Telangana is a state in India situated on the centre-south stretch of the Indian peninsula on the high Deccan Plateau. It is the twelfth largest state and the twelfth-most populated state in India with a geographical area of 112,077 km2 and 35,193,978 residents as per 2011 census. On 2 June 2014, the area was separated from the northwestern part of Andhra Pradesh as the newly formed 29th state with Hyderabad as its historic permanent capital, its other major cities include Warangal, Nizamabad and Karimnagar. Telangana is bordered by the states of Maharashtra to the north, Chhattisgarh to the east, Karnataka to the west, Andhra Pradesh to the east and south; the terrain of Telangana region consists of hills, mountain ranges, thick dense forests distribution of 27,292 sq. km. As of 2019, the state of Telangana is divided into 33 districts. Throughout antiquity and the Middle Ages, the region now known as Telangana was ruled by multiple major Indian powers such as the Cholas, Satavahanas, Kakatiyas, Delhi Sultanate, Bahmani Sultanate, Golconda Sultanate.
During the 16th and 17th centuries, the region was ruled by the Mughals. The region is known for its Ganga-Jamuni Tehzeeb. During the 18th century and the British Raj, Telangana was ruled by the Nizam of Hyderabad. In 1823, the Nizams lost control over Northern Circars and Ceded Districts, which were handed over to the East India Company; the annexation by the British of the Northern Circars deprived Hyderabad State, the Nizam's dominion, of the considerable coastline it had, to that of a landlocked princely state with territories in Central Deccan, bounded on all sides by British India. Thereafter, the Northern Circars were governed as part of Madras Presidency until India's independence in 1947, after which the presidency became India's Madras state; the Hyderabad state joined the Union of India in 1948 after an Indian military invasion. In 1956, the Hyderabad State was dissolved as part of the linguistic reorganisation of states and Telangana was merged with the Telugu-speaking Andhra State to form Andhra Pradesh.
A peasant-driven movement began to advocate for separation from Andhra Pradesh starting in the early 1950s, continued until Telangana was awarded separate statehood on 2 June 2014. The economy of Telangana is the eighth-largest state economy in India with ₹8.43 lakh crore in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹181,000. The state has emerged as a major focus for robust IT software and services sector; the state is the main administrative centre to a large number of Indian defence aero-space and research labs like Bharat Dynamics Limited, Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Defence Research and Development Organisation and Defence Research and Development Laboratory. The cultural hearts of Telangana and Warangal, are noted for their wealth and renowned historical structures – Charminar, Qutb Shahi Tombs, Paigah Tombs, Falaknuma Palace, Chowmahalla Palace, Warangal Fort, Kakatiya Kala Thoranam, Thousand Pillar Temple and the Bhongir Fort in Yadadri Bhuvanagiri district; the historic city Golconda during the Kakatiya reign was once known for the mines that have produced some of the world's most famous gems, including the Koh-i-Noor, Hope Diamond, Daria-i-Noor, Regent Diamond, Nassak Diamond and Noor-ul-Ain.
Religious edifices like the Lakshmi Narasimha Temple in Yadadri Bhuvanagiri district, Makkah Masjid in Hyderabad, Medak Cathedral are several of its most famous places of worship. A popular etymology derives the word "Telangana" from Trilinga desa, a region so called because three important Shaivite shrines were located here: Kaleshwaram and Draksharama. According to Jayadhir Thirumala Rao, a former director of Andhra Pradesh Oriental Manuscripts Library and Research Centre, the name Telangana is of Gondi origin. Rao asserts that it is derived from "Telangadh", which according to him, means "south" in Gondi and has been referred to in "Gond script dating back to about 2000 years". One of the earliest uses of a word similar to Telangana can be seen in a name of Malik Maqbul, called the Tilangani, which implies that he was from Tilangana, he was the commander of the Warangal Fort. A 16th-century travel writer, recorded in his book: During the just reign of Ibrahim Kootb Shah, like Egypt, became the mart of the whole world.
