The NBA Finals is the championship series of the National Basketball Association. The Eastern and Western conference champions play a best-of-seven game series to determine the league champion; the winners of the Finals are awarded the Larry O'Brien Championship Trophy, which replaced the Walter A. Brown Trophy in 1983; the series was known as the BAA Finals prior to the 1949–50 season when the Basketball Association of America merged with the National Basketball League to form the NBA. The competition oversaw further name changes to NBA World Championship Series from 1950 to 1985, as well as a brief stint as the Showdown, before settling on NBA Finals in 1986; the NBA Finals was structured to harbor a 2-2-1-1-1 format. In 1985, it was changed to a 2–3–2 format to ease the amount of cross country travel until 2013, where the first two and last two games of the series were played at the arena of the team who earned home-court advantage by having the better record during the regular season. In 2014, the 2–2–1–1–1 format was restored.
The first two are played at home for the higher-seeded team, the following two at the home of the lower-seeded team. The following three are played at each team's home arena alternately. A total of 18 franchises have won the NBA Finals, with the Golden State Warriors the current champion; the Boston Celtics hold the record for the most victories, having won the competition 17 times, as well as winning the competition the most times in a row, winning it eight times from 1959 to 1966. The Los Angeles Lakers have contested the NBA Finals the most times, with 31 appearances; the Eastern Conference has provided the most champions, with 38 wins from ten franchises. The Boston Celtics went 11–1 in the NBA Finals during 13 seasons, they won eight straight NBA championships from 1959 through 1966. This period marks the largest stretch of seasons that a single team made up over 65% of Finals appearances, includes the only time the NBA Finals was decided in double overtime. With the establishment of the Celtics dynasty in 1957 spearheaded by center Bill Russell, the team saw great success, only encountering difficulty when up against teams led by Wilt Chamberlain.
However, for most of the late 1950s and 1960s, the Celtics and Russell managed to have an upper hand on Chamberlain's teams. In 1964, who had moved to the state of California alongside his team, led the San Francisco Warriors to a Western Conference championship, but again failed to conquer the Celtics; the following season, he returned to the Eastern Conference to join the Philadelphia 76ers, who were the former Syracuse Nationals that had relocated to the city to cover the vacancy created with the departure of the Warriors. The first clash between the two stars in the playoffs was in 1966, with Boston winning the series 4–1. In the following season, Philadelphia coach Alex Hannum instructed Chamberlain to provide an increased focus on playing a team game, to avoid drawing the double-teams that troubled Chamberlain during the Finals; this tactical change brought the team to a new record of 68 wins the following season, as well as defeating the Celtics before winning the Finals. In 1968, Boston overcame a 3–1 deficit against Philadelphia to once again arrive in the Finals.
They went on to defeat the Los Angeles Lakers in the Finals to again become NBA Champions. In 1969, the Celtics faced great difficulty entering the postseason, as they had an aging team and multiple injuries to a number of players, they qualified for the playoffs as the fourth and final seed in the East, while the Lakers, who had added Chamberlain in the offseason to join stars Jerry West and Elgin Baylor. The Lakers won the West and were prohibitive favorites to become Champions for the first time since relocating to Los Angeles. Despite holding a 2-1 advantage going into Game 4, the Lakers led 87–86 and had the ball with 10 seconds to play, but after a turnover, Sam Jones scored tying the series. The series was tied 3-3 going into Game 7 in Los Angeles, with Lakers owner Jack Cooke hanging balloons in the arena in anticipation of a Lakers victory. West picked up injuries to his thigh and hamstring during the series, returned to play for the final game. Russell utilized this newly lacking mobility in West to organize fast breaks at every opportunity for the Celtics, which allowed them to gain an early lead.
