1930 college football season
The 1930 college football season saw Notre Dame repeat as national champion under the Dickinson System, a post-season Rose Bowl matchup between two unbeaten teams, Washington State and Alabama, ranked #2 and #3, respectively. Alabama won the Pasadena contest, 24-0. Three conferences played their first seasons in 1930: Dixie Conference – the first of three conferences to share the Dixie Conference name. September 20 Stanford opened its season against a non-college team, beating the West Coast Army club, 32-0 September 27 Nearly all the big schools scheduled tune-up games against weaker visitors, all but one shut out the opposition. Michigan opened its season with a doubleheader, beating Denison 33-0 and Eastern Michigan 7-0. Other schools rolled up high scores, as Stanford beat the Olympic Club, 18-0. Only Washington State was scored upon, getting a surprise from the Coyotes of College of Idaho, which unleashed a surprise passing attack for two touchdowns in the fourth quarter. WSU won 47-12. October 4 Notre Dame opened its season with a 20-14 win over visiting Southern Methodist.
Northwestern beat visiting Tulane, 14-0. Washington State won at California 16-0 and USC beat visiting Oregon State 27-7, while Stanford defeated Santa Clara 20-0. Dartmouth beat Bates 20-0 and Army beat Furman, 54-0. Alabama rolled over visiting Ole Miss, 64-0 and in Danville, Tennessee defeated Centre College 18-0. Michigan and Michigan State played to a scoreless tie. October 11 Washington State edged visiting USC 7-6. Notre Dame beat Navy 26-2. Northwestern beat Ohio State 19-2, Michigan narrowly won over Purdue 14-13. Dartmouth crushed visiting Boston University 74-0, Army beat Swarthmore 39-0. Tennessee beat Ole Miss 27-0. In Birmingham, Alabama shut out Sewanee 25-0, in Dallas, Tulane beat Texas A&M 19-9. In Minneapolis and Minnesota played to a 0-0 tie. October 18 Alabama and Tennessee, both 3-0-0, both unscored upon, met at Tuscaloosa in a game that would determine the fictional championship of the South. Alabama won 18-6. Notre Dame beat Carnegie Tech 21-6. Northwestern won at Illinois 32-0 and Michigan won at Ohio State, 13-0 USC won at Utah State 65-0, Washington State won in Spokane at Gonzaga University, 24-0, Stanford beat Oregon State 13-7.
Dartmouth beat Columbia 52-0 and Army defeated Harvard, 6-0. Tulane defeated Birmingham Southern College 21-0 October 25 Alabama and Vanderbilt, both 4-0-0, met at Birmingham. In another close game, Alabama won 12-7. USC and Stanford met in Palo Alto, with the Trojans handing the Indians their first loss of the season, 41-12. Notre Dame won at Pittsburgh 35-19. Washington State beat visiting Montana, 61-0. Northwestern beat Centre College 45-7 and Michigan beat Illinois 15-7.(Dartmouth was scored upon, winning at Harvard 7-2, Army's streak of shutouts ended with its 7-7 tie at Yale. Tennessee beat visiting North Carolina 9-7, in Atlanta, Tulane shut out Georgia Tech 28-0. November 1 Yale played to a 0-0 tie in New Haven. Notre Dame beat Indiana 27-0 and Northwestern won at Minnesota 27-6 USC beat Denver, 33-13. Army defeated visiting North Dakota 33-6. In Portland, Washington State defeated Oregon State 14-7. Alabama won at Kentucky, 19-0, Tennessee beat Clemson 27-0 and Tulane beat Mississippi State 53-0 November 8 Notre Dame beat Pennsylvania 60-20.