Merchants from Toorkistan and Persia resorted to it. The greatest luxuries from foreign parts daily abounded at the king's hospitable board; the word "Telinga" changed over time to "Telangana" and the name "Telangana" was designated to distinguish the predominantly Telugu-speaking region of the erstwhile Hyderabad State from its predominantly Marathi-speaking one, Marathwada. After Asaf Jahis ceded the Seemandhra region to the British, the rest of the Telugu region retained the name Telingana and the other parts were called Madras Presidency's Circars and Ceded. Telangana was governed by many rulers, including the Maurya Empire, Satavahana dynasty, Vakataka dynasty, Chalukya dynasty, Rashtrakuta dynasty, the Kakatiya Dynasty, the Musunuri Nayaks the Delhi Sultanate, the Bahmani Sultanate, Vijayanagara Empire, Qutb Shahi dynasty, Mughal Empire and Asaf Jahi Dynasty; the Satavahana dynasty became the dominant power in this region. It originated from the lands between the Godavari
The British Raj was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent from 1858 to 1947. The rule is called Crown rule in India, or direct rule in India; the region under British control was called British India or India in contemporaneous usage, included areas directly administered by the United Kingdom, which were collectively called British India, those ruled by indigenous rulers, but under British tutelage or paramountcy, called the princely states. The whole was informally called the Indian Empire; as India, it was a founding member of the League of Nations, a participating nation in the Summer Olympics in 1900, 1920, 1928, 1932, 1936, a founding member of the United Nations in San Francisco in 1945. This system of governance was instituted on 28 June 1858, after the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the rule of the British East India Company was transferred to the Crown in the person of Queen Victoria, it lasted until 1947, when it was partitioned into two sovereign dominion states: the Dominion of India and the Dominion of Pakistan.
At the inception of the Raj in 1858, Lower Burma was a part of British India. The British Raj extended over all present-day India and Bangladesh, except for small holdings by other European nations such as Goa and Pondicherry; this area is diverse, containing the Himalayan mountains, fertile floodplains, the Indo-Gangetic Plain, a long coastline, tropical dry forests, arid uplands, the Thar Desert. In addition, at various times, it included Aden, Lower Burma, Upper Burma, British Somaliland, Singapore. Burma was separated from India and directly administered by the British Crown from 1937 until its independence in 1948; the Trucial States of the Persian Gulf and the states under the Persian Gulf Residency were theoretically princely states as well as presidencies and provinces of British India until 1947 and used the rupee as their unit of currency. Among other countries in the region, Ceylon was ceded to Britain in 1802 under the Treaty of Amiens. Ceylon was part of Madras Presidency between 1793 and 1798.
The kingdoms of Nepal and Bhutan, having fought wars with the British, subsequently signed treaties with them and were recognised by the British as independent states. The Kingdom of Sikkim was established as a princely state after the Anglo-Sikkimese Treaty of 1861; the Maldive Islands were a British protectorate from 1887 to 1965, but not part of British India. India during the British Raj was made up of two types of territory: British India and the Native States. In its Interpretation Act 1889, the British Parliament adopted the following definitions in Section 18: The expression "British India" shall mean all territories and places within Her Majesty's dominions which are for the time being governed by Her Majesty through the Governor-General of India or through any governor or other officer subordinates to the Governor-General of India; the expression "India" shall mean British India together with any territories of any native prince or chief under the suzerainty of Her Majesty exercised through the Governor-General of India, or through any governor or other officer subordinates to the Governor-General of India.
In general, the term "British India" had been used to refer to the regions under the rule of the British East India Company in India from 1600 to 1858. The term has been used to refer to the "British in India"; the terms "Indian Empire" and "Empire of India" were not used in legislation. The monarch was known as Empress or Emperor of India and the term was used in Queen Victoria's Queen's Speeches and Prorogation Speeches; the passports issued by the British Indian government had the words "Indian Empire" on the cover and "Empire of India" on the inside. In addition, an order of knighthood, the Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire, was set up in 1878. Suzerainty over 175 princely states, some of the largest and most important, was exercised by the central government of British India under the Viceroy. A clear distinction between "dominion" and "suzerainty" was supplied by the jurisdiction of the courts of law: the law of British India rested upon the laws passed by the British Parliament and the legislative powers those laws vested in the various governments of British India, both central and local.
