Billy Ireland Cartoon Library & Museum
The Billy Ireland Cartoon Library & Museum is a research library of American cartoons and comic art affiliated with the Ohio State University library system in Columbus, Ohio. The Museum is named after the Ohio cartoonist Billy Ireland.5 million comic strip clippings, by 1989, the three classrooms were filled, and the Library moved into a larger space, eventually requiring the use of off-site storage as the collection continued to expand. In 1992, United Media donated the Robert Roy Metz Collection of 83,034 original cartoons by 113 cartoonists, six semi-trailer trucks transported this collection from California to Ohio. In 2007, King Features Syndicate donated its proof sheet collection, in June 2008, the collection of the International Museum of Cartoon Art was transferred to the Cartoon Library & Museum. Founded in 1973 by cartoonist Mort Walker, the IMCA collection includes a variety of original cartoon art, display figures and collectibles, plus works on film and tape. The 2009 exhibition From Yellow Kid to Conan, American Cartoons from the International Museum of Cartoon Art Collection was held at the Cartoon Library, the Museum was named in honor of William Addison Ireland, a self-taught cartoonist well known throughout Ohio as Billy Ireland.
The Bud Blake Collection includes more than 5,800 of the cartoon panels he drew for King Features Syndicate from 1954 to 1965, plus 10,000 daily and Sunday Tiger originals. Comic book collections include the Will Eisner Collection, the Jay Kennedy Collection has more than 9,500 underground comic books, the museums collection includes work by Anne Mergen, who was the only female editorial cartoonist in the United States for much of her career. Archival professional records include the Association of American Editorial Cartoonists, National Cartoonists Society, Newspaper Features Council, a biographical registry of cartoonists contains files for more than 5,000 cartoonists and clipping files organized by cartoon-related subjects. The library sponsors programs related to art by staging exhibitions, lending for exhibits elsewhere. Some physical exhibitions have been available as digital exhibitions. The Festival of Cartoon Art has been held triennially since 1983, featuring two days of lectures, panel discussions and receptions, it attracts cartoonists, comics scholars, fans and students.
Caswell remained as curator from 1977–2010 and she is author of several books on cartooning, including Illusions, Ethnicity in American Cartoon Art and Arnold Roth, Free Lance. Jenny E. Robb became the Museums new curator on January 1,2011, following the December 31,2010, retirement of Caswell, before arriving at Ohio State in 2005, Robb was curator of the Cartoon Art Museum in San Francisco for five years. She has masters degrees in history and museum studies from Syracuse University, wendy Pflug joined the staff as Associate Curator in December 2011. Visiting Curator Caitlin McGurk, who started February 2012, manages the Billy Ireland Cartoon Library & Museum Blog, other staffers include Assistant Curators Susan Liberator and Marilyn Scott. In May 2010, the Ohio State University Press announced Studies in Comics and Cartoons, expansion plans include the renovation of historic Sullivant Hall located on High Street adjacent to the Wexner Center for the Arts. This proposed facility will expand from its current 6,808 square feet to more than 40,000 square feet, when completed, it will feature a reading room for researchers, three museum-quality galleries and expanded storage space with state-of-the-art environmental and security controls
New York City
The City of New York, often called New York City or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2015 population of 8,550,405 distributed over an area of about 302.6 square miles. Located at the tip of the state of New York. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy and has described as the cultural and financial capital of the world. Situated on one of the worlds largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, the five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, and Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898. In 2013, the MSA produced a gross metropolitan product of nearly US$1.39 trillion, in 2012, the CSA generated a GMP of over US$1.55 trillion. NYCs MSA and CSA GDP are higher than all but 11 and 12 countries, New York City traces its origin to its 1624 founding in Lower Manhattan as a trading post by colonists of the Dutch Republic and was named New Amsterdam in 1626.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790. It has been the countrys largest city since 1790, the Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a symbol of the United States and its democracy. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world, the names of many of the citys bridges, tapered skyscrapers, and parks are known around the world. Manhattans real estate market is among the most expensive in the world, Manhattans Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is one of the most extensive metro systems worldwide, with 472 stations in operation.
Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, during the Wisconsinan glaciation, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth. The ice sheet scraped away large amounts of soil, leaving the bedrock that serves as the foundation for much of New York City today. Later on, movement of the ice sheet would contribute to the separation of what are now Long Island and Staten Island. The first documented visit by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown and he claimed the area for France and named it Nouvelle Angoulême. Heavy ice kept him from further exploration, and he returned to Spain in August and he proceeded to sail up what the Dutch would name the North River, named first by Hudson as the Mauritius after Maurice, Prince of Orange
Charlton Comics was an American comic book publishing company that existed from 1945 to 1986, having begun under a different name in 1944. It was based in Derby, the comic-book line was a division of Charlton Publications, which published magazines, puzzle books and, books. It had its own distribution company, Charlton Comics published a wide variety of genres, including crime, science fiction, horror and romance comics, as well as funny animal and superhero titles. The company was known for its practices, often using unpublished material acquired from defunct companies. Charlton Comics were the last of the American comics to raise their price from ten cents to 12 cents in 1962 and it did so under one roof at its Derby headquarters. The company was formed by John Santangelo, Sr. and Ed Levy in 1940 as T. W. O, Charles Company, named after the co-founders two sons, both named Charles, and became Charlton Publications in 1945. In 1931, Italian immigrant John Santangelo, Sr, in jail, he met Waterbury, attorney Ed Levy, with whom he began legitimate publishing in 1935, acquiring permissions to reproduce lyrics in such magazines as Hit Parade and Song Hits.
Santangelo and Levy opened a plant in Waterbury the following year. Charles Company, named after each of the sons, both named Charles, eventually moving its headquarters to Derby. The companys first comic book was Yellowjacket, an anthology of superhero and horror stories launched September 1944 under the imprint Frank Comunale Publications, with Ed Levy listed as publisher. Zoo Funnies was published under the imprint Children Comics Publishing, Jack in the Box, under Frank Comunale, following the adoption of the Charlton Comics name in 1946, the company over the next five years acquired material from freelance editor and comics packager Al Fago. Charlton additionally published Merry Comics, Cowboy Western, the Western title Tim McCoy, in 1951, when Al Fago began as an in-house editor, Charlton hired a staff of artists that included its future managing editor, Dick Giordano. Others, either on staff or freelance, eventually included Vince Alascia, Jon DAgostino, Sam Glanzman, Rocco Rocke Mastroserio, Bill Molno, Charles Nicholas, the primary writer was the remarkably prolific Joe Gill.
The company began an expansion of its comics line, which would include notoriously gory horror comics. Charlton continued publishing two of Fawcetts horror books — This Magazine Is Haunted and Strange Suspense Stories — initially using unpublished material from Fawcetts inventory, artistic chores were handed to Ditko, whose moody, individualistic touch came to dominate Charltons supernatural line. Beset by the slump that swept the industry towards the end of the 1950s. Strange Suspense Stories ran longer, lasting well into the 1960s before giving up the ghost in 1965, Charlton published a wide line of romance titles, particularly after it acquired the Fawcett line, which included the romance comics Sweethearts, Romantic Secrets, and Romantic Story. Sweethearts was the worlds first monthly romance title, and Charlton continued publishing it until 1973
Celebrities, participants in timely news stories, and political leaders often hire ghostwriters to draft or edit autobiographies, magazine articles, or other written material. In music, ghostwriters are often used to write songs, screenplay authors can use ghostwriters to either edit or rewrite their scripts to improve them. Usually, there is a confidentiality clause in the contract between the ghostwriter and the author that obligates the former to remain anonymous. Ghostwriting occurs in other creative fields, ghosting occurs in popular music. A pop music ghostwriter writes lyrics and a melody in the style of the credited musician, in hip hop music, the increasing use of ghostwriters by high-profile hip-hop stars has led to controversy. In the visual arts, it is not uncommon in either fine art or commercial art such as comics for a number of assistants to do work on a piece that is credited to a single artist. However, when credit is established for the writer, the acknowledgement of their contribution is public domain, a consultant or career-switcher may pay a ghostwriter to write a book on a topic in their professional area, to establish or enhance her credibility as an expert in their field.
