National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture; the library's main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař; the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers; as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague; the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years; the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new library building on Letna plain, between Hradčanská metro station and Sparta Prague's football ground, Letná stadium. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, with a projected completion date of 2011. In 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Plans for the building had still not been decided in February 2008, with the matter being referred to the Office for the Protection of Competition in order to determine if the tender had been won fairly. In 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, following a ruling from the European Commission that the tender process had not been carried out legally; the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water.
Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building. There was a fire at the library in December 2012. List of national and state libraries Official website
Tarakanova is a 1930 French historical drama film directed by Raymond Bernard and starring Édith Jéhanne, Paule Andral and Olaf Fjord. It depicts the life of Princess Tarakanoff the pretender to the throne of Catherine II in Eighteenth Century Russia. Édith Jéhanne - Tarakanova / Soeur Dosithée Paule Andral - L'Impératrice Catherine II Olaf Fjord - Le Comte Alexis Orlof Rudolf Klein-Rogge - Le Comte Chouvalof Charles Lamy - Le Prince Charles Kradziwell Camille Bert - L'Amiral Greigh Antonin Artaud - Le jeune tzigane Ernest Ferny - Le Comte Potemkine Andrew Brunelle - Kansoff Powrie, Phil & Rebillard, Éric. Pierre Batcheff and stardom in 1920s French cinema. Edinburgh University Press, 2009 Tarakanova on IMDb
Louis XI of France
Louis XI, called "Louis the Prudent", was King of France from 1461 to 1483, the sixth from the House of Valois. He succeeded his father Charles VII. Louis entered into open rebellion against his father in a short-lived revolt known as the Praguerie in 1440; the king forgave his rebellious vassals, including Louis, to whom he entrusted the management of the Dauphiné a province in southeastern France. Louis's ceaseless intrigues, led his father to banish him from court. From the Dauphiné, Louis led his own political establishment and married Charlotte of Savoy, daughter of Louis, Duke of Savoy, against the will of his father. Charles VII sent an army to compel his son to his will, but Louis fled to Burgundy, where he was hosted by Philip the Good, the Duke of Burgundy, Charles' greatest enemy; when Charles VII died in 1461, Louis left the Burgundian court to take possession of his kingdom. His taste for intrigue and his intense diplomatic activity earned him the nicknames "the Cunning" and "the Universal Spider", as his enemies accused him of spinning webs of plots and conspiracies.
In 1472, the subsequent Duke of Burgundy, Charles the Bold, took up arms against his rival Louis. However, Louis was able to isolate Charles from his English allies by signing the Treaty of Picquigny with Edward IV of England; the treaty formally ended the Hundred Years' War. With the death of Charles the Bold at the Battle of Nancy in 1477, the dynasty of the dukes of Burgundy died out. Louis took advantage of the situation to seize numerous Burgundian territories, including Burgundy proper and Picardy. Without direct foreign threats, Louis was able to eliminate his rebellious vassals, expand royal power, strengthen the economic development of his country, he died on 30 August 1483, was succeeded by his minor son Charles VIII. Louis was born in the son of King Charles VII of France. At the time of the Hundred Years War, the English held northern France, including the city of Paris, Charles VII was restricted to the centre and south of the country. Louis was the grandson of Yolande of Aragon, a force in the royal family for driving the English out of France, at a low point in its struggles.
Just a few weeks after Louis's christening at the Cathedral of St. Étienne on 4 July 1423, the French army suffered a crushing defeat by the English at Cravant. Shortly thereafter, a combined Anglo-Burgundian army threatened Bourges itself. During the reign of Louis's grandfather Charles VI, the Duchy of Burgundy was much connected with the French throne, but because the central government lacked any real power, all the duchies of France tended to act independently. Duke Philip II was the reigning Duke of Burgundy. Philip was an uncle of King Charles VI, he served on a council of regents for King Charles; the Dukes of Anjou and Bourbon, all uncles of Charles VI served on this council of regents. All effective power in France lay with this council of dukes. In its position of independence from the French throne, Burgundy had grown in power. By the reign of Louis's father Charles VII, Philip III was reigning as Duke of Burgundy, the duchy had expanded its borders to include all the territory in France from the North Sea in the north to the Jura Mountains in the south and from the Somme River in the west to the Moselle River in the east.