At the turn of the 20th century, British India consisted of eight provinces that were administered either by a governor or a lieutenant-governor. During the partition of Bengal, the new provinces of Assam and East Bengal were created as a Lieutenant-Governorship. In 1911, East Bengal was reunited with Bengal, the new provinces in the east becam
Y. S. Rajasekhara Reddy
Yeduguri Sandinti Rajasekhara Reddy, popularly known as YSR, was a two-time Chief Minister of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh, serving from 2004 to 2009. Reddy was elected to the 9th, 10th, 11th, 12th Lok Sabha from the Kadapa constituency for four terms and to the Andhra Pradesh Assembly for five terms from the Pulivendula constituency, he won every election. In 2003 he undertook a three-month-long paadayaatra, or walking tour of 1475 km during the hot summer months, across several districts in Andhra Pradesh as a part of his election campaign, he led his party to victory in the following general and assembly elections held in 2004, did the same in 2009. On 2 September 2009, a helicopter carrying Reddy went missing in the Nallamala Forest area; the next morning media reported that the helicopter wreckage had been found on top of Rudrakonda Hill, 40 kilometres from Kurnool. The five people aboard were pronounced dead at the scene of the crash. Over a hundred people were reported to have committed suicide on hearing the news of his death.
Being born into a Christian middle class family on 8 July 1949 as eldest of five sons for Y. S. Raja Reddy at Pulivendula, he completed his medical studies in Mahadevappa Rampure Medical College, Gulbarga and served as medical officer as Jammalamadugu Mission Hospital, Kadapa district, Andhra Pradesh after completing his studies. In 1973, he established a 70-bed charitable hospital before joining into politics. Reddy was married to Vijaya Lakshmi, they had one son, politician Y. S. Jagan Mohan, one daughter, Y. S. Sharmila. Reddy's younger brother Y. S. Vivekananda is a Congress politician. Reddy's parents were devout Christians, as was Reddy, buried according to Christian rites. Reddy visited Bethlehem and other important Christian places in Israel twice, he visited the Hindu temple of Tirupati regularly. Reddy joined active politics in 1978 and won the Pulivendula constituency same year and became Minister of State for Rural Development, shifted to Excise Minister and Education Minister, he continued to retain the same constituency in 1983 and 1985 when N. T. Rama Rao swept the power and the party fared badly in the latter, which saw Indira Gandhi making him State president of the party.
He continued the winning streak for Kadapa constituency for four terms in 9th, 10th, 11th, 12th Lok Sabha. His return to state politics saw him winning 1999 Assembly elections from same Pulivendula constituency during which he served as Leader of Opposition in Andhra Pradesh State Assembly, but his subsequent winning in 2004 Assembly elections saw him sworn-in as 14th Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh serving full-term, he won 2009 Assembly elections and continued his tenure as 15th Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh, abruptly cut short by his death on 2 September 2009. During his tenure as Chief Minister, the government of Andhra Pradesh undertook the following projects: On the first day of his tenure in 2004, he provided free electricity for farmers, a campaign project. A health insurance program for rural people living below the poverty line, known as Rajiv Arogya Shree, was instituted to pay the entire cost of any necessary surgery up to a maximum of ₹2 lakh. A free public ambulance service was started by Satyam and adopted by Andhra Pradesh.