Public officials and politicians employ correspondence officers to respond to the volume of official correspondence. A number of papal encyclicals have been written by ghostwriters, some university and college students hire ghostwriters from essay mills to write entrance essays, term papers and dissertations. This is largely considered unethical unless the actual ghostwriting work is just light editing, ghostwriters are hired for numerous reasons. In many cases, celebrities or public figures do not have the time, discipline, or writing skills to write and research a several-hundred page autobiography or how-to book. Even if a celebrity or public figure has the skills to pen a short article, they may not know how to structure and edit a several-hundred page book so that it is captivating. Ghostwriters may have varying degrees of involvement in the production of a finished work, some ghostwriters are hired to edit and clean up a rough draft or partially completed work, while others are hired to do most of the writing based on an outline provided by the credited author.
For some projects, such as creating an autobiography for a celebrity, ghostwriters are hired to write fiction in the style of an existing author, often as a way of increasing the number of books that can be published by a popular author. Ghostwriters will often spend a period from several months to a year researching, writing. Ghostwriters are paid either per page, per each word or via total word count, with a fee, with a percentage of the royalties of the sales. The division of work between the ghostwriter and the credited author varies a great deal, in some cases, the ghostwriter is hired to edit a rough draft of a mostly completed manuscript. In this case, the outline and much of the language in the book or article are those of the credited author
Brooklyn is the most populous borough of New York City, with a Census-estimated 2,636,735 residents in 2015. It borders the borough of Queens at the end of Long Island. Today, if New York City dissolved, Brooklyn would rank as the third-most populous city in the U. S. behind Los Angeles, the borough continues, however, to maintain a distinct culture. Many Brooklyn neighborhoods are ethnic enclaves, Brooklyns official motto, displayed on the Borough seal and flag, is Eendraght Maeckt Maght which translates from early modern Dutch as Unity makes strength. Since 2010, Brooklyn has evolved into a hub of entrepreneurship and high technology startup firms. The history of European settlement in Brooklyn spans more than 350 years, the neighborhood of Marine Park was home to North Americas first tidal mill. It was built by the Dutch, and the foundation can be seen today, the area was not formally settled as a town. Many incidents and documents relating to this period are in Gabriel Furmans early compilation, what is today Brooklyn left Dutch hands after the final English conquest of New Netherland in 1664, a prelude to the Second Anglo–Dutch War.
The English reorganized the six old Dutch towns on southwestern Long Island as Kings County on November 1,1683 and this tract of land was recognized as a political entity for the first time, and the municipal groundwork was laid for a expansive idea of Brooklyn identity. On August 27,1776 was fought the Battle of Long Island, the first major engagement fought in the American Revolutionary War after independence was declared, and the largest of the entire conflict. British troops forced Continental Army troops under George Washington off the heights near the sites of Green-Wood Cemetery, Prospect Park. The fortified American positions at Brooklyn Heights consequently became untenable and were evacuated a few days later, One result of the Treaty of Paris in 1783 was the evacuation of the British from New York City, celebrated by residents into the 20th century. The New York Navy Yard operated in Wallabout Bay for the entire 19th century, the first center of urbanization sprang up in the Town of Brooklyn, directly across from Lower Manhattan, which saw the incorporation of the Village of Brooklyn in 1817.
Reliable steam ferry service across the East River to Fulton Landing converted Brooklyn Heights into a town for Wall Street. Ferry Road to Jamaica Pass became Fulton Street to East New York and Village were combined to form the first, kernel incarnation of the City of Brooklyn in 1834. Industrial deconcentration in mid-century was bringing shipbuilding and other manufacturing to the part of the county. Each of the two cities and six towns in Kings County remained independent municipalities, and purposely created non-aligning street grids with different naming systems and it became the most popular and highest circulation afternoon paper in America. The publisher changed to L. Van Anden on April 19,1842, on May 14,1849 the name was shortened to The Brooklyn Daily Eagle, on September 5,1938 it was further shortened to Brooklyn Eagle
Golden Age of Comic Books
The Golden Age of Comic Books describes an era of American comic books from the late 1930s to circa 1950. During this time, modern books were first published and rapidly increased in popularity. The superhero archetype was created and many characters were introduced, including Superman, Captain America, Wonder Woman. The first recorded use of the term Golden Age was by Richard A. Lupoff in an article, Re-Birth, an event cited by many as marking the beginning of the Golden Age was the 1938 debut of Superman in Action Comics #1, published by Detective Comics. Supermans popularity helped make comic books a major arm of publishing, timely Comics, the 1940s predecessor of Marvel Comics, had million-selling titles featuring the Human Torch, the Sub-Mariner, and Captain America. The comic was published biweekly at one point to capitalize on its popularity, patriotic heroes donning red and blue were particularly popular during the time of the second World War following The Shields debut in 1940. Many heroes of this time period battled the Axis powers, with such as Captain America Comics #1 showing the title character punching Nazi leader Adolf Hitler.
