Ontario Hockey League
The Ontario Hockey League is one of the three major junior ice hockey leagues which constitute the Canadian Hockey League. The league is for players aged 16–21. There are 20 teams in the OHL; the league was founded in 1980, when its predecessor league, the Ontario Major Junior Hockey League formally split away from the Ontario Hockey Association, joining the Canadian Major Junior Hockey League and its direct affiliation with Hockey Canada. The OHL traces its history of Junior A hockey back to 1933 with the partition of Junior A and B. In 1970, the OHA Junior A League was one of five Junior A leagues operating in Ontario; the OHA was promoted to Tier I Junior A for the 1970–71 season and took up the name Ontario Major Junior Hockey League. Since 1980 the league has grown into a high-profile marketable product, with many games broadcast on television and radio. Leagues for ice hockey in Ontario were first organized in 1890 by the newly created Ontario Hockey Association. In 1892 the OHA recognized junior hockey - referring to skill rather than age.
In 1896 the OHA moved to the modern age-limited junior hockey concept, distinct from senior and intermediate divisions. Since the evolution to the Ontario Hockey League has developed through four distinct eras of junior-aged non-professional hockey in Ontario. In 1933, the junior division was divided into two levels, Junior A and Junior B. In 1970 the Junior A level was divided into two levels, Tier I and Tier II. In 1974 the Tier I/Major Junior A group separated from the OHA and became the independent'Ontario Major Junior Hockey League'. In 1980, the OMJHL became the'Ontario Hockey League.' From 1974 until 1978, Clarence "Tubby" Schmalz was the league's commissioner. For one season, former IHL commissioner Bill Beagan served as commissioner of the OMJHL. Beginning with the 1979-80 season, David Branch has been the Commissioner of the OHL. Branch was appointed on August 11, 1979, assumed the commissioner's role on September 17, 1979. Cornwall Royals 1981-1992 - moved to Newmarket Newmarket Royals 1992-1994 - moved to Sarnia Niagara Falls Flyers 1980-1982 - moved to North Bay as Centennials North Bay Centennials 1982-2002 - moved to Saginaw Brantford Alexanders 1980-1984 - moved to Hamilton as Steelhawks Hamilton Steelhawks 1984-1988 - moved to Niagara Falls as Thunder Niagara Falls Thunder 1988-1996 - moved to Erie Guelph Platers 1980-1989 - moved to Owen Sound as Platers and as Attack 2000 Toronto Marlboros 1980-1989 - moved to Hamilton as Dukes Dukes of Hamilton 1989-1991 - moved to Guelph as Storm Detroit Junior Red Wings 1992-1995 - renamed as Whalers and moved to Plymouth in 1997 and to Flint in 2015 as Firebirds Brampton Battalion 1998-2013 - moved to North Bay as Battalion Mississauga IceDogs 1998-2007 - moved to Niagara as IceDogs Toronto St. Michael's Majors 1996-2007 - moved to Mississauga as St Michael's Majors and 2012 as Steelheads Belleville Bulls 1981-2015 - moved to Hamilton as Bulldogs The 20 OHL clubs play a 68-game unbalanced schedule, which starts in the third full week of September, running until the third week of March.
Ninety percent of OHL games are scheduled between Thursday and Sunday to minimize the number of school days missed for its players. 20% of players on active rosters in the National Hockey League have come from the OHL, about 54% of NHL players are alumni of the Canadian Hockey League. The J. Ross Robertson Cup is awarded annually to the winner of the Championship Series; the Cup is named for John Ross Robertson, president of the Ontario Hockey Association from 1901 to 1905. The OHL playoffs consist of the top 16 teams in 8 from each conference; the teams play a best-of-seven game series, the winner of each series advances to the next round. The final two teams compete for the J. Ross Robertson Cup; the OHL champion competes with the winners of the Western Hockey League, the Quebec Major Junior Hockey League, the host of the tournament to play for the Memorial Cup, awarded to the junior hockey champions of Canada. The host team of the tournament is alternated between the three leagues every season.
The most recent OHL team to win the Memorial Cup was the Windsor Spitfires in 2017. The Memorial Cup has been captured 17 times by OHL/OHA teams since the tournament went to a three-league format in 1972: The Cup was won 16 times by OHA teams in the period between 1945 and 1971: The OHL's predecessor, the OHA, had a midget and juvenile draft dating back to the 50s, until voted out in 1962. In 1966 it was resumed. Starting in the 70s the draft went through several changes; the draft was for 17-year-old midgets not associated with teams through their sponsored youth programs. In 1971 the league first allowed "underage" midgets to be picked in the first three rounds. In 1972 disagreements about the Toronto team's rights to its "Marlie" players and claims to American player Mark Howe led to a revised system. In 1973 each team was permitted to protect 8 midget area players. In 1975 the league phased out the area protections, the 1976 OHA midget draft was the first in which all midget players were eligible.