The Pavala Vaddi program provided loans at 3% interest to encourage small businesseses and entrepreneurship by rural women. Indiramma illu was a program started to construct subsidised housing for the rural poor. A rice scheme provided a kilogram of rice for two rupees to reduce hunger; the minimum support price for rice was raised. Full reimbursement of college tuition for the underprivileged and reservations for minorities were instituted; the main emphasis during Reddy's tenure was on social welfare, with a majority of his projects targeted at reducing rural poverty. Apart from these schemes, his government was a role model in implementing the central government's flagship program NREGA, his tenure saw significant weakening of the violent extremist left-wing Naxalite movement, rampant in the state when he assumed office in 2004. He commenced Jala Yagnam project was started to irrigate 10,000,000 acres of land through the construction of major and minor irrigation projects, it helped Andhra Pradesh make significant progress in sustainable agriculture by making wastelands cultivable.
Reddy's major campaign slogan for the 2009 election was "Development and Credibility". He sought a mandate based on past performance, making no new election promises but vowing to continue and extend ongoing schemes; the opposition parties formed a'Grand alliance' made up of all the major opposition parties including, Telugu Desam Party, Telangana Rashtra Samithi and the communist parties. The TDP promised numerous inducements including free color televisions and a unique cash transfer scheme. There was a new party, Praja Rajyam Party, floated by a popular film star Chiranjeevi; the Congress Party under the leadership of Reddy won the contest and came to power for a second time, winning 156 seats in the assembly. Reddy's party won 33 seats in parliament out of a total of 42 seats; this feat was seen as a significant victory for Reddy, since he was able to earn a second consecutive term against the odds of anti-incumbency. He became the Congress party’s first incumbent chief minister since 1969 to win based on his performance.
Reddy was sworn in as the Chief Minister for the term of 2009–2014 on 20 May 2009. The ceremony was held in Hyderabad's Lal Bahadur Shastri St
Nalgonda is a city and municipality in the Indian state of Telangana. It is the headquarters of the Nalgonda district, as well as the headquarters of the Nalgonda mandal in the Nalgonda revenue division; the city's name is derived from two Telugu words: konda. In the past, Nalgonda was referred to as Nilagiri. During the medieval Bahamani kingdom, it was renamed Nallagonda; the name was changed to "Nalgonda" for official uses during the rule of the Nizam kings. There is archaeological evidence that Paleolithic people lived in the area, now Nalgonda, fashioning tools and weapons out of stone; some of these implements have been found in the Nalgonda area, similar to those discovered at the Sloan archaeological site in Arkansas. Traces of Neolithic culture were found at Chota Yelupu, where sling stones and other contemporary objects were excavated. Evidence of Megalithic culture was found via the discovery of innumerable burials at various places around Nalgonda; the political history of the Nalgonda district commences with the Mauryas.
During the reign of Ashoka the Great, the Mauryas maintained control over the Nalgonda region. The Satavahanas, who ruled between 230 BC and 218 BC, took control of the area. During this period, the region established trade contacts with the Roman Empire. In 227 AD, the Ikshvaku dynasty took control of the region. During this period, members of various Saka tribes migrated to the area. Buddhism flourished during this time. After the Ikshvakus, the Pallavas and Yadavas fought for supremacy over the region. However, after Samudragupta invaded and conquered most of India, the area fell under the control of his Gupta Empire; the Empire fell in the 6th century. Starting in the 6th century, the Chalukya dynasty ruled the modern-day Nalgonda region, as well as much of southern and central India. A major portion of the Nalgonda area appears to have passed from the Chalukyas of Badami to the Rashtrakutas. However, the Rashtrakutas fell in 973, power shifted to the Chalukyas of Kalyani; the Chalukyas continued to rule the area until the end of the 12th century.
During the medieval era, the Kakatiya dynasty took control of the region from the western Chalukyas. During the reign of Prataparudra II, in 1323, the kingdom was annexed to the Tughluq Empire; when Muhammad bin Tughluq ruled, Musunuri chief Kapayanayaka ceded a part of Nalgonda to Ala-ud-din Hasan Bahman Shah of the Bahmani Sultanate. He annexed the region to the Bahmani Kingdom. In 1455, Jalal Khan he declared himself king at Nalgonda, he was defeated and the region brought back to the Bahmani Kingdom. During the time of the Bahmani Sultan Shihabud-din Mahmun, Sultan Quli was appointed as tarafdar of the Telangana region. Quli's son, took control of the region from his father. Qutub Shahis took control of the region, maintained it until 1687. Nizam-ul-Mulk ruled the Deccan autonomously; this district, like the other districts of Telangana, was controlled by Asaf Jahis, remained under their rule for nearly two hundred and twenty-five years. Nalgonda is located at 17.050°N 79.2667°E / 17.050. It has an average elevation of 420 metres.