As comic books grew in popularity, publishers began launching titles that expanded into a variety of genres, dell Comics non-superhero characters outsold the superhero comics of the day. The publisher featured licensed movie and literary characters such as Mickey Mouse, Donald Duck, Roy Rogers and it was during this era that noted Donald Duck writer-artist Carl Barks rose to prominence. Additionally, MLJs introduction of Archie Andrews in Pep Comics #22 gave rise to teen humor comics, the educational comic book Dagwood Splits the Atom used characters from the comic strip Blondie. According to historian Michael A. Amundson, appealing comic-book characters helped ease young readers fear of nuclear war and it was during this period that long-running humor comics debuted, including ECs Mad and Carl Barks Uncle Scrooge in Dells Four Color Comics. In 1953, the book industry hit a setback when the United States Senate Subcommittee on Juvenile Delinquency was created in order to investigate the problem of juvenile delinquency.
As a result, the Comics Code Authority was created by the Association of Comics Magazine Publishers to enact self-censorship by comic book publishers, at this time, EC canceled its crime and horror titles and focused primarily on Mad. During the late 1940s, the popularity of superhero comics waned, to retain reader interest, comic publishers diversified into genres such as war, science fiction, romance and horror. Many superhero titles were cancelled or converted to other genres, in 1946, DC Comics Superboy and Green Arrow were switched from More Fun Comics into Adventure Comics so More Fun could focus on humor. In 1948 All-American Comics, featuring Green Lantern, Johnny Thunder, the following year, Flash Comics and Green Lantern were cancelled. In 1951 All Star Comics, featuring the Justice Society of America, the next year Star Spangled Comics, featuring Robin, was retitled Star Spangled War Stories. Sensation Comics, featuring Wonder Woman, was cancelled in 1953, the only DC superhero comics to continue publishing through the 1950s were Action Comics, Adventure Comics, Detective Comics, Superboy, Wonder Woman and Worlds Finest Comics
Pittsburgh is a city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States, and is the county seat of Allegheny County. The city proper has a population of 304,391. The metropolitan population of 2,353,045 is the largest in both the Ohio Valley and Appalachia, the second-largest in Pennsylvania, and the 26th-largest in the U. S. The city features 30 skyscrapers, two inclines, a fortification and the Point State Park at the confluence of the rivers. Aside from steel, Pittsburgh has led in manufacturing of aluminum, shipbuilding, foods, transportation, computing and electronics. For part of the 20th century, Pittsburgh was behind only New York and Chicago in corporate headquarters employment, Americas 1980s deindustrialization laid off area blue-collar workers and thousands of downtown white-collar workers when the longtime Pittsburgh-based world headquarters moved out. The area has served as the federal agency headquarters for cyber defense, software engineering, energy research. The area is home to 68 colleges and universities, including research and development leaders Carnegie Mellon University, the region is a hub for Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design, sustainable energy, and energy extraction.
Pittsburgh was named in 1758 by General John Forbes, in honor of British statesman William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham. The current pronunciation, which is unusual in English speaking countries, is almost certainly a result of a printing error in some copies of the City Charter of March 18,1816. The error was repeated commonly enough throughout the rest of the 19th century that the pronunciation was lost. After a public campaign the original spelling was restored by the United States Board on Geographic Names in 1911. The area of the Ohio headwaters was long inhabited by the Shawnee, the first known European to enter the region was the French explorer/trader Robert de La Salle from Quebec during his 1669 expedition down the Ohio River. European pioneers, primarily Dutch, followed in the early 18th century, Michael Bezallion was the first to describe the forks of the Ohio in a 1717 manuscript, and that year European fur traders established area posts and settlements. In 1749, French soldiers from Quebec launched an expedition to the forks to unite Canada with French Louisiana via the rivers, during 1753–54, the British hastily built Fort Prince George before a larger French force drove them off.