In 1999 the league changed the draft to a bantam age. It is a selection of players who are residents of the province of Ontario, the states of Michigan and New York, other designated U. S. states east of the Mississippi Missouri. Prior to 2001
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province accounting for 38.3 percent of the country's population, is the second-largest province in total area. Ontario is fourth-largest jurisdiction in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are included, it is home to the nation's capital city and the nation's most populous city, Ontario's provincial capital. Ontario is bordered by the province of Manitoba to the west, Hudson Bay and James Bay to the north, Quebec to the east and northeast, to the south by the U. S. states of Minnesota, Ohio and New York. All of Ontario's 2,700 km border with the United States follows inland waterways: from the west at Lake of the Woods, eastward along the major rivers and lakes of the Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence River drainage system; these are the Rainy River, the Pigeon River, Lake Superior, the St. Marys River, Lake Huron, the St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River, Lake Erie, the Niagara River, Lake Ontario and along the St. Lawrence River from Kingston, Ontario, to the Quebec boundary just east of Cornwall, Ontario.
There is only about 1 km of land border made up of portages including Height of Land Portage on the Minnesota border. Ontario is sometimes conceptually divided into Northern Ontario and Southern Ontario; the great majority of Ontario's population and arable land is in the south. In contrast, the larger, northern part of Ontario is sparsely populated with cold winters and heavy forestation; the province is named after Lake Ontario, a term thought to be derived from Ontarí:io, a Huron word meaning "great lake", or skanadario, which means "beautiful water" in the Iroquoian languages. Ontario has about 250,000 freshwater lakes; the province consists of three main geographical regions: The thinly populated Canadian Shield in the northwestern and central portions, which comprises over half the land area of Ontario. Although this area does not support agriculture, it is rich in minerals and in part covered by the Central and Midwestern Canadian Shield forests, studded with lakes and rivers. Northern Ontario is subdivided into two sub-regions: Northeastern Ontario.
The unpopulated Hudson Bay Lowlands in the extreme north and northeast swampy and sparsely forested. Southern Ontario, further sub-divided into four regions. Despite the absence of any mountainous terrain in the province, there are large areas of uplands within the Canadian Shield which traverses the province from northwest to southeast and above the Niagara Escarpment which crosses the south; the highest point is Ishpatina Ridge at 693 metres above sea level in Temagami, Northeastern Ontario. In the south, elevations of over 500 m are surpassed near Collingwood, above the Blue Mountains in the Dundalk Highlands and in hilltops near the Madawaska River in Renfrew County; the Carolinian forest zone covers most of the southwestern region of the province. The temperate and fertile Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence Valley in the south is part of the Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests ecoregion where the forest has now been replaced by agriculture and urban development. A well-known geographic feature is part of the Niagara Escarpment.
The Saint Lawrence Seaway allows navigation to and from the Atlantic Ocean as far inland as Thunder Bay in Northwestern Ontario. Northern Ontario occupies 87 percent of the surface area of the province. Point Pelee is a peninsula of Lake Erie in southwestern Ontario, the southernmost extent of Canada's mainland. Pelee Island and Middle Island in Lake Erie extend farther. All are south of 42°N – farther south than the northern border of California; the climate of Ontario varies by location. It is affected by three air sources: cold, arctic air from the north; the effects of these major air masses on temperature and precipitation depend on latitude, proximity to major bodies of water and to a small extent, terrain relief. In general, most of Ontario's climate is classified as humid continental. Ontario has three main climatic regions; the surrounding Great Lakes influence the climatic region of southern Ontario. During the fall and winter months, heat stored from the lakes is released, moderating the climate near the shores of the lakes.