As of 2011 census of India, Nalgonda had a population of 135,744. The municipality of Nalgonda was categorized as a "Grade-III municipality" when it was first created in 1941, it is now a "Special Grade Municipality." Nalgonda's jurisdictional area is spread over 105 km2. Its population is distributed over an area of 123.54 km2, which includes residents of the municipality Nalgonda, the rural areas of Panagallu, Cherlapalli, Arjalabhavi and Marriguda. The city is connected to major towns by means of road and railways. National and state highways that pass through the city are National Highway 565, State highway 2 and 18. TSRTC operates buses from Nalgonda to various destinations like Hyderabad, Vijayawada, Warangal, Bhongir, Devarakonda and Yadagirigutta. Nalgonda railway station provides rail connectivity to the city, it is classified as a B–category station in Guntur railway division of the South Central Railway zone and is located on the Pagidipalli-Nallapadu section of the division.. Nalgonda contains several religious sites, including Shah Lateef Ullah Quadri Sahab Dargah and Kolanupaka Temple, a Jain shrine.
Other attractions include the Nagarjuna Sagar Dam, a Gowthama Buddha Museum, the Bhuvanangiri Fort, built by Tribhuvanamalla Vikramaditya VI, panagallu someswara temple and many mosques built by Alamgir in and around the district. As district headquarters, Nalgonda serves as a hub for primary and secondary education for surrounding villages. Nalgonda has many primary and upper primary schools, offering instruction in Telugu and English; the Nalgonda district contains Mahatma gandhi University. It contains a number of colleges specializing in engineering, medicine and sciences, as well as vocational colleges; some of the district's colleges and schools include: ALPHA PUBLIC BOYS SCHOOL Mahatma Gandhi University, Nalgonda Nagarjuna Degree College Mount Litera Zee School The Nalgonda Public School St Alphonsus High School Little Flower Girls High School Swami Ramananda Tirtha Institute of Science and Technology. Nalgonda Institute of Technology and Science Ramananda Tirtha Engineering College, Kakatiya Degree CollegeThere are many state government-operated schools and colleges in the city, such as Nagarguna Government Degree college.
Nalgonda Nalgonda Municipality
Hyderabad is the capital of the Indian state of Telangana and de jure capital of Andhra Pradesh. Occupying 650 square kilometres along the banks of the Musi River, Hyderabad City has a population of about 6.9 million and about 9.7 million in Hyderabad Metropolitan Region, making it the fourth most populous city and sixth most populous urban agglomeration in India. At an average altitude of 542 metres, much of Hyderabad is situated on hilly terrain around artificial lakes, including Hussain Sagar—predating the city's founding—north of the city centre. Established in 1591 by Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah, Hyderabad remained under the rule of the Qutb Shahi dynasty for nearly a century before the Mughals captured the region. In 1724, Mughal viceroy Asif Jah I declared his sovereignty and created his own dynasty, known as the Nizams of Hyderabad; the Nizam's dominions became a princely state during the British Raj, remained so for 150 years, with the city serving as its capital. The city continued as the capital of Hyderabad State after it was brought into the Indian Union in 1948, became the capital of Andhra Pradesh after the States Reorganisation Act, 1956.