They held off a furious Lakers comeback to win 108–106 and win the series, win their eleventh championship in 13 years. As many stars either declined or retired following this win, it is recognized as the last NBA Finals conducted by the Celtics dynasty; the 1970s saw. In 1970, a classic final featured the Knicks against the Lakers. In the waning moments of Game 3, with the series tied, Jerry West hit a basket from 60 feet to tie the game, a shot which became one of the most famous ever. However, the Knicks won in overtime and continued their momentum for a 4–3 win, becoming the first team after the Celtics dynasty to win an NBA championship; the Milwaukee Bucks won their first franchise title, defeating the Baltimore Bullets in 1971. Two seasons after losing in the Finals, the Lakers got a measure of revenge by winning 33 straight games, the longest such streak in NBA history. By season's end, they broke the record for most wins in a season with 69, one more than the 1966–67 Philadelphia 76ers, before taking home the championship for the first time since relocating to Los Angeles.
The Knicks returned to win the championship round again a season to record their second victorious season. Despite the rise of the Knicks, the
Basketball is a team sport in which two teams, most of five players each, opposing one another on a rectangular court, compete with the primary objective of shooting a basketball through the defender's hoop while preventing the opposing team from shooting through their own hoop. A field goal is worth two points, unless made from behind the three-point line, when it is worth three. After a foul, timed play stops and the player fouled or designated to shoot a technical foul is given one or more one-point free throws; the team with the most points at the end of the game wins, but if regulation play expires with the score tied, an additional period of play is mandated. Players advance the ball by bouncing it while walking or running or by passing it to a teammate, both of which require considerable skill. On offense, players may use a variety of shots -- a dunk, it is a violation to lift or drag one's pivot foot without dribbling the ball, to carry it, or to hold the ball with both hands resume dribbling.
The five players on each side at a time fall into five playing positions: the tallest player is the center, the tallest and strongest is the power forward, a shorter but more agile big man is the small forward, the shortest players or the best ball handlers are the shooting guard and the point guard, who implements the coach's game plan by managing the execution of offensive and defensive plays. Informally, players may play three-on-three, two-on-two, one-on-one. Invented in 1891 by Canadian-American gym teacher James Naismith in Springfield, United States, basketball has evolved to become one of the world's most popular and viewed sports; the National Basketball Association is the most significant professional basketball league in the world in terms of popularity, salaries and level of competition. Outside North America, the top clubs from national leagues qualify to continental championships such as the Euroleague and FIBA Americas League; the FIBA Basketball World Cup and Men's Olympic Basketball Tournament are the major international events of the sport and attract top national teams from around the world.
Each continent hosts regional competitions for national teams, like FIBA AmeriCup. The FIBA Women's Basketball World Cup and Women's Olympic Basketball Tournament feature top national teams from continental championships; the main North American league is the WNBA, whereas strongest European clubs participate in the EuroLeague Women. In early December 1891, Canadian James Naismith, a physical education professor and instructor at the International Young Men's Christian Association Training School in Springfield, was trying to keep his gym class active on a rainy day, he sought a vigorous indoor game to keep his students occupied and at proper levels of fitness during the long New England winters. After rejecting other ideas as either too rough or poorly suited to walled-in gymnasiums, he wrote the basic rules and nailed a peach basket onto a 10-foot elevated track. In contrast with modern basketball nets, this peach basket retained its bottom, balls had to be retrieved manually after each "basket" or point scored.
Basketball was played with a soccer ball. These round balls from "association football" were made, at the time, with a set of laces to close off the hole needed for inserting the inflatable bladder after the other sewn-together segments of the ball's cover had been flipped outside-in; these laces could dribbling to be unpredictable. A lace-free ball construction method was invented, this change to the game was endorsed by Naismith; the first balls made for basketball were brown, it was only in the late 1950s that Tony Hinkle, searching for a ball that would be more visible to players and spectators alike, introduced the orange ball, now in common use. Dribbling was not part of the original game except for the "bounce pass" to teammates. Passing the ball was the primary means of ball movement. Dribbling was introduced but limited by the asymmetric shape of early balls. Dribbling was common by 1896, with a rule against the double dribble by 1898; the peach baskets were used until 1906 when they were replaced by metal hoops with backboards.