Washington State won at Idaho 33-7. Northwestern won at Indiana 25-0 and Michigan won at Harvard 6-3. Army defeated Illinois at Yankee Stadium, 13-0. USC beat California 74-0 and Stanford beat Washington 25-7 Alabama won at Florida, 20-0, Tulane beat Auburn 21-0, Allegheny College did what no other team had done that season, scoring two touchdowns against Dartmouth. Tennessee shut out Carson-Newman College 34-0 November 15 Tennessee and Vanderbilt University, both 6-1-0, met at Nashville, with Tennessee winning 13-0. Notre Dame defeated Drake University 28-7. In Seattle, Washington State won another close one, beating Washington 3-0. Alabama beat LSU in a game at Montgomery, Alabama, 33-0, while Tulane and Georgia met at New Orleans, with Tulane handing the Bulldogs their first loss, 25-0 Northwestern beat Wisconsin 20-7 and Michigan beat Minnesota 7-0 USC defeated visiting Hawaii 52-0, while Stanford beat Caltech, 57-7 Dartmouth won at Cornell 19-13. Army beat Kentucky Wesleyan 47-2 November 22 Notre Dame and Northwestern, both unbeaten met at Evanston, with the Fighting Irish winning 14-0.
Michigan beat Chicago 16-0 Stanford won at California 41-0. Army defeated Ursinus College 18-0. November 27, Thanksgiving Alabama met Georgia in Birmingham; the Crimson Tide extended 13-0, to close the regular season unbeaten. The champion of the South earned a Rose Bowl invitation to face Washington State. USC beat Washington 32-0. Tennessee defeated Kentucky 8-0 and Tulane won over LSU, 12-7. November 29 Notre Dame and Army met at Chicago, with the Irish narrowly winning 7-6. In Philadelphia, Washington State beat Villanova, 13-0, to close its season 9-0-0. Stanford hosted Dartmouth and won 14-7
Western Illinois Leathernecks football
The Western Illinois Leathernecks football program is the intercollegiate American football team for Western Illinois University located in Macomb, Illinois. The team competes in the NCAA Division I Football Championship Subdivision and are members of the Missouri Valley Football Conference; the school's first football team was fielded in 1903. The team plays its home games at the 16,368 seat Hanson Field. † Co-championship *Note: Since 1981, the NCAA Division I-AA/Division I FCS Playoffs Regional Championships were referred to as the Boardwalk Bowl, Pecan Bowl, Grantland Rice Bowl, Camellia Bowl. † Acting head last eight games of 2009 season. Hanson Field is a 16,368-seat multi-purpose stadium in Macomb, Illinois, USA; the stadium which opened in 1950 is home to the Western Illinois Leathernecks football team and track and field team. The field is named after former WIU football coach/A. D. and Marine legend Rock Hanson. A unique feature of the facility is an extensive hillside that surrounds the field allowing for additional seating for thousands of spectators.
Outside the stadium, a statue of former WIU track and field coach and two time Olympic gold medalist Lee Calhoun stands and a bulldog statue is located at the main entrance. On September 11, 2004, Western Illinois defeated Division II Cheyney State 98–7. Darrell Mudra Don Beebe Lance Lenoir Sam Clemons Bryan Cox Rodney Harrison Leroy Jackson Mike Wagner Frank Winters Rich Seubert Mike Scifres Aaron Stecker David Bowens Jason Williams Western Illinois Leathernecks List of NCAA Division I FCS football programs Official website
Black people is a term used in certain countries in based systems of racial classification or of ethnicity, to describe persons who are perceived to be dark-skinned compared to other populations. As such, the meaning of the expression varies both between and within societies, depends on context. For many other individuals and countries, "black" is perceived as a derogatory, reductive or otherwise unrepresentative label, as a result is neither used nor defined. Different societies apply differing criteria regarding, classified as "black", these social constructs have changed over time. In a number of countries, societal variables affect classification as much as skin color, the social criteria for "blackness" vary. In the United Kingdom, "black" was equivalent with "person of color", a general term for non-European peoples. In South Africa and Latin America, mixed-race people are not classified as "black". In other regions such as Australasia, settlers applied the term "black" or it was used by local populations with different histories and ancestral backgrounds.
The Romans interacted with and conquered parts of Mauretania, an early state that covered modern Morocco, western Algeria, the Spanish cities Ceuta and Melilla during the classical period. The people of the region were noted in Classical literature as Mauri, subsequently rendered as Moors in English. Numerous communities of dark-skinned peoples are present in North Africa, some dating from prehistoric communities. Others are descendants of the historical Trans-Saharan trade in peoples and/or, after the Arab invasions of North Africa in the 7th century, descendants of slaves from the Arab Slave Trade in North Africa. In the 18th century, the Moroccan Sultan Moulay Ismail "the Warrior King" raised a corps of 150,000 black soldiers, called his Black Guard. According to Carlos Moore, resident scholar at Brazil's University of the State of Bahia, in the 21st century Afro-multiracials in the Arab world, including Arabs in North Africa, self-identify in ways that resemble multi-racials in Latin America.