Since 1956, Rashtrapati Nilayam in the city has been the winter office of the President of India. In 2014, the newly formed state of Telangana split from Andhra Pradesh and the city became the joint capital of the two states, a transitional arrangement scheduled to end by 2025. Relics of Qutb Shahi and Nizam rule remain visible. Golconda fort is another major landmark; the influence of Mughlai culture is evident in the region's distinctive cuisine, which includes Hyderabadi biryani and Hyderabadi haleem. The Qutb Shahis and Nizams established Hyderabad as a cultural hub, attracting men of letters from different parts of the world. Hyderabad emerged as the foremost centre of culture in India with the decline of the Mughal Empire in the mid-19th century, with artists migrating to the city from the rest of the Indian subcontinent; the Telugu film industry based in the city is the country's second-largest producer of motion pictures. Hyderabad was known as a pearl and diamond trading centre, it continues to be known as the "City of Pearls".
Many of the city's traditional bazaars remain open, including Laad Bazaar, Begum Bazaar and Sultan Bazaar. Industrialisation throughout the 20th century attracted major Indian research and financial institutions, including Defence Research and Development Organization, Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, the National Geophysical Research Institute and the Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology. Special economic zones dedicated to information technology have encouraged companies from India and around the world to set up operations in Hyderabad; the emergence of pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries in the 1990s led to the area's naming as India's "Genome Valley". With an output of US$74 billion, Hyderabad is the fifth-largest contributor to India's overall gross domestic product. According to John Everett-Heath, the author of Oxford Concise Dictionary of World Place Names, Hyderabad means "Haydar's city" or "lion city", from haydar and ābād, was named to honour the Caliph Ali Ibn Abi Talib, known as Haydar because of his lion-like valour in battles.
Andrew Petersen, a scholar of Islamic architecture, says the city was called Baghnagar. One popular theory suggests that the founder of the city, Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah of the Golconda Sultanate, named it after Bhagmati, a local nautch girl with whom he had fallen in love, she adopted the title Hyder Mahal. The city was named as Hyderabad in her honour. According to German traveller Heinrich von Poser, whose travelogue of the Deccan was translated by Gita Dharampal-Frick of Heidelberg University, there were two names for the city: "On 3 December 1622, we reached the city of Bagneger or Hederabat, the seat of the king Sultan Mehemet Culi Cuttub Shah and the capital of the kingdom". French traveller Jean de Thévenot visited the Deccan region in 1666–1667 refers to the city in his book Travels in India as "Bagnagar and Aiderabad". Archaeologists excavating near the city have unearthed Iron Age sites that may date from 500 BCE; the region comprising modern Hyderabad and its surroundings was known as Golkonda, was ruled by the Chalukya dynasty from 624 CE to 1075 CE.
Following the dissolution of the Chalukya empire into four parts in the 11th century, Golkonda came under the control of the Kakatiya dynasty from 1158, whose seat of power was at Warangal, 148 km northeast of modern Hyderabad. The Kakatiya dynasty was reduced to a vassal of the Khalji dynasty in 1310 after its defeat by Sultan Alauddin Khalji of the Delhi Sultanate; this lasted until 1321, when the Kakatiya dynasty was annexed by Malik Kafur, Allaudin Khalji's general. During this period, Alauddin Khalji took the Koh-i-Noor diamond, said to have been mined from the Kollur Mines of Golkonda, to Delhi. Muhammad bin Tughluq succeeded to the Delhi sultanate in 1325, bringing Warangal under the rule of the Tughlaq dynasty until 1347 when Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah, a governor under bin Tughluq, rebelled against Delhi and established the Bahmani Sultanate in the Deccan Plateau, with Gulbarga, 200 km west of Hyderabad, as its capital; the Hyderabad area was under the control of the Musunuri Nayaks at this time, however, were forced to cede it to the Bahmani Sultanate in 1364.
