publishing of general reference dictionaries and encyclopedias. The firm published The Standard Dictionary of the English Language in 2 volumes in 1893 & 1895 and Funk & Wagnalls Standard Encyclopedia in 1912. In 1913, the New Standard Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language was published under the supervision of Isaac K. Funk; the New Standard Unabridged Dictionary was revised until 1943, a edition, supervised by Charles Earl Funk. The encyclopedia was based upon Chambers's Encyclopaedia: "Especially are we indebted to the famous Chambers's Encyclopaedia... With its publishers we have arranged to draw upon its stores as as we have found it of advantage so to do."Wilfred J. Funk, the son of Isaac Funk, was president of the company from 1925 to 1940. Unicorn Press obtained the rights to publish the encyclopedia, by 1953 that firm began to sell the encyclopedia through a supermarket continuity marketing campaign, encouraging consumers to include the latest volume of the encyclopedia on their shopping lists.
Grocery stores in the 1970s in the Midwest kept about four volumes in a rotation, dropping the last and adding the latest until all volumes could be acquired with the initial first volume being 99 cents. The first several volumes were gold painted along the edges and the volumes were not; these volumes were $2.99 and toward the volumes the price had increased with the inflation of the 1970s. If one did not go shopping on a weekly basis, or delivery was spotty, there was a good chance that a volume might be missed to complete the set. In 1965, Funk & Wagnalls Co. was sold to Reader's Digest. In 1971, the company, now Funk and Wagnalls, was sold to Dun & Bradstreet. Dun and Bradstreet retained Funk & Wagnalls New Encyclopedia, but other reference works were relinquished to other publishers. In 1984, Dun & Bradstreet sold Funk & Wagnalls, Inc. to a group of Funk & Wagnalls executives, who in turn sold it to Field Corporation in 1988. In 1991, the company was sold to K-III Holdings, in 1993 Funk & Wagnalls Corporation acquired the World Almanac.
In 1998, as part of the Information division of Primedia Inc. the encyclopedia content appeared on the Web site "funkandwagnalls.com". This short-lived venture was shut down in 2001. Ripplewood Holdings bought Primedia's education division in 1999, which became part of Reader's Digest Association in 2007. In 2009, Funk & Wagnalls was acquired by World Book Encyclopedia. After failing to purchase rights to the text of the Encyclopædia Britannica and World Book Encyclopedia for its Encarta digital encyclopedia, Microsoft reluctantly used the text of Funk & Wagnalls encyclopedia for the first editions of its encyclopedia; this licensed text was replaced over the following years with content Microsoft created itself. 18?? – The Preacher's Homiletic Commentary on the Old Testament 18?? – The Preacher's Homiletic Commentary on the New Testament 1890 – The Literary Digest 1891 – The Encyclopedia of Missions 1893-95 – The Standard Dictionary of the English Language 1901/1906 – The Jewish Encyclopedia, 12 volumes 1906 – The World's Famous Orations, 10 volume set 1909 – Standard Bible Dictionary 1912 – Funk & Wagnalls Standard Encyclopedia 1913 - 1943 The New Standard Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language, Two volumes 1915 – Women of all nations: a record of their characteristics, manners and influence, Volume 1 1915 – Women of all nations: a record of their characteristics, manners and influence, Volume 2 1915 – Women of all nations: a record of their characteristics, manners and influence, Volume 3 1920 – Funk and Wagnall's Student's Standard Dictionary of the English language 1927 – The World's One Hundred Best Short Stories, 10 volumes 1929 – Pocket Library of the World's Essential Knowledge, 10 volumes 1929 – The World's 1000 Best Poems, 10 volumes 1936 – A New Standard Bible Dictionary 1946 - Funk and Wagnalls New Practical Standard Dictionary, 2 volumes Re-Copyrighted in 1949, 1951, 1952, 1953, 1954 1955 ***First hand account from volumes dated 1955.
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