He claims that black-looking Arabs, much like black-looking Latin Americans, consider themselves white because they have some distant white ancestry. Egyptian President Anwar Sadat had a mother, a dark-skinned Nubian Sudanese woman and a father, a lighter-skinned Egyptian. In response to an advertisement for an acting position, as a young man he said, "I am not white but I am not black either. My blackness is tending to reddish". Due to the patriarchal nature of Arab society, Arab men, including during the slave trade in North Africa, enslaved more black women than men, they used more black female slaves in domestic agriculture than males. The men interpreted the Qur'an to permit sexual relations between a male master and his female slave outside of marriage, leading to many mixed-race children; when an enslaved woman became pregnant with her Arab master's child, she was considered as umm walad or "mother of a child", a status that granted her privileged rights. The child was given rights of inheritance to the father's property, so mixed-race children could share in any wealth of the father.
Because the society was patrilineal, the children took their fathers' social status at birth and were born free. Some succeeded their fathers as rulers, such as Sultan Ahmad al-Mansur, who ruled Morocco from 1578 to 1608, he was not technically considered as a mixed-race child of a slave. In early 1991, non-Arabs of the Zaghawa tribe of Sudan attested that they were victims of an intensifying Arab apartheid campaign, segregating Arabs and non-Arabs. Sudanese Arabs, who controlled the government, were referred to as practicing apartheid against Sudan's non-Arab citizens; the government was accused of "deftly manipulat Arab solidarity" to carry out policies of apartheid and ethnic cleansing. American University economist George Ayittey accused the Arab government of Sudan of practicing acts of racism against black citizens. According to Ayittey, "In Sudan... the Arabs monopolized power and excluded blacks – Arab apartheid." Many African commentators joined Ayittey in accusing Sudan of practising Arab apartheid.
In the Sahara, the native Tuareg Berber populations kept "Negro" slaves. Most of these captives were of Nilotic extraction, were either purchased by the Tuareg nobles from slave markets in the Western Sudan or taken during raids, their origin is denoted via the Ahaggar Berber word Ibenheren, which alludes to slaves that only speak a Nilo-Saharan language. These slaves were sometimes known by the borrowed Songhay term Bella; the Sahrawi autochthones of the Western Sahara observed a class system consisting of high castes and low castes. Outside of these traditional tribal boundaries were "Negro" slaves, who were drawn from the surrounding areas. In parts of the Horn of Africa, the local Afroasiatic speaking populations have long adhered to a construct similar to that of the Sahara and Maghreb. In Ethiopia and Somalia, the slave classes consisted of individuals of Nilotic and Bantu origin who were collectively known as Shanqella and Adone; these captives and others of analogous morphology were distinguished as tsalim barya in contrast with the Afroasiatic-speaking nobles or saba qayh.
The earliest representation of this tradition dates from a seventh or eighth century BC inscription belonging to the Kingdom of Damat. In South Africa, the period of colonization resulted in many unions and marriages between European men and Bantu and Kho
The Purple Heart is a United States military decoration awarded in the name of the president to those wounded or killed while serving, on or after April 5, 1917, with the U. S. military. With its forerunner, the Badge of Military Merit, which took the form of a heart made of purple cloth, the Purple Heart is the oldest military award still given to U. S. military members – the only earlier award being the obsolete Fidelity Medallion. The National Purple Heart Hall of Honor is located in New York; the original Purple Heart, designated as the Badge of Military Merit, was established by George Washington – the commander-in-chief of the Continental Army – by order from his Newburgh, New York headquarters on August 7, 1782. The Badge of Military Merit was only awarded to three Revolutionary War soldiers by Gen. George Washington himself. General Washington authorized his subordinate officers to issue Badges of Merit as appropriate. From on, as its legend grew, so did its appearance. Although never abolished, the award of the badge was not proposed again until after World War I.