The Bahmani kings ruled the region until 1518 and were the first independent Muslim rulers of the Deccan. Sultan Quli, a governor of Golkonda, revolted against the Bah
Banjara Hills is an urban commercial centre in Hyderabad, India. It is one of more than 150 cities/boroughs comprising greater Hyderabad; this is an upmarket locality close to Jubilee Hills. This area was least inhabited in the past. Only few royal members of the Nizam's dynasty lived here, a hunting ground for them. With its history and status, this area now has been transformed to an urban commercial centre of importance. Banjara Hills is segregated by its road numbers, with each road having its own importance: the numbers start from 1 and end at 14. Banjara Hills is considered the most expensive zip code in India according to Economic Times magazine and, along with Jubilee Hills, is the most prestigious borough/city in the greater Hyderabad area to live in. Economic Times estimated that properties in Banjara Hills were worth "a whopping Rs 96,000 crore", an equivalent to US$20.7 billion, as of 8 September 2011). The much neglected Banjara Lake is located here; the land was first bought by Nawab Mehdi Nawaz Jung, a minister in the court of the last Nizam in 1927, who built his residence, Banjara Bhavan here.
The last Nizam suggested that the area be named after the Nawab, as the man responsible for its development. However, the Nawab stated that it would only be fair to name the area after its original inhabitants, the Banjaras; the Banjara Bhavan was visited by Jawaharlal Nehru as well as Rabindranath Tagore, who wrote a poem inspired by the area. Road No. 1 of Banjara Hills is now known as Mehdi Nawaz Jung Road, named in his honour. Banjara Hills is famous for its hotels, upscale restaurants, large shopping malls. Taj Krishna, Taj Deccan and Taj Banjara are well-known star hotels in this area. Many restaurants offer cuisines from all over the world: Chinese Pavilion, Ohris Banjara, Barbeque Nation, Fusion 9. There are many retail business establishments. Big malls like the GVK One, City Center, Ohri's, Alcazar Plaza, Zing Designs, among many more dot the skyline; the highest building in the Banjara Hills area is the commercial Laxmi Cyber Center. The Jalagam Vengal Rao Park is in Banjara Hills; this park is beautiful, has its own charm, many locals visit for jogging and relaxing.
Most of the businesses are concentrated on Road No. 1 and 3. Muffakham Jah College of Engineering and Technology is on Road No. 3. This college has one of the largest campuses in the city, it works under the management and ownership of Sultan-ul-Uloom Education Society, which operates Sultan-ul-Uloom College of Law, College of Education, Junior College, School in the same premises. KBR park, named after Kasu Brahmananda Reddy, is close to Road No. 3. A cultural centre, called Lamakaan, opened on Road No. 1 in 2010. The 400-year-old Svayambhu Sri Lakshmi Narasimha Swamy Temple on road 12 is famous for Grand Harinam sankirtans. Guitarmonk school is there. Basavatarakam Indo American Cancer Hospital Omega Care Hospital Star hospital Elbit Diagnostics Surya Fertility Centre Century Hospital Indira IVF Hospital https://indiraivf.com/best-ivf-center-hyderabad/ Virinchi Hospital Rainbow Hospital L V Prasad Eye Institiute TSRTC connects Banjara hills to parts of Hyderabad like Dilsukhnagar, Koti and Khairtabad.
New flyovers have eased traffic congestion towards this suburb. The closest MMTS train; this suburb has a good road network, with roads being renovated to accommodate high traffic during peak hours. Somajiguda, Errammanzil Colony, Venkata Ramana Colony, Anand Nagar, Srinagar Colony, Naveen Nagar and Jubilee Hills are nearby /adjacent areas. 8 Indira IVF Hospital https://indiraivf.com/best-ivf-center-hyderabad/
Communist Party of India
The Communist Party of India is the oldest communist party in India. There are different views on when it was founded; the date maintained as the foundation day by the CPI is 26 December 1925. The Communist Party of India, which separated from the CPI in 1964 following an ideological rift between China and the Soviet Union, continues to claim having been founded in 1925; the Communist Party of India has stated that it was formed on 26 December 1925 at the first Party Conference in Kanpur Cawnpore. But as per the version of CPI, the Communist Party of India was founded in Tashkent, Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic on 17 October 1920, soon after the Second Congress of the Communist International; the founding members of the party were M. N. Roy, Evelyn Trent Roy, Abani Mukherji, Rosa Fitingof, Mohammad Ali, Mohammad Shafiq Siddiqui, Hasrat Mohani, Rafiq Ahmed of Bhopal and M. P. T. Aacharya, Sultan Ahmed Khan Tarin of North-West Frontier Province; the CPI says that there were many communist groups formed by Indians with the help of foreigners in different parts of the world and the Tashkent group was only one of.