A further change was soon made, so the ball passed through. Whenever a person got the ball in the basket, his team would gain a point. Whichever team got; the baskets were nailed to the mezzanine balcony of the playing court, but this proved impractical when spectators in the balcony began to interfere with shots. The backboard was introduced to prevent this interference. Naismith's handwritten diaries, discovered by his granddaughter in early 2006, indicate that he was nervous about the new game he had invented, which incorporated rules from a children's game called duck on a rock, as many had failed before it. Frank Mahan, one of the players from the original
Cornelius Leo "Connie" Simmons was an American professional basketball player. He was born in New Jersey. A 6'8" forward/center from Flushing High School in New York City, Simmons played ten seasons in the National Basketball Association as a member of the Boston Celtics, Baltimore Bullets, New York Knicks, Syracuse Nationals and Rochester Royals, he averaged 9.8 points per game and 6.2 rebounds per game in his career and was a member of two league championship teams: the 1948 Bullets and the 1955 Nationals. He was the second player to enter the NBA without having played after Tony Kappen. Connie was the brother of baseball player Johnny Simmons. Career statistics and player information from Basketball-Reference.com
1957–58 NBA season
The 1957–58 NBA season was the 12th season of the National Basketball Association. The season ended with the St. Louis Hawks winning the NBA Championship, beating the Boston Celtics 4 games to 2 in the NBA Finals; the Pistons relocate from Indiana to Detroit, Michigan. The Royals relocate from New York to Cincinnati. Royals player Maurice Stokes suffers major head injury during the last game of the regular season. Stokes would become paralyzed from the injury and cared for by teammate/life long friend Jack Twyman; the Twyman–Stokes Teammate of the Year Award is given in their honor. The 1958 NBA All-Star Game was played in St. Louis, with the East beating the West 130-118. Local hero Bob Pettit of the St. Louis Hawks wins the game's MVP award. X – clinched playoff spot Note: Prior to the 1969–70 season, league leaders in points and assists were determined by totals rather than averages. Most Valuable Player: Bill Russell, Boston Celtics Rookie of the Year: Woody Sauldsberry, Philadelphia Warriors 1957–58 NBA Season Summary basketball-reference.com.
Retrieved December 10, 2010
New York City Department of Parks and Recreation
The New York City Department of Parks and Recreation called the Parks Department or NYC Parks, is the department of the government of New York City responsible for maintaining the city's parks system and maintaining the ecological diversity of the city's natural areas, furnishing recreational opportunities for city's residents and visitors. NYC Parks maintains more than 1,700 parks and recreation facilities across the city's five boroughs, it is responsible for over 1,000 playgrounds, 800 playing fields, 550 tennis courts, 35 major recreation centers, 66 pools, 14 miles of beaches, 13 golf courses, as well as seven nature centers, six ice skating rinks, over 2,000 greenstreets, four major stadiums. NYC Parks cares for park flora and fauna, community gardens, 23 historic houses, over 1,200 statues and monuments, more than 2.5 million trees. The total area of the properties maintained by the department is over 30,000 acres; the largest single component of parkland maintained by the department is the 2,765-acre Pelham Bay Park in the Bronx.
Other large parks administered by NYC Parks include Central Park in Manhattan, Prospect Park in Brooklyn, Van Cortlandt Park in the Bronx, Flushing Meadows–Corona Park in Queens, the Staten Island Greenbelt in Staten Island. NYC Parks produces many special events, including movie premieres. In the summer, the busiest season, the agency organizes free carnivals and concerts, sends mobile recreation vans to travel throughout the five boroughs providing free rental equipment for skating and miniature golf; the symbol of the department is a cross between the leaf of a maple leaf. It is prominently featured on buildings in public parks across the city; the London plane tree is on NYC Parks' list of restricted use species for street tree planting because it constitutes more than 10% of all street trees. The department is a mayoral agency; the current Parks Commissioner is Mitchell Silver. The current chair of the New York City Council Committee on Parks & Recreation is Barry Grodenchik; the department is allocated a capital budget.