The French built Fort Duquesne based on LaSalles 1669 claims, the French and Indian War, the North American front of the Seven Years War, began with the future Pittsburgh as its center. British General Edward Braddock was dispatched with Major George Washington as his aide to take Fort Duquesne, the British and colonial force were defeated at Braddocks Field. General John Forbes finally took the forks in 1758, Forbes began construction on Fort Pitt, named after William Pitt the Elder while the settlement was named Pittsborough
A penciller is a collaboration artist who works in creation of comic books, graphic novels, and similar visual art forms, with focus on primary pencil illustrations, hence the term penciller. In the American comic book industry, the penciller is the first step in rendering the story in visual form and these artists are concerned with layout to showcase steps in the plot. Beyond this basic description, different artists choose to use a variety of different tools. While many artists use traditional wood pencils, others prefer mechanical pencils or drafting leads, still other artists do their initial layouts using a light-blue colored pencil because that color tends to disappear during photocopying. Most US comic book pages are drawn oversized on large sheets of paper, the customary size of comic book pages in the mainstream American comics industry is 11 by 17 inches. The inker usually works directly over the pencil marks, though occasionally pages are inked on translucent paper, such as drafting vellum.
The artwork is reduced in size during the printing process. With the advent of digital illustration programs such as Photoshop and more artwork is produced digitally, Jack Kirby From 1949 until his retirement, Jack Kirby worked out of a ten-foot-wide basement studio dubbed The Dungeon by his family. When starting with clean piece of Bristol board, would first draw his lines with a T-square. Arthur Adams Arthur Adams begins drawing thumbnail layouts from the script hes given, the thumbnails range in size from 2 inches x 3 inches to half the size of the printed comic book. When working on the illustration board, he does so on a large drawing board when in his basement studio. After tracing the thumbnails, he will clarify details with another light-blue pencil, for a large poster image with a multitude of characters, he will go over the figure outlines with a marker in order to emphasize them. He will use photographic reference when appropriate, as when he draws things that he is not accustomed to, because a significant portion of his income is derived from selling his original artwork, he is reluctant to learn how to produce his work digitally.
Jim Lee Artist Jim Lee is known to use F lead for his pencil work and he uses this lead because it strikes a balance between too hard, and therefore not dark enough on the page, and too soft, and therefore prone to smearing and crumbling. Campbell avoids its closest competitor because he finds it too waxy, campbell has used HB lead and F lead. He maintains sharpness of the lead with a Berol Turquoise sharpener, changing them every four to six months, campbell uses a combination of Magic Rub erasers, eraser sticks, and since he began to ink his work digitally, a Sakura electric eraser. He often sharpens the eraser to an edge in order to render fine detailed work. Travis Charest Artist Travis Charest uses mainly 2H lead to avoid smearing and he previously illustrated on regular illustration board provided by publishers, though he disliked the non-photo blue lines printed on them
Delray Beach, Florida
Delray Beach is a coastal city in Palm Beach County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 60,522. The population was estimated at 66,255 in 2015, Delray Beach is part of the Miami metropolitan area. Recorded history began with the construction of the Orange Grove House of Refuge in 1876, settlement began around 1884, when African-Americans from the Panhandle of Florida purchased land a little inland from the Orange Grove House of Refuge and began farming. By 1894 the Black community was enough to establish the first school in the area. In 1894 William S. Initially, this community was named after Linton, in 1896 Henry Flagler extended his Florida East Coast Railroad south from West Palm Beach to Miami, with a station at Linton. The Linton settlers began to achieve success, with farming of winter vegetables for the northern market. A hard freeze in 1898 was a setback, and many of the settlers left, settlers from The Bahamas, sometimes referred to as Nassaws, began arriving in the early 1900s.