This gives some parts of southern Ontario milder winters than mid-continental areas at lower latitudes. Parts of Southwestern Ontario have a moderate humid continental climate, similar to that of the inland Mid-Atlantic states and the Great Lakes portion of the Midwestern United States; the region has warm to cold winters. Annual precipitation is well distributed throughout the year. Most of this region lies in the lee of the Great Lakes. In December 2010, the snowbelt set a new record when it was h
Legislative Assembly of Ontario
The Legislative Assembly of Ontario is one of two components of the Legislature of Ontario, the other being the Lieutenant Governor of Ontario. The Legislative Assembly is the second largest Canadian provincial deliberative assembly by number of members after the National Assembly of Quebec; the Assembly meets at the Ontario Legislative Building at Queen's Park in the provincial capital of Toronto. As at the federal level in Canada, Ontario uses a Westminster-style parliamentary government, in which members are elected to the Legislative Assembly through general elections, from which the Premier of Ontario and Executive Council of Ontario are appointed based on majority support; the premier is Ontario's head of government, while the Lieutenant Governor, as representative of the Queen, acts as head of state. The largest party not forming the government is known as the Official Opposition, its leader being recognized as Leader of the Opposition by the Speaker; the Ontario Legislature is sometimes referred to as the "Ontario Provincial Parliament".
Members of the assembly refer to themselves as "Members of the Provincial Parliament" as opposed to "Members of the Legislative Assembly" as in many other provinces. Ontario is the only province to do so, in accordance with a resolution passed in the Assembly on April 7, 1938. However, the Legislative Assembly Act refers only to "members of the Assembly"; the current assembly was elected on June 2018, as part of the 42nd Parliament of Ontario. Owing to the location of the Legislative Building on the grounds of Queen's Park, the metonym "Queen's Park" is used to refer to both the Government of Ontario and the Legislative Assembly. In accordance with the traditions of the Westminster system, most laws originate with the cabinet, are passed by the legislature after stages of debate and decision-making. Ordinary Members of the Legislature may introduce play an integral role in scrutinizing bills in debate and committee and amending bills presented to the legislature by cabinet. Members are expected to be loyal to both their parliamentary party and to the interests of their constituents.
In the event of conflict, duty to the parliamentary party takes precedence. Party loyalty is enforced by the chief government whip. In the Ontario legislature this confrontation provides much of the material for Oral Questions and Members' Statements. Legislative scrutiny of the executive is at the heart of much of the work carried out by the Legislature's Standing Committees, which are made up of ordinary backbenchers. A Member's day will be divided among participating in the business of the House, attending caucus and committee meetings, speaking in various debates, or returning to his or her constituency to address the concerns and grievances of constituents. Depending on personal inclination and political circumstances, some Members concentrate most of their attention on House matters while others focus on constituency problems, taking on something of an ombudsman's role in the process, it is the task of the legislature to provide the personnel of the executive. As noted, under responsible government, ministers of the Crown are expected to be Members of the Assembly.
When a political party comes to power it will place its more experienced parliamentarians into the key cabinet positions, where their parliamentary experience may be the best preparation for the rough and tumble of political life in government. The Legislative Assembly of Ontario is the first and the only legislature in Canada to have a Coat of Arms separate from the provincial coat of arms. Green and gold are the principal colours in the shield of arms of the province; the Mace is the traditional symbol of the authority of the Speaker. Shown on the left is the current Mace. On the right is the original Mace from the time of the first parliament in 1792; the crossed Maces are joined by the shield of arms of Ontario. The crown on the wreath represents provincial loyalties; the griffin, an ancient symbol of justice and equity, holds a calumet, which symbolizes the meeting of spirit and discussion that Ontario's First Nations believe accompanies the use of the pipe. The deer represent the natural riches of the province.
The Loyalist coronets at their necks honour the original British settlers in Ontario who brought with them the British parliamentary form of government. The Royal Crowns, left 1992, right 1792, recognize the parliamentary bicentennial and represent Ontario's heritage as a constitutional monarchy, they were granted as a special honour by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II on the recommendation of the Governor General. In the base, the maple leaves are for Canada, the trilliums for Ontario and the roses for York, the provincial capital. Proceedings of the Legislative Assembly are broadcast to Ontario cable television subscribers by the Ontario Parliament Network. A late-night rebroadcast of Question Period is aired on the provincial public broadcaster TVOntario; the 1st Parliament of Ontario was in session from September 3, 1867, until February 25, 1871, just prior to the 1871 general election. This was the first session of the Legislature after Confederation succeeding the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada.