During the Hundred Years War, the Burgundians allied themselves with England against the French crown. Indeed, the Burgundians were responsible for the capture of Joan of Arc and her execution on 31 May 1431. In 1429, young Louis found himself at Loches in the presence of Joan of Arc, fresh from her first victory over the English at the Siege of Orléans, which initiated a turning point for the French in the Hundred Years War. Joan led troops in other victories at the Battle of Jargeau and the Battle of Patay. Although Joan was unable to liberate Paris during her lifetime, the city was liberated after her death, Louis and his father Charles VII were able to ride in triumph into the city on 12 November 1437. Louis grew up aware of the continuing weakness of the French nation, he regarded his father as a weakling, despised him for this. On 24 June 1436, Louis met Margaret of Scotland, daughter of King James I of Scotland, the bride his father had chosen for diplomatic reasons. There are no direct accounts from Louis or his young bride of their first impressions of each other, it is mere speculation whether they had negative feelings for each other.
Several historians think. But it is universally agreed that Louis entered the ceremony and the marriage itself dutifully, as evidenced by his formal embrace of Margaret upon their first meeting. Louis's marriage with Margaret resulted from the nature of medieval royal diplomacy and the precarious position of the French monarchy at the time; the wedding ceremony—very plain by the standards of the time—took place in the chapel of the castle of Tours on the afternoon of 25 June 1436, was presided over by Renaud of Chartres, the Archbishop of Reims. The 13-year-old Louis looked more mature than his 11-year-old bride, said to resemble a beautiful doll, was treated as such by her in-laws. Charles wore "grey riding pants" and "did not bother to remove his spurs"; the Scottish guests were hustled out after the wedding reception, as the French royal court was quite impoverished at this time. They could not afford an extravagant ceremony or to host their Scottish guests for any longer than they did; the Scots, saw this b
Les Misérables (1934 film)
Les Misérables is a 1934 film adaptation of Victor Hugo's novel of the same name. It was written and directed by Raymond Bernard and stars Harry Baur as Jean Valjean and Charles Vanel as Javert; the film lasts four and a half hours and is considered by critics to be the greatest adaptation of the novel, due to its in-depth development of the themes and characters in comparison with most shorter adaptations. It was released as three films. Part One: Une tempête sous un crâne Part Two: Les Thénardier Part Three: Liberté, liberté chérie Jean Valjean is an ex-convict struggling to redeem himself, but his attempts are continually ruined by the intrusion of Javert into his life. Javert is a cruel, ruthless police inspector who has dedicated his life to pursuing Valjean, whose only crime was stealing a loaf of bread, for which he gets 5 years in jail, and he serves an additional 14 years for a handful of escape attempts. The film, like the novel, features numerous other characters and plots, such as Fantine, a woman forced into prostitution to help pay two cruel innkeepers, the Thénardiers, who are looking after her daughter Cosette, the story of the revolutionaries, including Marius, a young man who falls in love on in the film with the now-adult Cosette.
Harry Baur as Jean Valjean & Champmathieu Charles Vanel as Javert Florelle as Fantine Josseline Gaël as Cosette Gaby Triquet as Cosette Jean Servais as Marius Orane Demazis as Éponine Gilberte Savary as Éponine Lucien Nat as Montparnasse Charles Dullin as Thénardier Marguerite Moreno as Madame Thénardier Émile Genevois as Gavroche Robert Vidalin as Enjolras Henry Krauss as Monseigneur Myriel Denise Mellot as Azelma Jacqueline Fermez as Azelma Cailloux as Mabeuf Ginette d'Yd as Sister Simplice Pierre Piérade as Bamatabois Charlotte Barbier-Krauss as Toussaint Roland Armontel as Félix Tholomyès The film is, for the most part, faithful to the original novel, there are some differences: Javert is presented as less sympathetic than in the book portraying him as the pinnacle of the cruelty in 19th century France. Valjean is released after having saved a house from caving in. Not Fantine's last. Valjean's re-arrest after his escape from Montreuil's prison and escape from the "Orion" are left out.