The 1910 census shows Delray as a town of 904 citizens, twenty-four U. S. states and nine other countries are listed as the birthplace of its residents. Although still a town, Delray had a remarkably diverse citizenry. In 1911, the area was chartered by the State of Florida as an incorporated town, in the same year and tomato canning plants were built. Pineapples became the crop of the area. This is reflected in the name of the present day Pineapple Grove neighborhood near downtown Delray Beach, prior to 1909, the Delray settlement land was within Dade County. That year, Palm Beach County was carved out of the portion of the region. By 1920, Delrays population had reached 1,051, the Florida land boom of the 1920s brought renewed prosperity to Delray. Tourism and real estate speculation became important parts of the local economy, Delray issued bonds to raise money to install water and sewer lines, paved streets, and sidewalks. At that time Delray was the largest town on the east coast of Florida between West Palm Beach and Fort Lauderdale, the collapse of the land boom in 1926 left Delray saddled with high bond debts, and greatly reduced income from property taxes.
Delray was separated from the Atlantic Ocean beach by the Florida East Coast Canal, in 1923 the area between the canal and the ocean was incorporated as Delray Beach
Ohio State University
The Ohio State University, commonly referred to as Ohio State or OSU, is a large, primarily residential, public university in Columbus, Ohio. Founded in 1870 as a land-grant university and ninth university in Ohio with the Morrill Act of 1862, and in 1878 the Ohio General Assembly passed a law changing the name to The Ohio State University. It has since grown into the third-largest university campus in the United States, along with its main campus in Columbus, Ohio State operates a regional campus system with regional campuses in Lima, Marion and Wooster. Ohio State athletic teams compete in Division I of the NCAA and are known as the Ohio State Buckeyes, athletes from Ohio State have won 100 Olympic medals. The university is a member of the Big Ten Conference for the majority of sports, the Ohio State mens ice hockey program competes in the Big Ten Conference, while its womens hockey program competes in the Western Collegiate Hockey Association. In addition, the OSU mens volleyball team is a member of the Midwestern Intercollegiate Volleyball Association, OSU is one of only 14 universities that plays Division I FBS football and Division I ice hockey.
As of August 2015, the university had awarded a total of 714,512 degrees and former students have gone on to prominent careers in government, science, education and entertainment. Championed by the Republican stalwart Governor Rutherford B, the Ohio State University was founded in 1870 as a land-grant university under the Morrill Act of 1862 as the Ohio Agricultural and Mechanical College. The school was originally within a community on the northern edge of Columbus. The university opened its doors to 24 students on September 17,1873, in 1878, the first class of six men graduated. The first woman graduated the following year, in 1878, in light of its expanded focus, the Ohio legislature changed the name to the now-familiar The Ohio State University, with The as part of its official name. Ohio State began accepting students in the 1880s, and in 1891. It would acquire colleges of medicine, optometry, veterinary medicine, commerce, in 1916, Ohio State was elected into membership in the Association of American Universities.
Michael V. Drake, former chancellor of the University of California, Irvine, in an attack against the campus on November 28,2016, an unrelated fluorine leak was called in for Watts Hall, resulting in the evacuation of the building to an outside courtyard. As firetrucks began to depart, Abdul Razak Ali Artan drove into the crowd, the attack was stopped in under two minutes by OSU Police Officer Alan Horujko, who witnessed the attack after responding to the reported gas leak, and who shot and killed Artan. The universitys Buckeye Alert system was triggered and the campus was placed on lockdown, Ten were transported to local hospitals and one suspect was killed according to multiple sources. Local law enforcement and the FBI launched an investigation, according to authorities, Artan was inspired by terrorist propaganda from the Islamic State and radical Muslim cleric Anwar al-Awlaki. Ohio States 1, 764-acre main campus is about 2.5 miles north of the citys downtown, the historical center of campus is the Oval, quad of about 11 acres
A graphic novel is a book made up of comics content. Although the word normally refers to long fictional works, the term graphic novel is applied broadly and includes fiction, non-fiction. It is distinguished from the comic book, which is used for comics periodicals. Fan historian Richard Kyle coined the term graphic novel in an essay in the November 1964 issue of the comics fanzine Capa-Alpha, the Book Industry Study Group began using graphic novel as a category in book stores in 2001. In the publishing trade, the term extends to material that would not be considered a novel if produced in another medium. Collections of comic books that do not form a story, anthologies or collections of loosely related pieces. The term is sometimes used to distinguish between works created as standalone stories, in contrast to collections or compilations of a story arc from a comic book series published in book form. As the exact definition of the novel is debated, the origins of the form are open to interpretation.