The 1867 general election produced a tie between the Conservative Party led by John Sandfield Macdonald and the Liberal Party led by Archibald McKellar. Macdonald led a coalition government with the support of moderate Liberals; the Legislative Assembly was established by the British North Am
Hockey is a sport in which two teams play against each other by trying to manoeuvre a ball or a puck into the opponent's goal using a hockey stick. There are many types of hockey such as bandy, field hockey, ice hockey. In most of the world, hockey refers to field hockey, while in Canada, the United States, Sweden, the Czech Republic and Slovakia, hockey refers to ice hockey; the first recorded use of the word hockey is in the 1773 book Juvenile Sports and Pastimes, to Which Are Prefixed, Memoirs of the Author: Including a New Mode of Infant Education by Richard Johnson, whose chapter XI was titled "New Improvements on the Game of Hockey". The belief that hockey was mentioned in a 1363 proclamation by King Edward III of England is based on modern translations of the proclamation, in Latin and explicitly forbade the games "Pilam Manualem, Pedivam, & Bacularem: & ad Canibucam & Gallorum Pugnam"; the English historian and biographer John Strype did not use the word "hockey" when he translated the proclamation in 1720, instead translating "Canibucam" as "Cambuck".
The word hockey. One supposition is that it is a derivative of a Middle French word for a shepherd's stave; the curved, or "hooked" ends of the sticks used for hockey would indeed have resembled these staves. Another supposition derives from the known use of cork bungs, in place of wooden balls to play the game; the stoppers came from barrels containing "hock" ale called "hocky". Games played with curved sticks and a ball can be found in the histories of many cultures. In Egypt, 4000-year-old carvings feature teams with sticks and a projectile, hurling dates to before 1272 BC in Ireland, there is a depiction from 600 BC in Ancient Greece, where the game may have been called kerētízein or because it was played with a horn or horn-like stick. In Inner Mongolia, the Daur people have been playing beikou, a game similar to modern field hockey, for about 1,000 years. Most evidence of hockey-like games during the Middle Ages is found in legislation concerning sports and games; the Galway Statute enacted in Ireland in 1527 banned certain types of ball games, including games using "hooked" sticks....at no tyme to use ne occupye the horlinge of the litill balle with hockie stickes or staves, nor use no hande ball to play withoute walles, but only greate foote balle By the 19th century, the various forms and divisions of historic games began to differentiate and coalesce into the individual sports defined today.
Organizations dedicated to the codification of rules and regulations began to form, national and international bodies sprang up to manage domestic and international competition. Bandy is played with a ball on a football pitch-sized ice arena outdoors, with many rules similar to association football, it is considered a national sport in Russia. The sport is recognized by the IOC. Bandy has its roots in England in the 19th century, was called "hockey on the ice", spread from England to other European countries around 1900. Bandy World Championships have been played since 1957 and Women's Bandy World Championships since 2004. There are national club championships in many countries and the top clubs in the world play in the Bandy World Cup every year. Field hockey is played on gravel, natural grass, or sand-based or water-based artificial turf, with a small, hard ball 73 mm in diameter; the game is popular among both males and females in many parts of the world in Europe, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Argentina.
In most countries, the game is played between single-sex sides. The governing body is the 126-member International Hockey Federation. Men's field hockey has been played at each Summer Olympic Games since 1908 except for 1912 and 1924, while women's field hockey has been played at the Summer Olympic Games since 1980. Modern field hockey sticks are constructed of a composite of wood, glass fibre or carbon fibre and are J-shaped, with a curved hook at the playing end, a flat surface on the playing side and a curved surface on the rear side. All sticks are right-handed – left-handed sticks are not permitted. While field hockey in its current form appeared in mid-18th century England in schools, it was not until the first half of the 19th century that it became established; the first club was created in 1849 at Blackheath in south-east London. Field hockey is the national sport of Pakistan, it was the national sport of India until the Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports declared in August 2012 that India has no national sport.