The expense budget covers the total expenses incurred by the agency, including salaries. The capital budget is dedicated for new construction projects, as well as major repairs in parks that have a useful life of more than five years and cost at least $35,000, its regulations are compiled in Title 56 of the New York City Rules. The original Parks Commission was responsible only for Central Park. In 1870 the Tweed Charter gave it jurisdiction for all the parks in Manhattan. In addition each borough had its independent Park Commission. A unified citywide New York City Parks Department was formed in 1934 with Robert Moses as the commissioner, a position he held until 1960. In 1968 it was reorganized as the "Recreation & Cultural Affairs Administration. In 1976 it was given its current name. In 2001, the department underwent an investigation after the U. S. Attorney's Office received complaints from employees that they had suffered employment discrimination; the lawsuit alleged that NYC Parks violated the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
The complaint said that since at least 1995, minorities have been under-represented in NYC Parks' managerial ranks. In 2008, the City of New York agreed to pay a $21 million settlement to avoid going to trial. Commissioner of the Department of Parks and Recreation Assistant Commissioner for Agency Compliance General Counsel Parks Advocate Assistant Commissioner for Communications Assistant Commissioner for Equal Employment Opportunity Inspector General First Deputy Commissioner Deputy Commissioner/Chief Operating Officer Assistant Commissioner for Citywide Operations Assistant Commissioner for Forestry and Natural Resources Deputy Commissioner for Capital Projects Deputy Commissioner, Urban Park Service, Public Programs Assistant Commissioner for Public Programs Assistant Commissioner for Urban Park Service Deputy Commissioner for Administration/Chief Administrative Officer Assistant Commissioner for Budget and Fiscal Management Assistant Commissioner for Innovation and Performance Management Deputy Commissioner of Planning and Development Borough Commissioners Bronx Parks Commissioner Brooklyn Parks Commissioner Manhattan Parks Commissioner Queens Parks Commissioner Staten Island Parks Commissioner The department maintains an enforcement division, called the Parks Enforcement Patrol, responsible for maintaining safety and security within the parks system.
Parks Enforcement Patrol officers have peace officer status under NYS Penal Law and are empowered through this status to make arrests and issue tickets. PEP officers patrol land and buildings under the jurisdiction of the Department of Parks and Recreation on foot, horseback and marked patrol trucks. PEP officers are responsible for physical site inspections of NYC park concession facilities to assure the concessionaires compliance with state laws; the Urban Park Rangers was founded as a pilot program in 1979 by Parks Commissioner Gordon J. Davis, with the support and encouragement of Mayor Ed Koch; the program provides many free programs year-round, such as nature activities. They operate programs such as The Natural Classroom for class trips and the general public alike. "Explorer" programs are available for activities such as canoeing in the city's flagship parks in all five boroughs. NYC Urban Park Rangers are easi
Elmhurst is a working/middle class neighborhood in the borough of Queens in New York City. It is bounded by Roosevelt Avenue on the north; the neighborhood is part of Queens Community Board 4. The village was established in 1652 by the Dutch as Middenburgh and was a suburb of New Amsterdam in New Netherland; the original European settlers of Elmhurst were from the nearby colony of Maspat, following threats and attacks by local Native Americans. When the British took over New Netherland in 1664, they renamed Middleburgh as New Town to maintain a connection to the Dutch heritage; this was simplified to Newtown. Among the English settlers in the present Elmhurst section of Newtown was Gershom Moore, who lived at what is now the intersection of Broadway, 45th Avenue, Elmhurst Avenue. A chance seedling produced the Newtown Pippin, Colonial America's most famous apple; the village of Newtown was established as the town seat for the township in 1683, when Queens County was reorganized as a "one county, five towns" model.
The Town of Newtown, which had a town hall, tax office, town clerk's office, was the center of a municipality that comprised the villages that were located north of present-day Forest Park and west of Flushing Meadows. More concentrated residential development was spurred by completion of a horsecar line, the Grand Street Line, which reached New Town in 1854; the Long Island Rail Road's Main Line was built through Elmhurst in 1876, attracting more residents to the neighborhood. Cord Meyer bought land at Broadway and Whitney Avenue in 1896, he proposed that the town be renamed "Elmhurst", meaning "a grove of elms". The renaming was done to disassociate the town from nearby Maspeth and the smelly, polluted Newtown Creek, to celebrate the elm trees that abounded in the area. Elmhurst developed as a fashionable district due to a housing development built by the Cord Meyer Development Company between 1896 and 1910, north of the Port Washington Branch railroad station, they expanded their holdings between 1905 and 1930, including Elmhurst Square, Elmhurst South, Elmhurst Heights, New Elmhurst.