The Adventures of Obadiah Oldbuck is the oldest recognized American example of comics used to this end, the first American edition was published in 1842 by Wilson & Company in New York City using the original printing plates from the 1841 edition. Another early predecessor is Journey to the Gold Diggins by Jeremiah Saddlebags by brothers J. A. D. and D. F. Read, inspired by The Adventures of Obadiah Oldbuck. In 1894 Caran dAche broached the idea of a novel in a letter to the newspaper Le Figaro. In the United States there is a tradition of reissuing previously published comic strips in book form. In 1897 the Hearst Syndicate published such a collection of The Yellow Kid by Richard Outcault, the 1920s saw a revival of the medieval woodcut tradition, with Belgian Frans Masereel cited as the undisputed king of this revival. American Lynd Ward worked in this tradition, publishing Gods Man, in 1929, the 1940s saw the launching of Classics Illustrated, a comic-book series that primarily adapted notable, public domain novels into standalone comic books for young readers.
In 1947 Fawcett Comics published Comics Novel #1, Dictator of Death, by the late 1960s, American comic book creators were becoming more adventurous with the form. Gil Kane and Archie Goodwin self-published a 40-page, magazine-format comics novel, savage in 1968—the same year Marvel Comics published two issues of The Spectacular Spider-Man in a similar format. Meanwhile, in continental Europe, the tradition of collecting serials of popular strips such as The Adventures of Tintin or Asterix led to long-form narratives published initially as serials. By 1969, the author John Updike, who had entertained ideas of becoming a cartoonist in his youth, addressed the Bristol Literary Society, on the death of the novel
William Henry Bill Mauldin was an American editorial cartoonist who won two Pulitzer Prizes for his work. His cartoons were popular with soldiers throughout Europe, and with civilians in the United States as well, Mauldin was born in Mountain Park, New Mexico into a family with a tradition of military service. His father served as an artilleryman in World War I, after growing up there and in Phoenix, Mauldin took courses at the Chicago Academy of Fine Arts under the tutoring of Ruth VanSickle Ford. While in Chicago, Mauldin met Will Lang Jr. and became fast friends with him, Lang Jr. became a journalist and a bureau head for Life magazine. Mauldin entered the US Army in 1940 via the Arizona National Guard, while in the 45th Infantry Division, Mauldin volunteered to work for the units newspaper, drawing cartoons about regular soldiers or dogfaces. Eventually he created two cartoon infantrymen and Joe, who represented the average American GI. During July 1943, Mauldins cartoon work continued when, as a sergeant of the 45th Divisions press corps, he landed with the division in the invasion of Sicily and in the Italian campaign.
Mauldin began working for Stars and Stripes, the American soldiers newspaper, as well as the 45th Division News, until he was transferred to the Stars. By March 1944, he was given his own jeep, in which he roamed the front and he published six cartoons a week. His cartoons were viewed by soldiers throughout Europe during World War II, the War Office supported their syndication, not only because they helped publicize the ground forces but to show the grim side of war, which helped show that victory would not be easy. While in Europe, Mauldin befriended a fellow soldier-cartoonist, Gregor Duncan, Mauldin was not without his detractors. His images—which often parodied the Armys spit-shine and obedience-to-orders-without-question policy—offended some officers, general Dwight Eisenhower, Pattons superior, told Patton to leave Mauldin alone, he felt the cartoons gave the soldiers an outlet for their frustrations. Stars and Stripes is the paper, he told him. In a 1989 interview, Mauldin said, I always admired Patton, oh, the stupid bastard was crazy.
He thought he was living in the Dark Ages, I didnt like that attitude, but I certainly respected his theories and the techniques he used to get his men out of their foxholes. Mauldins cartoons made him a hero to the common soldier, gIs often credited him with helping them to get through the rigors of the war. His credibility with the common soldier increased in September 1943, when he was wounded in the shoulder by a German mortar while visiting a machine gun crew near Monte Cassino, by the end of the war he received the Armys Legion of Merit for his cartoons. Mauldin wanted Willie and Joe to be killed on the last day of combat, the first civilian compilation of his work, Up Front, a collection of his cartoons interwoven with his observations of war, topped the best-seller list in 1945