Valjean and Cosette's stay at the Gorbeau House, their dodging of Javert and their arrival at the Petit-Picpus convent is left out. After they leave the Thénardiers, the film jumps to Cosette's sixteenth birthday. Cosette and Marius are lovers before the attack on Valjean in the Gorbeau House. Marius is acquainted with Éponine and Gavroche before the attack at Gorbeau House; when Marius notifies Javert of the Thénardiers' plans, he is able to give Javert Valjean's address, at least one of them. Javert recognises Valjean there. Valjean has to flee to his other house, where he finds Cosette. After Marius reveals what he has done, expecting gratitude, Valjean sends him away. Only Cosette's pleas make only after Marius left. Valjean does not meet Thénardier in the sewers. Valjean presents himself to Gillenormand. Gillenormand and Cosette have therefore always known the identity of Marius' saviour. Valjean dies shortly after his confession to Marius, the day after the wedding, due to a wound which appeared to have become infected.
The film has been referred to as "the most complete and well rounded adaptation of Victor Hugo's classic novel". Raymond Bernard's version of Les Misérables was chosen by curator Robert Herbert as one of a number of films to support an exhibition of French drawings held in 2010 at the Art Gallery of New South Wales in Sydney, Australia; the Exhibition was entitled David to Cézanne: master drawings from the Prat Paris. It ran from 22 September until 5 December 2010; the film was 3 November and 7 November in the Gallery's Domain Theatre. The Criterion Collection released a restored version of Les Misérables in their Eclipse DVD line, its three parts appeared alongside Bernard's Wooden Crosses in the Eclipse Series 4: Raymond Bernard collection. This version, totalling 281 minutes, is shorter than the reported 305 minute total runtime of the original release, though it is possible that time may be inaccurate, or includes brief intermissions no longer present. Criterion's DVD liner notes describe how the film was reissued at varying lengths over the following decades and was only restored to its approximate original length shortly before Bernard's death, minus some scenes that could not be recovered.
In 2013, Pathé carried out a brand new restoration of the film, totalling 289 minutes, released it on Blu-ray and DVD. Eureka Entertainment released this version on Blu-ray and DVD in 2014, as part of their Masters of Cinema line. Adaptations of Les Misérables List of longest films by running time Les Misérables on IMDb
Gabriel-Maximilien Leuvielle, known professionally as Max Linder, was a French actor, screenwriter and comedian of the silent film era. His onscreen persona "Max" was one of the first recognizable recurring characters in film, he has been cited as the "first international movie star."Born in Cavernes, France to Catholic parents, Linder grew up with a passion for the theatre and enrolled in the Conservatoire Bordeaux in 1899. He soon received awards for his performances and continued to pursue a career in the legitimate theatre, he became a contract player with the Bordeaux Théâtre des Arts from 1901 to 1904, performing in plays by Molière, Pierre Corneille and Alfred de Musset. From the summer of 1905, Linder appeared in short comedy films for Pathé, at first in supporting roles, his first major film role was in the Georges Méliès-like fantasy film The Legend of Punching. During the following years, Linder made several hundred short films portraying "Max", a wealthy and dapper man-about-town in hot water because of his penchant for beautiful women and the good life.
Starting with The Skater's Debut in 1907, the character became one of the first identifiable motion-picture characters who appeared in successive situation comedies. By 1911, Linder was co-directing his own films as well as writing the scripts. Linder enlisted at the outbreak of the First World War, worked at first as a dispatch driver and entertainer. During his service, he was injured several times, the experiences had a devastating effect on him both physically and mentally, it was during this time. Linder was born Gabriel-Maximilien Leuvielle near Gironde, his parents were wealthy vineyard owners and expected Linder to take over the family business. But Linder grew up with a passion for the theatre and was enthralled by the traveling theater and circus performances that visited his town, he wrote that "nothing was more distasteful to me than the thought of a life among the grapes." In 1899, Linder enrolled in the Conservatoire de Bordeaux and won awards for first prize in comedy and second prize in tragedy.