On October 10, 1927, Army Chief of Staff General Charles Pelot Summerall directed that a draft bill be sent to Congress "to revive the Badge of Military Merit". The bill was withdrawn and action on the case ceased January 3, 1928, but the office of the Adjutant General was instructed to file all materials collected for possible future use. A number of private interests sought to have the medal re-instituted in the Army. On January 7, 1931, Summerall's successor, General Douglas MacArthur, confidentially reopened work on a new design, involving the Washington Commission of Fine Arts. Elizabeth Will, an Army heraldic specialist in the Office of the Quartermaster General, was named to redesign the newly revived medal, which became known as the Purple Heart. Using general specifications provided to her, Will created the design sketch for the present medal of the Purple Heart; the new design, which exhibits a bust and profile of George Washington, was issued on the bicentennial of Washington's birth.
Will's obituary, in the edition of February 8, 1975 of The Washington Post newspaper, reflects her many contributions to military heraldry. The Commission of Fine Arts solicited plaster models from three leading sculptors for the medal, selecting that of John R. Sinnock of the Philadelphia Mint in May 1931. By Executive Order of the President of the United States, the Purple Heart was revived on the 200th Anniversary of George Washington's birth, out of respect to his memory and military achievements, by War Department General Order No. 3, dated February 22, 1932. The criteria were announced in a War Department circular dated February 22, 1932, authorized award to soldiers, upon their request, awarded the Meritorious Service Citation Certificate, Army Wound Ribbon, or were authorized to wear Wound Chevrons subsequent to April 5, 1917, the day before the United States entered World War I; the first Purple Heart was awarded to MacArthur. During the early period of American involvement in World War II, the Purple Heart was awarded both for wounds received in action against the enemy and for meritorious performance of duty.
With the establishment of the Legion of Merit, by an Act of Congress, the practice of awarding the Purple Heart for meritorious service was discontinued. By Executive Order 9277, dated December 3, 1942, the decoration was applied to all services; this executive order authorized the award only for wounds received. For both military and civilian personnel during the World War II era, to meet eligibility for the Purple Heart, AR 600-45, dated September 22, 1943, May 3, 1944, required identification of circumstances. After the award was re-authorized in 1932 some U. S. Army wounded from conflicts prior to the first World War applied for, were awarded, the Purple Heart: "...veterans of the Civil War and Indian Wars, as well as the Spanish–American War, China Relief Expedition, Philippine Insurrection were awarded the Purple Heart. This is because the original regulations governing the award of the Purple Heart, published by the Army in 1932, provided that any soldier, wounded in any conflict involving U.
S. Army personnel might apply for the new medal. There were but two requirements: the applicant had to be alive at the time of application and he had to prove that he had received a wound that necessitated treatment by a medical officer."Subject to approval of the Secretary of Defense, Executive Order 10409, dated February 12, 1952, revised authorizations to include the Service Secretaries. Dated April 25, 1962, Executive Order 11016, included provisions for posthumous award of the Purple Heart. Dated February 23, 1984, Executive Order 12464, authorized award of the Purple Heart as a result of terrorist attacks, or while serving as part of a peacekeeping force, subsequent to March 28, 1973. On June 13, 1985, the Senate approved an amendment to the 1985 Defense Authorization Bill, which changed the precedence of the Purple Heart award, from above the Good Conduct Medal to above the Meritorious Service Medals. Public Law 99-145 authorized the award for wounds received as a result of friendly fire.
Public Law 104-106 expanded the eligibility date, authorizing award of the Purple Heart to a former prisoner of war, wounded after April 25, 1962. The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1998 changed the criteria to delete authorization for award of the Purple Heart to any non-military U. S. national s
6th Marine Regiment (United States)
The 6th Marine Regiment is an infantry regiment of the United States Marine Corps based at Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. The regiment falls under the command of the 2nd Marine Division of the II Marine Expeditionary Force; the 6th Marines combat history dates back to World War I when they were part of the American Expeditionary Force. They fought in the Pacific Theater in World War II most notably at the battles of Guadalcanal, Saipan and Okinawa. More the regiment has seen combat during the Gulf War and in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom; the regiment comprises three organic infantry battalions and one headquarters company: Headquarters Company 6th Marines 1st Battalion, 6th Marines 2nd Battalion, 6th Marines 3rd Battalion, 6th Marines The 6th Marine Regiment was first organized at Marine Corps Base Quantico, Virginia, on 11 July 1917 under the command of Medal of Honor holder Colonel Albertus W. Catlin; the regiment included three battalions: the 1st, the 2nd, the 3rd.