Contacts with Anushilan and Jugantar groups in Bengal. Small communist groups were formed in Bengal, Madras, United Provinces and Punjab and Sindh. However, only Usmani became a CPI party member. During the 1920s and the early 1930s the party was badly organised, in practice there were several communist groups working with limited national coordination; the British colonial authorities had banned all communist activity, which made the task of building a united party difficult. Between 1921 and 1924 there were three conspiracy trials against the communist movement. In the first three cases, Russian-trained muhajir communists were put on trial. However, the Cawnpore trial had more political impact. On 17 March 1924, Shripad Amrit Dange, M. N. Roy, Muzaffar Ahmed, Nalini Gupta, Shaukat Usmani, Singaravelu Chettiar, Ghulam Hussain and R. C. Sharma were charged, in Cawnpore Bolshevik Conspiracy case; the specific pip charge was that they as communists were seeking "to deprive the King Emperor of his sovereignty of British India, by complete separation of India from imperialistic Britain by a violent revolution."
Pages of newspapers daily splashed sensational communist plans and people for the first time learned, on such a large scale, about communism and its doctrines and the aims of the Communist International in India. Singaravelu Chettiar was released on account of illness. M. N. Roy was in Germany and R. C. Sharma in French Pondichéry, therefore could not be arrested. Ghulam Hussain was pardoned. Muzaffar Ahmed, Nalini Gupta, Shaukat Usmani and Dange were sentenced for various terms of imprisonment; this case was responsible for introducing communism to a larger Indian audience. Dange was released from prison in 1927. Rahul Dev Pal was a prominent communist leader On 25 December 1925 a communist conference was organised in Kanpur. Colonial authorities estimated; the conference was convened by a man called Satyabhakta. At the conference Satyabhakta argued for a'National communism' and against subordination under Comintern. Being outvoted by the other delegates, Satyabhakta left the conference venue in protest.
The conference adopted the name'Communist Party of India'. Groups such as Labour Kisan Party of Hindustan dissolved into the unified CPI; the émigré CPI, which had little organic character anyway, was substituted by the organisation now operating inside India. Soon after the 1926 conference of the Workers and Peasants Party of Bengal, the underground CPI directed its members to join the provincial Workers and Peasants Parties. All open communist activities were carried out through Peasants Parties; the sixth congress of the Communist International met in 1928. In 1927 the Kuomintang had turned on the Chinese communists, which led to a review of the policy on forming alliances with the national bourgeoisie in the colonial countries; the Colonial theses of the 6th Comintern congress called upon the Indian communists to combat the'national-reformist leaders' and to'unmask the national reformism of the Indian National Congress and oppose all phrases of the Swarajists, etc. about passive resistance'.
The congress did however differentiate between the character of the Chinese Kuomintang and the Indian Swarajist Party, considering the latter as neither a reliable ally nor a direct enemy. The congress called on the Indian communists to utilize the contradictions between the national bourgeoisie and the British imperialists; the congress denounced the WPP. The Tenth Plenum of the Executive Committee of the Communist International, 3 July 1929 – 19 July 1929, directed the Indian communists to break with WPP; when the communists deserted it, the WPP fell apart. On 20 March 1929, arrests against WPP, CPI and other labour leaders were made in several parts of India, in what became known as the Meerut Conspiracy Case; the communist leadership was now put behind bars. The trial proceedings were to last for four years; as of 1934, the main centres of activity of CPI were Bombay and Punjab. The party had begun extending its activities to Madras. A group of Andhra and Tamil students, amongst them P. Sundarayya, were recruited to the CPI by Amir Hyder Khan.
The party was reorganised in 1933, after the communist leaders from the Meerut trials were release