Elmhurst was the site of the Grand Street LIRR station just west of the current Grand Avenue – Newtown subway station. The Grand Street LIRR station was served by the former Rockaway Beach Branch. In 1936, the Independent Subway System's Queens Boulevard line was built through the neighborhood, spurring economic development but destroying many old buildings. Prior to World War II, Elmhurst was an exclusively Jewish and Italian neighborhood. Following the war, Elmhurst evolved into what has been considered one of the most ethnically diverse neighborhoods in New York City. By the 1980s, there were persons from 112 nations in residence in the neighborhood, which has continued to further diversify since then. Among the largest ethnic groups that have settled in the area are Latinos and Chinese Americans. For many years, the Elmhurst gas tanks, a pair of large natural gas storage structures built in 1910 and 1921 on 57th Avenue between 74th and 80th Streets, were well-known landmarks, standing 200 feet high.
Because the Long Island Expressway became congested in that area, "backup at the Elmhurst Gas Tanks" became a familiar phrase in radio traffic reporting. The gas storage facilities were removed in 2001, the site was redeveloped and opened as the Elmhurst Park in 2011. Based on data from the 2010 United States Census, the population of Elmhurst was 88,427, an increase of 455 from the 87,972 counted in 2000. Covering an area of 750.28 acres, the neighborhood had a population density of 117.9 inhabitants per acre. The racial makeup of the neighborhood was 6.6% White, 1.3% African American, 0.2% Native American, 43.8% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 0.4% from other races, 1.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 46.1% of the population. Elmhurst's Latino population is 20.4% South American, 11.6% Mexican, 3.1% Dominican, 1.8% Puerto Rican, 1.5% Central American, 0.7% Cuban. The entirety of Community Board 4, which comprises Elmhurst and Corona, had 135,972 inhabitants as of NYC Health's 2018 Community Health Profile, with an average life expectancy of 85.4 years.
This is higher than the median life expectancy of 81.2 for all New York City neighborhoods. Most inhabitants are middle-aged adults and youth: 17% are between the ages of 0–17, 39% between 25–44, 24% between 45–64; the ratio of college-aged and elderly residents was lower, at 8% and 12% respectively. As of 2017, the median household income in Community Board 4 was $51,992. In 2018, an estimated 27% of Elmhurst and Corona residents lived in poverty, compared to 19% in all of Queens and 20% in all of New York City. One in fourteen residents were unemployed, compared to 9 % in New York City. Rent burden, or the percentage of residents who have difficulty paying their rent, is 62% in Elmhurst and Corona, higher than the boroughwide and citywide rates of 53% and 51% respectively. Based on this calculation, as of 2018, Elmhurst and Corona are considered to be high-income relative to the rest of the city and not gentrifying. Elmhurst's growing Chinatown (艾浒 唐人街
Los Angeles Lakers
The Los Angeles Lakers are an American professional basketball team based in Los Angeles. The Lakers compete in the National Basketball Association, as a member of the league's Western Conference in the Pacific Division; the Lakers play their home games at Staples Center, an arena shared with the NBA's Los Angeles Clippers, the Los Angeles Sparks of the Women's National Basketball Association, the Los Angeles Kings of the National Hockey League. The Lakers are one of the most successful teams in the history of the NBA, have won 16 NBA championships, the second-most behind the Boston Celtics; the franchise began with the 1947 purchase of a disbanded team, the Detroit Gems of the National Basketball League. The new team began calling themselves the Minneapolis Lakers. A member of the NBL, the Lakers won the 1948 NBL championship before joining the rival Basketball Association of America, where they would win five of the next six championships, led by star George Mikan. After struggling financially in the late 1950s following Mikan's retirement, they relocated to Los Angeles before the 1960–61 season.