All of the senior officers and staff non-commissioned officers of the 6th Marines were long-service professionals, while most junior officers and all privates were new enlistees. Although the new men were short on experience, they were long on education: Colonel Catlin estimated that 60% of them were college men. Regimental increments arrived in France during late 1917 and early 1918. Upon arrival, the 6th Marines joined the 5th Marine Regiment and the 6th Machine Gun Battalion to form the 4th Brigade, U. S. 2nd Division, American Expeditionary Force. The early spring was devoted to training under French tutelage; the "Marine" Brigade entered the trenches of the Toulon Sector near Verdun in March 1918, where it suffered its first combat casualties. The regiment had 33 men killed while in the trenches, most lost when the 74th Company billeting area was gassed on 13 April 1918; the 4th Brigade was ordered to shore up crumbling French lines near Château-Thierry in late May 1918. The 6th Marines took up positions southwest of Belleau Wood it was ordered to seize the town of Bouresches and to clear the southern half of Belleau Wood itself on 6 June.
These attacks were the beginning of a month-long struggle that became a landmark battle for the U. S. Marine Corps. Colonel Catlin was wounded not long after the first waves went over the top. Gunnery Sergeant Fred W. Stockham voluntarily gave up his own gas mask to a platoonmate and was awarded a posthumous Medal of Honor for that action. Regimental dentist Weedon Osborne was awarded a posthumous Navy Medal of Honor. Regimental losses in this sector were 2,143 over 40 days. In recognition of the "brilliant courage, vigor and tenacity of the Marines", the French government awarded Marine units at Belleau Wood the Croix de guerre with Palm and renamed Belleau Wood "Bois de la Brigade de Marine."The U. S. 2nd Division was attached to the French XX Corps to conduct a counterattack near Soissons in mid-July. The 6th Regiment was held in reserve; the next day, the 6th Marine Regiment stepped off, advancing alone from Vierzy toward Tigny, but was stopped short of the objective by intense artillery and machinegun fire.
Casualties were heavy, estimated at 50 to 70% in most units. First Lieutenant Clifton B. Cates reported only about two dozen of more than 400 men survived and added "... There is no one on my left, only a few on my right. I will hold." Regimental losses during the Aisne-Marne Offensive numbered 1,431. Two Navy medical personnel attached to the 6th Regiment received Medals of Honor for their actions at Soissons: surgeon Joel T. Boone and corpsman John H. Balch. After a month-long rest, the Marines were assigned to the U. S. First Army to participate in the first "all-American" push, a double envelopment to eliminate the St. Mihiel salient; the 6th Marines was relegated to support the 3rd Brigade's attack from Limey to Thiaucourt. The push began early on 12 September, the initial attack carried all of the division's objectives before noon that day; the American attack unknowingly coincided with a German withdrawal. The sharpest action for the Regiment occurred when defending the outpost line of resistance on 15 September.
Although this mission has been tagged "a piece of cake" by some historians, the 6th Marines lost more than a hundred killed and about five hundred wounded at St. Mihiel; the 2nd Division and the US 36th Division were loaned to the French Fourth Army for its assault on German forces that became the Battle of Blanc Mont Ridge. Here the Marines captured their objectives after bloody fighting, with support from the 36th Division fought off German counterattacks until the flanking French units were able to catch up to the American advance; the 2nd and 36th Divisions advanced and captured a German strongpoint at St. Etienne, after which the 2nd was withdrawn from the line to regroup and returned to American command. For the actions at Belleau Wood and Blanc Mont, the 6th Marine Regiment was awarded the French croix de guerre three times; as a result, the regiment is authorized to wear the fourragère of the croix de guerre, one of only two units in the Marine Cor
Macomb is a city in and the county seat of McDonough County, United States. It is situated in southwest of Galesburg; the city is about 75 miles southwest of Peoria and 77 miles south of the Quad Cities. A special census held in 2014 placed the city's population at 21,516. Macomb is the home of Western Illinois University. First settled in 1829 on a site tentatively named Washington, the town was founded in 1830 as the county seat of McDonough County and given the name Macomb after General Alexander Macomb, a general in the War of 1812. War veterans were given land grants in the Macomb area, part of the "Military Tract" set aside by Congress. In 1855 the Northern Cross Railroad, a predecessor to the Chicago and Quincy Railroad, was constructed through Macomb, leading to a rise in the town's population. In 1899 the Western Illinois State Normal School Western Illinois University, was founded in Macomb. Representative Lawrence Sherman was instrumental in locating the school in Macomb. In 1903 the Macomb and Western Illinois Railway was built from Macomb to nearby Industry and Littleton by local financier Charles V. Chandler, though this railroad was abandoned in 1930.