He continued to pursue a career in the theater and became a contract player with the Bordeaux Théâtre des Arts from 1901 to 1904, performing in plays by Molière, Pierre Corneille and Alfred de Musset. At the same time that he was performing in serious dramatic theater, he became friends with Charles le Bargy of the Comédie-Française. Le Bargy encouraged Linder to audition for the Conservatoire de Paris in 1904. Linder was rejected and began appearing in less prestigious theaters such as the Olympia Theater and the Théâtre de l'Ambigu. By 1905, he had used it in several theatrical performances. During this period, Linder applied for work at Pathé Frères in Vincennes at the suggestion of film director Louis Gasnier and began appearing in small bit parts in slapstick comedies. Linder continued to appear on the stage for the next two years and was not a significant film star at first. However, an often-told legend about the origins of Linder's film career is that French film producer Charles Pathé saw Linder on the stage and wrote him a note that read "In your eyes lies a fortune.
Come and act in front of my cameras, I will help make it." From 1905 to 1907, Linder appeared in dozens of short comedy films for Pathé in a supporting role. His first noticeably larger film role was in The Young Man's first outing in 1905, he appeared in Georges Méliès-like fantasy films such as Serpentine Dances and The Legend of Punching, his first leading role. His rise to stardom commenced in 1907 when Pathé's slapstick star René Gréhan left the company to join Éclair. Gréhan's screen character was Gontran, whose persona included high-society clothing and a dandy-ish demeanor. Linder was chosen to take over the characterization for Pathé, the style of dress and personality of Gréhan's character became his trademark. Film critic David Robinson described Linder's screen persona as "no grotesque: he was young, debonair, immaculate...in silk hat, jock coat, spats, patent shoes, swagger cane." Linder made more than one hundred short films portraying "Max", a wealthy and dapper man-about-town in hot water because of his penchant for beautiful women and the good life.
With this character, he had created one of the first identifiable motion-picture characters who appeared in successive situation comedies. Linder's first appearance as "Max" was in The Skater's Debut in 1907. Lake Daumesnil in Paris had frozen over and director Louis Gasnier filmed Linder in his new attire, with Linder improvising the rest. In the film, "Max" falls about and does a rendition of "the windmill routine" by spinning his cane around, predating Charlie Chaplin's version in The Rink by nine years. Pathé was unimpressed with the film and re-shot parts of it, it was not popular with audiences when released. Soon afterwards, Gasnier left Pathé and moved to Italy, leaving Linder without a supporter at Pathé, his luck began to change when Pathé's top comedy star, André Deed, left to work with the Italian film company Itala, leaving Linder as the company's leading comedic actor. In 1909, Gasnier returned from Italy and began working with Linder again; the team made several shorts in 1909 with Linder in various roles, such as a blind elderly man and a coquettish young woman.
But they soon discovered that the character of "Max" was the most popular with audiences and stuck with him from th
Montmartre (1931 film)
Montmartre is a 1931 French drama film directed by Raymond Bernard and starring Gaby Morlay, Line Noro and Florelle. Two sisters struggle to stay above water in the poverty-stricken suburbs of Paris, it was a remake of a 1925 silent film Montmartre that had starred Morlay. The film's sets were designed by the art director Jacques Colombier. Gaby Morlay as Ginette Gentilhomme Line Noro as Céline Gentilhomme Florelle as Irène Pauline Carton as Tante Aurélie Nadine Picard as Fernande Odette Barencey as Mme Elise Ketty Pierson as Louise Henriette Leblond as Mme Chouya-Barca Charles Vanel as André Marco, dit Dédé André Dubosc as M. Gentilhomme Antonin Artaud as Follestat Dimitri Dimitriev as L'étranger Pierre Bertin as Frédéric Charençon Paul Azaïs as Un client de Dédé Raymond Cordy as Le boulanger du village Robert Tourneur as Le gérant Dayna Oscherwitz & MaryEllen Higgins; the A to Z of French Cinema. Scarecrow Press, 2009. Montmartre on IMDb