Led by Hall of Famers Elgin Baylor and Jerry West, Los Angeles made the NBA Finals six times in the 1960s, but lost each series to the Celtics, beginning their long and storied rivalry. In 1968, the Lakers acquired four-time NBA Most Valuable Player Wilt Chamberlain, won their sixth NBA title—and first in Los Angeles—in 1972, led by new head coach Bill Sharman. After the retirement of West and Chamberlain, the team acquired Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, who won multiple MVP awards, but was unable to make the Finals in the late 1970s; the 1980s Lakers were nicknamed "Showtime" due to their fast break-offense led by Magic Johnson. The team won five championships in a nine-year span, contained Hall of Famers Johnson, Abdul-Jabbar, James Worthy, was led by Hall of Fame coach Pat Riley. After Abdul-Jabbar and Johnson retired, the team struggled in the early 1990s, before acquiring Shaquille O'Neal and Kobe Bryant in 1996. With the duo, who were led by another Hall of Fame coach Phil Jackson, the team won three consecutive titles between 2000 to 2002, securing the franchise its second "three-peat".
The Lakers won two more championships in 2009 and 2010, but failed to regain their former glory in the following decade. The Lakers hold the record for NBA's longest winning streak, 33 straight games, set during the 1971–72 season. 21 Hall of Famers have played for Los Angeles. Four Lakers—Abdul-Jabbar, Johnson, O'Neal, Bryant—have won the NBA MVP Award for a total of eight awards; the Lakers' franchise began in 1947 when Ben Berger and Morris Chalfen of Minnesota purchased the disbanded Detroit Gems of the National Basketball League for $15,000 from Gems owner Maury Winston. Minneapolis sportswriter Sid Hartman played a key behind the scenes role in helping put together the deal and the team. Inspired by Minnesota's nickname, "Land of 10,000 Lakes", the team christened themselves the Lakers. Hartman helped them hire John Kundla from College of St. Thomas, to be their first head coach, by meeting with him and selling him on the team; the Lakers had a solid roster, which featured forward Jim Pollard, playmaker Herm Schaefer, center George Mikan, who became the most dominant player in the NBL.
In their first season, they led the league with a 43–17 record winning the NBL Championship that season. In 1948, the Lakers moved from the NBL to the Basketball Association of America, Mikan's 28.3 point per game scoring average set a BAA record. In the 1949 BAA Finals they won the championship; the following season, the team improved to 51–17, repeating as champions. In the 1950–51 season, Mikan won his third straight scoring title at 28.4 ppg and the Lakers went 44–24 to win their second straight division title. One of those games, a 19–18 loss against the Fort Wayne Pistons, became infamous as the lowest scoring game in NBA history. In the playoffs, they defeated the Indianapolis Olympians in three games but lost to the Rochester Royals in the next round. During the 1951 -- 52 season, the Lakers won 40 games, they faced the New York Knicks in the NBA Finals. In the 1952–53 season, Mikan led the NBA in rebounding, averaging 14.4 rebounds per game, was named MVP of the 1953 NBA All-Star Game.
After a 48–22 regular season, the Lakers defeated the Fort Wayne Pistons in the Western playoffs to advance to the NBA Finals. They defeated the New York Knicks to win their second straight championship. Though Lakers star George Mikan suffered from knee problems throughout the 1953–54 season, he was still able to average 18 ppg. Clyde Lovellette, drafted in 1952, helped the team win the Western Division; the team won its third straight championship in the 1950s and fifth in six seasons when it defeated the Syracuse Nationals in seven games. Following Mikan's retirement in the 1954 off-season, the Lakers struggled but still managed to win 40 games. Although they defeated the Rochester Royals in the first round of the playoffs, they were defeated by the Fort Wayne Pistons in the semifinals. Although they had losing records the next two seasons, they made the playoffs each year. Mikan came back for the last half of the 1955–56 season, but struggled and retired for good after the season. Led by Lovellette's 20.6 points and 13.5 rebounds, they advanced to the Conference Finals in 1956–57.
The Lakers had one of the worst seasons in team history in 1957–58 when they won a league-low 19 games. They had hired Mikan, the team's general manager for the previous two seasons, as head coach to replace Kundla. Mikan was fired in January when