In 1918, construction on Illinois Route 3 was begun as a state financed highway from Cairo to Rock Island through Macomb. S. Route 67 was extended along this route to Iowa. Macomb has been visited by several US Presidents over the years. Ulysses S. Grant, Andrew Johnson, Rutherford B. Hayes, William McKinley and Theodore Roosevelt have all made short addresses in Macomb. On two occasions, Abraham Lincoln and Barack Obama addressed large audiences prior to their election as president. Obama was stumping for state senate at the time, meaning a president or presidential nominee has not visited Macomb in 109 years and counting; the WIU campus and its Hanson Field Stadium were home to the St. Louis Rams' football summer training camp from 1996-2004. In 2005, the Rams decided to move summer training to their own facilities in St. Louis, ending the nine-year relationship. Macomb is located at 40°27′38″N 90°40′27″W; the East Fork Lamoine River flows past the northern part of the city. According to the 2010 census, Macomb has a total area of 11.121 square miles, of which 10.69 square miles is land and 0.431 square miles is water.
As of the census of 2000, there are 18,558 people, 6,575 households, 2,952 families residing in the city. The population density is 1,884.2 people per square mile. There are 7,037 housing units at an average density of 714.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city is 88.73% White, 5.93% African American, 3.06% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.69% from other races, 1.40% from two or more races. 2.10 % of the population are Latino of any race. There were 6,575 households out of which 19.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 34.9% were married couples living together, 7.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 55.1% were non-families. 38.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.10 and the average family size was 2.77. In the city, the population was spread out with 12.6% under the age of 18, 42.9% from 18 to 24, 18.2% from 25 to 44, 14.0% from 45 to 64, 12.4% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 23 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $25,994, the median income for a family was $42,069. Males had a median income of $27,663 versus $21,780 for females; the per capita income for the city was $13,470. 29.1% of the population and 12.2% of families were below the poverty line. 22.8% of those under the age of 18 and 8.1% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line. Cast in Gray Wife Swap NTN-Bower Corporation Pella Windows Whalen Manufacturing Macomb Go West Transit Go West Transit Live Bus Tracking The Forum Music Concerts WIU Sporting Events WIU Parties Geology Museum The Bailey House University Art Gallery Museum Western Illinois Museum Convention Bureau Macomb Community Theater Starry Night Repertory Theatre Macomb Balloon Rally February - WIU Ag Mech Show, WIU Jazz Festival June - Macomb Heritage Days, Randolph Street Rendezvous, Movies in the Park July - Randolph Street Rendezvous, Movies in the Park August - Flatland Summer Jam, Randolph Street Rendezvous, Movies in the Park September - Macomb Balloon Rally, Al Sears Jazz Festival, Gazebo Art Festival, PAS Beer Fest October - WIU Homecoming Parade, WIU Dad's Weekend Fishing Tournament November - Festival of Trees December - Dickens on the Square Argyle Lake State Park Harry Mussatto Golf Course Lakeview Nature Center Macomb Park District Spring Lake Park Western Illinois University Spoon River College, Macomb campus The McDonough County Voice, daily newspaper Western Courier List of photographs of Abraham Lincoln City of Macomb McDonough County Illinois McDonough County Historical Society
Colonel (United States)
In the United States Army, Marine Corps, Air Force, colonel is the most senior field grade military officer rank above the rank of lieutenant colonel and below the rank of brigadier general. It is equivalent to the naval rank of captain in the other uniformed services; the pay grade for colonel is O-6. The insignia of the rank of colonel, as seen on the right, is worn on the officer's left side. By law, a colonel must have 22 years of service and a minimum of three years of service as a lieutenant colonel before being promoted; the insignia for a colonel is a silver eagle, a stylized representation of the eagle dominating the Great Seal of the United States. As on the Great Seal, the eagle has a U. S. shield superimposed on its chest and is holding an olive branch and bundle of arrows in its talons. However, in simplification of the Great Seal image, the insignia lacks the scroll in the eagle's mouth and the rosette above its head. On the Great Seal, the olive branch is always clutched in the eagle's right-side talons, while the bundle of arrows is always clutched in the left-side talons.