Ice hockey is played between two teams of skaters on a large flat area of ice, using a three-inch-diameter vulcanized rubber disc called a puck. This puck is frozen before high-level games to decrease the amount of bouncing and friction on the ice; the game is played all over North America, Europe and to varying extents in many other countries around the world. It is the most popular sport in Canada, Latvia, the Czech Republic, Slovakia. Ice hockey is the national winter sport of Canada. Ice hockey is played by all ages; the governing body of international play is the 77-member International Ice Hockey Feder
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Ray Twinney Complex
The Ray Twinney Complex known as the Newmarket Recreational Complex, is a multi-purpose recreational facility in the southwest portion of Newmarket, built in 1985. The complex was named for former Newmarket mayor Ray Twinney; the complex includes two ice pads, a swimming pool, which includes a wading pool and a hot tub, two conference rooms, one lighted outdoor multi-purpose sports field, two soccer pitches, three baseball / softball diamonds. The main arena has 3,700 seats, it is the current home rink of the Newmarket Hurricanes of the Ontario Provincial Junior A Hockey League, the Newmarket Saints of the Ontario Lacrosse Jr. B League, has been home to the short-lived Newmarket Royals Ontario Hockey League team in the mid-1990s and the Newmarket Saints AHL club; the second arena is home to the Newmarket Figure Skating Club and its Iced Energy Synchronized Skating Teams. Ray Twinney Complex - The OHL Arena & Travel Guide
Hansard is the traditional name of the transcripts of Parliamentary Debates in Britain and many Commonwealth countries. It is named after Thomas Curson Hansard, a London printer and publisher, the first official printer to the parliament at Westminster. Though the history of the Hansard began in the British parliament, each of Britain's colonies developed a separate and distinctive history. Before 1771, the British Parliament had long been a secretive body; the official record of the actions of the House was publicly available, but there was no record of the debates. The publication of remarks made in the House became a breach of Parliamentary privilege, punishable by the two Houses of Parliament; as the populace became interested in parliamentary debates, more independent newspapers began publishing unofficial accounts of them. The many penalties implemented by the government, including fines, dismissal and investigations, are reflective of "the difficulties faced by independent newspapermen who took an interest in the development of Upper Canada, who, in varying degrees, attempted to educate the populace to the shortcomings of their rulers".
Several editors used the device of veiling parliamentary debates as debates of fictitious societies or bodies. The names under which parliamentary debates were published include Proceedings of the Lower Room of the Robin Hood Society and Debates of the Senate of Magna Lilliputia; the Senate of Magna Lilliputia was printed in Edward Cave's The Gentleman's Magazine, first published in 1732. The names of the speakers were "filleted". In 1771 Brass Crosby, Lord Mayor of the City of London, had brought before him a printer by the name of John Miller who dared publish reports of Parliamentary proceedings, he was subsequently ordered to appear before the House to explain his actions. Crosby was committed to the Tower of London, but when he was brought to trial, several judges refused to hear the case and after protests from the public, Crosby was released. Parliament ceased to punish the publishing of its debates as harshly due to the campaigns of John Wilkes on behalf of free speech. There began several attempts to publish reports of debates.
Among the early successes, the Parliamentary Register published by John Almon and John Debrett began in 1775 and ran until 1813. William Cobbett, a noted radical and publisher, began publishing Parliamentary Debates as a supplement to his Political Register in 1802 extending his reach back with the Parliamentary History. Cobbett's avocation for the freedom of the press was punished by the British Government. On June 5, 1810 William Cobbett stood trial for seditious libel for an article he wrote against the British Government, published by Thomas Curson Hansard. Cobbett was found "guilty, upon the fullest and most satisfactory evidence"; the court sentence read: "The court do adjudge that you, William Cobbett pay to our Lord the King a fine of £1000. The sentence was described by J. C. Trewin as "vindictive"; the Court argued that Thomas Curson Hansard, who had "seen the copy before it was printed, ought not to have suffered it to have been printed at all" and was sentenced to three months imprisonment in the King's Bench Prison.
Cobbett's reports were printed by Thomas Curson Hansard from 1809. Cobbett's Parliamentary Debates became Hansard Parliamentary Debates, "abbreviated over time to the now familiar Hansard". From 1829 the name "Hansard" appeared on the title page of each issue. Neither Cobbett nor Hansard employed anyone to take down notes of the debates, which were taken from a multiplicity of sources in the morning newspapers. For this reason, early editions of Hansard are not to be relied upon as a guide to everything discussed in Parliament. Hansard outlasted competitors including Almon and Debrett, the Mirror of Parliament published by J. H. Barrow from 1828 to 1843; the last attempt at a commercial rival was The Times. In 1878 a subsidy was granted at that point reporters were employed. Despite hiring contract reporters there were still widespread complaints about the accuracy of the debate reports. In 1889 Henry Hansard, the son of Thomas Hansard, broke the family connection with the debates; the Hansard of today, a comprehensive account of every speech, began in 1909 when Parliament took over the publication and established its own staff of official Hansard reporters.
At the same time the decision was made to publish debates of the two houses in separate volumes, to change the front cover from orange-red to light blue. A larger page format was introduced with new technology in 1980. Hansard is not a word-for-word transcript of debates in Parliament, its terms of reference are those set by a House of Commons Select Committee in 1893, as being a report which, though not verbatim, is the verbatim report with repetitions and redundancies omitted and with obvious mistak