The head of the eagle faces towards the olive branch, rather than the arrows, advocating peace rather than war. As a result, the head of the eagle always faces towards the viewer's left. However, when worn as a single insignia with no matching pair, such as on the patrol cap, garrison cap/flight cap, or the front of the Army ACU, there is a split between the services on which mirror image of the eagle should be worn. In the United States Army and United States Air Force, the eagle is always worn with "the head of the eagle to the wearer's right," with the olive branch clutched in the eagle's right hand talons. In the United States Marine Corps, United States Navy, United States Coast Guard and NOAA, the eagle is worn with "the head facing forward" on the wearer's right side of the garrison cover. Since respective service's officer insignia is worn on the left side and the rank insignia is worn on the right hand side of the Marine, Coast Guard and NOAA garrison caps, the eagle is facing to the eagle's left with the olive branch clutched in the eagle's left hand talons, a mirror opposite to the wear of the single eagle for Army and Air Force officers.
The United States rank of colonel is a direct successor to the same rank in the British Army. The first colonels in the U. S. were appointed from Colonial militias maintained as reserves to the British Army in the North American colonies. Upon the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War, colonial legislatures would grant commissions to men to raise a regiment and serve as its colonel. Thus, the first U. S. colonels were respected men with ties in local communities and active in politics. With the post-war reduction of the U. S. Army, the rank of colonel disappeared, was not re-introduced until 1802; the first insignia for the rank of colonel consisted of gold epaulettes worn on the blue uniform of the Continental Army. The first recorded use of the eagle insignia was in 1805 as this insignia was made official in uniform regulations by 1810; the rank of colonel was rare in the early 19th century because the U. S. Army was small, the rank was obtained only after long years of service. During the War of 1812 the Army grew and many colonels were appointed, but most of these colonels were discharged when their regiments were disbanded at the war's conclusion.
A number of other colonels were appointed by brevet - an honorary promotion for distinguished service in combat. The American Civil War saw a large influx of colonels as the rank was held in both the Confederate army and Union Army by those who commanded a regiment. Since most regiments were state formations and were raised, the colonels in command of the regiments were known by the title "Colonel of Volunteers," in contrast to Regular Army colonels who held permanent commissions. During the Civil War, the Confederate Army maintained a unique insignia for colonel, three stars worn on the collar of a uniform. Robert E. Lee wore this insignia due to his former rank in the United States Army and refused to wear the insignia of a Confederate general, stating that he would only accept permanent promotion when the South had achieved independence. After the Civil War, the rank of colonel again became rare as the forces of the United States Army became small. However, many colonels were appointed in the volunteers during the Spanish–American War, prominent among them Theodore Roosevelt and David Grant Colson.
World War I and World War II saw the largest numbers of colonels appointed in the U. S. military. This was due to the temporary ranks of the National Army and the Army of the United States, where those who would hold the rank of Captain in the peacetime Regular Army were thrust into the rank of colonel during these two wars; the Military Promotion System was revised and standardized for all the services in 1980 as a result of passage of the Defense Officer Personnel Management Act. Modern U. S. colonels command Army infantry, armor, aviation or other types of brigades, USMC regiments, Marine Expeditionary Units or Marine Aircraft Groups, USAF groups or wings. An Army colonel commands brigade-sized units, with another colonel or a lieutenant colonel as deputy commander, a major